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Chapter 10: File-System       Interface
Chapter 10: File-System               Interface•   File Concept•   Access Methods•   Directory Structure•   File-System Mo...
Objectives• To explain the function of file systems• To describe the interfaces to file systems• To discuss file-system de...
File Concept• Contiguous logical address space• Types:  – Data     • numeric     • character     • binary  – Program
File Structure• None - sequence of words, bytes• Simple record structure   – Lines   – Fixed length   – Variable length• C...
File Attributes• Name – only information kept in human-readable  form• Identifier – unique tag (number) identifies file  w...
File Operations•   File is an abstract data type•   Create•   Write•   Read•   Reposition within file•   Delete•   Truncat...
Open Files• Several pieces of data are needed to manage open  files:   – File pointer: pointer to last read/write location...
Open File Locking• Provided by some operating systems and  file systems• Mediates access to a file• Mandatory or advisory:...
File Locking Example – Java                 APIimport java.io.*;import java.nio.channels.*;public class LockingExample {  ...
File Locking Example – Java API             (cont)            // this locks the second half of the file -shared           ...
File Types – Name, Extension
Access Methods• Sequential Access                      read next                      write next                      rese...
Sequential-access File
Simulation of Sequential Access on Direct-                access File
Example of Index and Relative            Files
Directory Structure• A collection of nodes containing information   Directory  about all files     Files                 F...
Disk Structure• Disk can be subdivided into partitions• Disks or partitions can be RAID protected  against failure• Disk o...
A Typical File-system    Organization
Operations Performed on Directory•   Search for a file•   Create a file•   Delete a file•   List a directory•   Rename a f...
Organize the Directory (Logically)                 to Obtain• Efficiency – locating a file quickly• Naming – convenient to...
Single-Level Directory• A single directory for all users Naming problem Grouping problem
Two-Level Directory• Separate directory for each users Path names Can have the same file name for different users Efficien...
Tree-Structured Directories
Tree-Structured Directories (Cont)• Efficient searching• Grouping Capability• Current directory (working directory)  – cd ...
Tree-Structured Directories (Cont)• Absolute or relative path name• Creating a new file is done in current  directory• Del...
•      Acyclic-Graph Directories    Have shared subdirectories and files
Acyclic-Graph Directories               (Cont.)• Two different names (aliasing)• If dict deletes list ⇒ dangling pointer  ...
General Graph Directory
General Graph Directory (Cont.)• How do we guarantee no cycles?  – Allow only links to file not subdirectories  – Garbage ...
File System Mounting• A file system must be mounted  before it can be accessed• A unmounted file system (i.e. Fig.  11-11(...
(a) Existing. (b) Unmounted           Partition
Mount Point
File Sharing• Sharing of files on multi-user systems is desirable• Sharing may be done through a protection  scheme• On di...
File Sharing – Multiple Users• User IDs identify users, allowing  permissions and protections to be per-  user• Group IDs ...
File Sharing – Remote File                 Systems• Uses networking to allow file system access  between systems   – Manua...
File Sharing – Failure Modes• Remote file systems add new failure modes,  due to network failure, server failure• Recovery...
File Sharing – Consistency                  Semantics• Consistency semantics specify how multiple  users are to access a s...
Protection• File owner/creator should be able to control:   – what can be done   – by whom• Types of access   –   Read   –...
Access Lists and Groups• Mode of access: read, write, execute• Three classes of users                                     ...
Windows XP Access-control List        Management
A Sample UNIX Directory        Listing
End of Chapter 10
Chapter 11: File System   Implementation
Chapter 11: File System             Implementation•   File-System Structure•   File-System Implementation•   Directory Imp...
Objectives• To describe the details of implementing  local file systems and directory structures• To describe the implemen...
File-System Structure• File structure   – Logical storage unit   – Collection of related information• File system organize...
Layered File System
File-System Implementation• Boot control block contains info needed by  system to boot OS from that volume• Volume control...
A Typical File Control Block
In-Memory File System            Structures• The following figure illustrates the  necessary file system structures provid...
In-Memory File System     Structures
Virtual File Systems• Virtual File Systems (VFS) provide an object-  oriented way of implementing file systems.• VFS allow...
Schematic View of Virtual File           System
Directory Implementation• Linear list of file names with pointer to the data  blocks.   – simple to program   – time-consu...
Allocation Methods• An allocation method refers to how disk blocks  are allocated for files:• Contiguous allocation• Linke...
Contiguous Allocation• Each file occupies a set of contiguous blocks  on the disk• Simple – only starting location (block ...
Contiguous Allocation• Mapping from logical to physical                  Q               LA/512                        R  ...
Contiguous Allocation of Disk           Space
Extent-Based Systems• Many newer file systems (I.e. Veritas File System)  use a modified contiguous allocation scheme• Ext...
Linked Allocation• Each file is a linked list of disk blocks: blocks  may be scattered anywhere on the disk.              ...
Linked Allocation (Cont.)• Simple – need only starting address• Free-space management system – no waste  of space         ...
Linked Allocation
File-Allocation Table
Indexed Allocation• Brings all pointers together into the index block• Logical view                 index table
Example of Indexed Allocation
Indexed Allocation (Cont.)• Need index table• Random access• Dynamic access without external  fragmentation, but have over...
Indexed Allocation – Mapping             (Cont.)• Mapping from logical to physical in a file of  unbounded length (block s...
Indexed Allocation – Mapping             (Cont.)• Two-level index (maximum file size is 5123)                            Q...
Indexed Allocation – Mapping           (Cont.)                outer-index                    index table   file
per block)
Free-Space Management                   0 1           2                       n-1• Bit vector (n blocks)                  ...
Free-Space Management (Cont.)• Bit map requires extra space   – Example:         block size = 212 bytes         disk size ...
Free-Space Management (Cont.)• Need to protect:   – Pointer to free list   – Bit map      • Must be kept on disk      • Co...
Directory Implementation• Linear list of file names with pointer to the data  blocks   – simple to program   – time-consum...
Linked Free Space List on Disk
Efficiency and Performance• Efficiency dependent on:   – disk allocation and directory algorithms   – types of data kept i...
Page Cache• A page cache caches pages rather than disk blocks  using virtual memory techniques• Memory-mapped I/O uses a p...
I/O Without a Unified Buffer          Cache
Unified Buffer Cache• A unified buffer cache uses the same page  cache to cache both memory-mapped pages  and ordinary fil...
I/O Using a Unified Buffer          Cache
Recovery• Consistency checking – compares data in directory  structure with data blocks on disk, and tries to fix  inconsi...
Log Structured File Systems• Log structured (or journaling) file systems  record each update to the file system as a  tran...
The Sun Network File System            (NFS)• An implementation and a specification of a  software system for accessing re...
NFS (Cont.)• Interconnected workstations viewed as a set of  independent machines with independent file  systems, which al...
NFS (Cont.)• NFS is designed to operate in a heterogeneous  environment of different machines, operating  systems, and net...
Three Independent File Systems
Mounting in NFS  Mounts   Cascading mounts
NFS Mount Protocol• Establishes initial logical connection between  server and client• Mount operation includes name of re...
NFS Protocol• Provides a set of remote procedure calls for  remote file operations. The procedures support  the following ...
Architecture• UNIX file-system interface (based on the open,  read, write, and close calls, and file descriptors)• Virtual...
Schematic View of NFS    Architecture
NFS Path-Name Translation• Performed by breaking the path into  component names and performing a  separate NFS lookup call...
NFS Remote Operations• Nearly one-to-one correspondence between  regular UNIX system calls and the NFS protocol  RPCs (exc...
Example: WAFL File System• Used on Network Appliance “Filers” –  distributed file system appliances• “Write-anywhere file ...
The WAFL File Layout
Snapshots in WAFL
Os6
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Transcript of "Os6"

  1. 1. Chapter 10: File-System Interface
  2. 2. Chapter 10: File-System Interface• File Concept• Access Methods• Directory Structure• File-System Mounting• File Sharing• Protection
  3. 3. Objectives• To explain the function of file systems• To describe the interfaces to file systems• To discuss file-system design tradeoffs, including access methods, file sharing, file locking, and directory structures• To explore file-system protection
  4. 4. File Concept• Contiguous logical address space• Types: – Data • numeric • character • binary – Program
  5. 5. File Structure• None - sequence of words, bytes• Simple record structure – Lines – Fixed length – Variable length• Complex Structures – Formatted document – Relocatable load file• Can simulate last two with first method by inserting appropriate control characters• Who decides:
  6. 6. File Attributes• Name – only information kept in human-readable form• Identifier – unique tag (number) identifies file within file system• Type – needed for systems that support different types• Location – pointer to file location on device• Size – current file size• Protection – controls who can do reading, writing, executing• Time, date, and user identification – data for
  7. 7. File Operations• File is an abstract data type• Create• Write• Read• Reposition within file• Delete• Truncate• Open(Fi) – search the directory structure on disk for entry Fi, and move the content of entry to memory
  8. 8. Open Files• Several pieces of data are needed to manage open files: – File pointer: pointer to last read/write location, per process that has the file open – File-open count: counter of number of times a file is open – to allow removal of data from open-file table when last processes closes it – Disk location of the file: cache of data access information – Access rights: per-process access mode information
  9. 9. Open File Locking• Provided by some operating systems and file systems• Mediates access to a file• Mandatory or advisory: – Mandatory – access is denied depending on locks held and requested – Advisory – processes can find status of locks and decide what to do
  10. 10. File Locking Example – Java APIimport java.io.*;import java.nio.channels.*;public class LockingExample { public static final boolean EXCLUSIVE = false; public static final boolean SHARED = true; public static void main(String arsg[]) throws IOException { FileLock sharedLock = null; FileLock exclusiveLock = null; try { RandomAccessFile raf = new RandomAccessFile("file.txt", "rw"); // get the channel for the file FileChannel ch = raf.getChannel(); // this locks the first half of the file - exclusive exclusiveLock = ch.lock(0, raf.length()/2, EXCLUSIVE);
  11. 11. File Locking Example – Java API (cont) // this locks the second half of the file -shared sharedLock = ch.lock(raf.length()/2+1,raf.length(), SHARED); /** Now read the data . . . */ // release the lock sharedLock.release(); } catch (java.io.IOException ioe) { System.err.println(ioe); }finally { if (exclusiveLock != null) exclusiveLock.release(); if (sharedLock != null) sharedLock.release(); }
  12. 12. File Types – Name, Extension
  13. 13. Access Methods• Sequential Access read next write next reset no read after last write (rewrite)• Direct Access read n write n position to n read next
  14. 14. Sequential-access File
  15. 15. Simulation of Sequential Access on Direct- access File
  16. 16. Example of Index and Relative Files
  17. 17. Directory Structure• A collection of nodes containing information Directory about all files Files F1 F2 F4 F3 Fn Both the directory structure and the files reside on disk Backups of these two structures are kept on tapes
  18. 18. Disk Structure• Disk can be subdivided into partitions• Disks or partitions can be RAID protected against failure• Disk or partition can be used raw – without a file system, or formatted with a file system• Partitions also known as minidisks, slices• Entity containing file system known as a volume
  19. 19. A Typical File-system Organization
  20. 20. Operations Performed on Directory• Search for a file• Create a file• Delete a file• List a directory• Rename a file• Traverse the file system
  21. 21. Organize the Directory (Logically) to Obtain• Efficiency – locating a file quickly• Naming – convenient to users – Two users can have same name for different files – The same file can have several different names• Grouping – logical grouping of files by properties, (e.g., all Java programs, all games, …)
  22. 22. Single-Level Directory• A single directory for all users Naming problem Grouping problem
  23. 23. Two-Level Directory• Separate directory for each users Path names Can have the same file name for different users Efficient searchings No grouping capability
  24. 24. Tree-Structured Directories
  25. 25. Tree-Structured Directories (Cont)• Efficient searching• Grouping Capability• Current directory (working directory) – cd /spell/mail/prog – type list
  26. 26. Tree-Structured Directories (Cont)• Absolute or relative path name• Creating a new file is done in current directory• Delete a file rm <file-name>• Creating a new subdirectory is done in mail current directory mkdir <dir-name> prog copy prt exp count Example: if in current directory /mail Deleting “mail” ⇒ deleting the entire subtree rooted by “mail” mkdir count
  27. 27. • Acyclic-Graph Directories Have shared subdirectories and files
  28. 28. Acyclic-Graph Directories (Cont.)• Two different names (aliasing)• If dict deletes list ⇒ dangling pointer Solutions: – Backpointers, so we can delete all pointers Variable size records a problem – Backpointers using a daisy chain organization – Entry-hold-count solution• New directory entry type – Link – another name (pointer) to an existing file – Resolve the link – follow pointer to locate the file
  29. 29. General Graph Directory
  30. 30. General Graph Directory (Cont.)• How do we guarantee no cycles? – Allow only links to file not subdirectories – Garbage collection – Every time a new link is added use a cycle detection algorithm to determine whether it is OK
  31. 31. File System Mounting• A file system must be mounted before it can be accessed• A unmounted file system (i.e. Fig. 11-11(b)) is mounted at a mount point
  32. 32. (a) Existing. (b) Unmounted Partition
  33. 33. Mount Point
  34. 34. File Sharing• Sharing of files on multi-user systems is desirable• Sharing may be done through a protection scheme• On distributed systems, files may be shared across a network• Network File System (NFS) is a common distributed file-sharing method
  35. 35. File Sharing – Multiple Users• User IDs identify users, allowing permissions and protections to be per- user• Group IDs allow users to be in groups, permitting group access rights
  36. 36. File Sharing – Remote File Systems• Uses networking to allow file system access between systems – Manually via programs like FTP – Automatically, seamlessly using distributed file systems – Semi automatically via the world wide web• Client-server model allows clients to mount remote file systems from servers – Server can serve multiple clients – Client and user-on-client identification is insecure or complicated – NFS is standard UNIX client-server file sharing protocol – CIFS is standard Windows protocol
  37. 37. File Sharing – Failure Modes• Remote file systems add new failure modes, due to network failure, server failure• Recovery from failure can involve state information about status of each remote request• Stateless protocols such as NFS include all information in each request, allowing easy recovery but less security
  38. 38. File Sharing – Consistency Semantics• Consistency semantics specify how multiple users are to access a shared file simultaneously – Similar to Ch 7 process synchronization algorithms • Tend to be less complex due to disk I/O and network latency (for remote file systems – Andrew File System (AFS) implemented complex remote file sharing semantics – Unix file system (UFS) implements: • Writes to an open file visible immediately to other users of the same open file • Sharing file pointer to allow multiple users to read and write concurrently – AFS has session semantics •
  39. 39. Protection• File owner/creator should be able to control: – what can be done – by whom• Types of access – Read – Write – Execute – Append – Delete – List
  40. 40. Access Lists and Groups• Mode of access: read, write, execute• Three classes of users RWX a) owner access 7 ⇒ 111 RWX b) group access 6 ⇒ 110 owner group public RWX c) public access 1 ⇒ 001•Attach a manager to create a group (unique chmod 761 game Ask group to a file name), say G, and add some users to the chgrp G game group.
  41. 41. Windows XP Access-control List Management
  42. 42. A Sample UNIX Directory Listing
  43. 43. End of Chapter 10
  44. 44. Chapter 11: File System Implementation
  45. 45. Chapter 11: File System Implementation• File-System Structure• File-System Implementation• Directory Implementation• Allocation Methods• Free-Space Management• Efficiency and Performance• Recovery• NFS• Example: WAFL File System
  46. 46. Objectives• To describe the details of implementing local file systems and directory structures• To describe the implementation of remote file systems• To discuss block allocation and free-block algorithms and trade-offs
  47. 47. File-System Structure• File structure – Logical storage unit – Collection of related information• File system organized into layers• File system resides on secondary storage (disks) – Provides efficient and convenient access to disk by allowing data to be stored, located retrieved easily• File control block – storage structure consisting of information about a file• Device driver controls the physical device
  48. 48. Layered File System
  49. 49. File-System Implementation• Boot control block contains info needed by system to boot OS from that volume• Volume control block contains volume details• Directory structure organizes the files• Per-file File Control Block (FCB) contains many details about the file
  50. 50. A Typical File Control Block
  51. 51. In-Memory File System Structures• The following figure illustrates the necessary file system structures provided by the operating systems.• Figure 12-3(a) refers to opening a file.• Figure 12-3(b) refers to reading a file.
  52. 52. In-Memory File System Structures
  53. 53. Virtual File Systems• Virtual File Systems (VFS) provide an object- oriented way of implementing file systems.• VFS allows the same system call interface (the API) to be used for different types of file systems.• The API is to the VFS interface, rather than any specific type of file system.
  54. 54. Schematic View of Virtual File System
  55. 55. Directory Implementation• Linear list of file names with pointer to the data blocks. – simple to program – time-consuming to execute• Hash Table – linear list with hash data structure. – decreases directory search time – collisions – situations where two file names hash to the same location – fixed size
  56. 56. Allocation Methods• An allocation method refers to how disk blocks are allocated for files:• Contiguous allocation• Linked allocation• Indexed allocation
  57. 57. Contiguous Allocation• Each file occupies a set of contiguous blocks on the disk• Simple – only starting location (block #) and length (number of blocks) are required• Random access• Wasteful of space (dynamic storage- allocation problem)
  58. 58. Contiguous Allocation• Mapping from logical to physical Q LA/512 R Block to be accessed = ! + starting address Displacement into block = R
  59. 59. Contiguous Allocation of Disk Space
  60. 60. Extent-Based Systems• Many newer file systems (I.e. Veritas File System) use a modified contiguous allocation scheme• Extent-based file systems allocate disk blocks in extents• An extent is a contiguous block of disks – Extents are allocated for file allocation – A file consists of one or more extents
  61. 61. Linked Allocation• Each file is a linked list of disk blocks: blocks may be scattered anywhere on the disk. block = pointer
  62. 62. Linked Allocation (Cont.)• Simple – need only starting address• Free-space management system – no waste of space Q LA/511• No random access R• Mapping Block to be accessed is the Qth block in the linked chain of blocks representing the file. Displacement into block = R + 1File-allocation table (FAT) – disk-space allocation used by MS-DOS and OS/2.
  63. 63. Linked Allocation
  64. 64. File-Allocation Table
  65. 65. Indexed Allocation• Brings all pointers together into the index block• Logical view index table
  66. 66. Example of Indexed Allocation
  67. 67. Indexed Allocation (Cont.)• Need index table• Random access• Dynamic access without external fragmentation, but have overhead of index Q block LA/512• Mapping from logical to physical in a file of R maximum size of 256K words and block size of 512displacementWe index table 1 block for Q = words. into need only index displacement into block R= table
  68. 68. Indexed Allocation – Mapping (Cont.)• Mapping from logical to physical in a file of unbounded length (block size of 512 words)• Linked scheme LA /Link 511) Qof index table – (512 x blocks 1 (no limit on size) R 1 Q1 = block of index table R1 is used as follows: Q2 R1 / 512 R2 Q2 = displacement into block of index table R2 displacement into block of file:
  69. 69. Indexed Allocation – Mapping (Cont.)• Two-level index (maximum file size is 5123) Q 1 LA / (512 x 512) R1 Q1 = displacement into outer-index R1 is used as follows: Q2 R1 / 512 R2 Q2 = displacement into block of index table R2 displacement into block of file:
  70. 70. Indexed Allocation – Mapping (Cont.)  outer-index index table file
  71. 71. per block)
  72. 72. Free-Space Management 0 1 2 n-1• Bit vector (n blocks) …  0 ⇒ block[i] free bit[i] = 1 ⇒ block[i] occupied Block number calculation (number of bits per word) * (number of 0-value words) + offset of first 1 bit
  73. 73. Free-Space Management (Cont.)• Bit map requires extra space – Example: block size = 212 bytes disk size = 230 bytes (1 gigabyte) n = 230/212 = 218 bits (or 32K bytes)• Easy to get contiguous files• Linked list (free list) – Cannot get contiguous space easily – No waste of space• Grouping•
  74. 74. Free-Space Management (Cont.)• Need to protect: – Pointer to free list – Bit map • Must be kept on disk • Copy in memory and disk may differ • Cannot allow for block[i] to have a situation where bit[i] = 1 in memory and bit[i] = 0 on disk – Solution: • Set bit[i] = 1 in disk • Allocate block[i] • Set bit[i] = 1 in memory
  75. 75. Directory Implementation• Linear list of file names with pointer to the data blocks – simple to program – time-consuming to execute• Hash Table – linear list with hash data structure – decreases directory search time – collisions – situations where two file names hash to the same location – fixed size
  76. 76. Linked Free Space List on Disk
  77. 77. Efficiency and Performance• Efficiency dependent on: – disk allocation and directory algorithms – types of data kept in file’s directory entry• Performance – disk cache – separate section of main memory for frequently used blocks – free-behind and read-ahead – techniques to optimize sequential access – improve PC performance by dedicating section of memory as virtual disk, or RAM disk
  78. 78. Page Cache• A page cache caches pages rather than disk blocks using virtual memory techniques• Memory-mapped I/O uses a page cache• Routine I/O through the file system uses the buffer (disk) cache• This leads to the following figure
  79. 79. I/O Without a Unified Buffer Cache
  80. 80. Unified Buffer Cache• A unified buffer cache uses the same page cache to cache both memory-mapped pages and ordinary file system I/O
  81. 81. I/O Using a Unified Buffer Cache
  82. 82. Recovery• Consistency checking – compares data in directory structure with data blocks on disk, and tries to fix inconsistencies• Use system programs to back up data from disk to another storage device (magnetic tape, other magnetic disk, optical)• Recover lost file or disk by restoring data from backup
  83. 83. Log Structured File Systems• Log structured (or journaling) file systems record each update to the file system as a transaction• All transactions are written to a log – A transaction is considered committed once it is written to the log – However, the file system may not yet be updated• The transactions in the log are asynchronously written to the file system – When the file system is modified, the transaction is removed from the log
  84. 84. The Sun Network File System (NFS)• An implementation and a specification of a software system for accessing remote files across LANs (or WANs)• The implementation is part of the Solaris and SunOS operating systems running on Sun workstations using an unreliable datagram protocol (UDP/IP protocol and Ethernet
  85. 85. NFS (Cont.)• Interconnected workstations viewed as a set of independent machines with independent file systems, which allows sharing among these file systems in a transparent manner – A remote directory is mounted over a local file system directory • The mounted directory looks like an integral subtree of the local file system, replacing the subtree descending from the local directory – Specification of the remote directory for the mount operation is nontransparent; the host name of the remote directory has to be provided • Files in the remote directory can then be accessed in a transparent manner
  86. 86. NFS (Cont.)• NFS is designed to operate in a heterogeneous environment of different machines, operating systems, and network architectures; the NFS specifications independent of these media• This independence is achieved through the use of RPC primitives built on top of an External Data Representation (XDR) protocol used between two implementation-independent interfaces• The NFS specification distinguishes between the services provided by a mount mechanism and the
  87. 87. Three Independent File Systems
  88. 88. Mounting in NFS Mounts Cascading mounts
  89. 89. NFS Mount Protocol• Establishes initial logical connection between server and client• Mount operation includes name of remote directory to be mounted and name of server machine storing it – Mount request is mapped to corresponding RPC and forwarded to mount server running on server machine – Export list – specifies local file systems that server exports for mounting, along with names of machines that are permitted to mount them• Following a mount request that conforms to its export list, the server returns a file handle—a key for further accesses• File handle – a file-system identifier, and an inode
  90. 90. NFS Protocol• Provides a set of remote procedure calls for remote file operations. The procedures support the following operations: – searching for a file within a directory – reading a set of directory entries – manipulating links and directories – accessing file attributes – reading and writing files• NFS servers are stateless; each request has to provide a full set of arguments (NFS V4 is just coming available – very different, stateful)
  91. 91. Architecture• UNIX file-system interface (based on the open, read, write, and close calls, and file descriptors)• Virtual File System (VFS) layer – distinguishes local files from remote ones, and local files are further distinguished according to their file-system types – The VFS activates file-system-specific operations to handle local requests according to their file-system types – Calls the NFS protocol procedures for remote requests
  92. 92. Schematic View of NFS Architecture
  93. 93. NFS Path-Name Translation• Performed by breaking the path into component names and performing a separate NFS lookup call for every pair of component name and directory vnode• To make lookup faster, a directory name lookup cache on the client’s side holds the vnodes for remote directory names
  94. 94. NFS Remote Operations• Nearly one-to-one correspondence between regular UNIX system calls and the NFS protocol RPCs (except opening and closing files)• NFS adheres to the remote-service paradigm, but employs buffering and caching techniques for the sake of performance• File-blocks cache – when a file is opened, the kernel checks with the remote server whether to fetch or revalidate the cached attributes – Cached file blocks are used only if the corresponding cached attributes are up to date• File-attribute cache – the attribute cache is
  95. 95. Example: WAFL File System• Used on Network Appliance “Filers” – distributed file system appliances• “Write-anywhere file layout”• Serves up NFS, CIFS, http, ftp• Random I/O optimized, write optimized – NVRAM for write caching• Similar to Berkeley Fast File System, with extensive modifications
  96. 96. The WAFL File Layout
  97. 97. Snapshots in WAFL
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