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Information Technology in Business by Amir Manzoor

Information Technology in Business by Amir Manzoor

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  • 1. CopyrightCopyright © 2012 by Amir ManzoorNo part of this book shall be reproduced, stored in retrieval system, ortransmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording,or otherwise, without prior written permission form the author. No patentliability is assumed with respect to the use of the information containedherein. While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of thisbook, the publisher and authors assumes no responsibility for errors andomissions. Neither is any liability assumed for damages resulting from theuse of the information contained herein. All inquiries should be addressedto the author.Information Technology in BusinessFirst Edition 2012ISBN-10: 1469991888ISBN-13: 978-1469991887All rights reserved under the copyright act.Printed in the United States of AmericaTrademark AcknowledgementsFull acknowledgement is given of all proprietary trademarks and registeredtrademarks that are mentioned in this book. In addition, terms suspected ofbeing trademarks or series marks have been appropriately capitalized, authorcannot attest to the accuracy of this information. Use of a term in this bookshould not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or servicemark.
  • 2. About the Author Amir Manzoor holds a bachelor’s degree in engineering from NEDUniversity, Karachi and an MBA from Lahore University of ManagementSciences (LUMS). He also holds more than 12 international IT industrycertifications such as MCSE, MCDBA, CCNA, CCDA, CSA, CCA, A+ etc.He is an Associate of Institute of Bankers, Pakistan and Certified SupplyChain Management Professional from NPO, Pakistan. He has served atsenior technical consulting position in New York for many years. He iscurrently serving as Assistant Professor at management sciences departmentat Bahria University, Karachi.
  • 3. Preface Present and future age is the age of information technology (IT). In-formation technology (IT) and business, always closely linked, are becomingvirtually inseparable. Moving forward from their traditional role as anenabler of organizational effectiveness and efficiency, IT departments nowdays often assume leadership roles to drive businesses into new industriesand markets. A growing number of businesses are putting more and moreemphasis on leveraging their IT investments and aligning them with theorganizational goals/objectives. For today’s online businesses the failure oftheir IT systems are the business failure. For those businesses a much morerigorous IT management is needed. The IT management is no longer a soleIT issue but a business management issue of great interest that is on toppriority of most businesses around the globe. Most books on IT management are either too lengthy, provide out-dated material, or lack coverage of the essential topics of informationtechnology related to business. This book provides coverage of essentialtopics related to information technology at work place such as hardware andsoftware, computer business applications, computer networks, systemanalysis and design, information technology in the enterprise, health, safety,and environment, and ethics in information technology. The book providesup-to-date coverage of various topics and a large number of examples havebeen provided to explain the key concepts. Amir Manzoor
  • 4. Acknowledgements It is not possible for me to list everyone who assisted in the prepara-tion of this book. I thank and am very grateful for the teachers, students andall individuals who provided their valuable suggestions, feedback, and helpduring the preparation of this book.
  • 5. List of TablesTABLE 1-1: ASCII CODING SCHEME......................................................................... 8TABLE 1-2: COMPARISON OF COMPUTER AND CALCULATOR ...............................12TABLE 1-3: GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER.............................................................14TABLE1-4: COMPARISON OF ANALOG AND DIGITAL COMPUTER ..........................16TABLE 1-5: COMPARISON OF MAINFRAME, MINI, AND MICROCOMPUTER ..........27TABLE 2-1: COMPARISON OF CURRENTLY AVAILABLE PROCESSORS .....................47TABLE 2-2: VARIOUS MEMORY SIZES ....................................................................57TABLE 2-3: VARIANTS OF DRAM ...........................................................................61TABLE 2-4: COMPARISON OF FLOPPY DISK AND HARD DISK .................................74TABLE 2-5: VARIOUS OPTICAL DISCS .....................................................................76TABLE 2-6: DVD AND BLU-RAY DISCS’ STORAGE CAPACITIES ................................79TABLE 2-7: VARIOUS MEMORY CARDS AND THEIR USE ........................................82TABLE 2-8: COMPARISON OF MAGNETIC TAPE AND MAGNETIC DISK ...................84TABLE 2-9: CLOUD STORAGE PROVIDERS..............................................................86TABLE 2-10: VARIOUS VIDEO STANDARDS ..........................................................104TABLE 2-11: COMPARISON OF DOT-MATRIX AND DAISY-WHEEL PRINTER..........109TABLE 2-12: COMPARISON OF IMPACT AND NON-IMPACT PRINTERS.................114TABLE 2-13: VARIOUS ADAPTER CARDS ..............................................................119TABLE 3-1: COMPARISON OF HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE ................................133TABLE 3-2: VARIOUS UTILITIES............................................................................136TABLE 3-3: COMPARISON OF SYSTEM AND APPLICATION SOFTWARE ................138TABLE 3-4: POPULAR WEB APPLICATIONS ..........................................................140TABLE 4-1: COMPARISON OF SOFT AND HARD COPY ..........................................150TABLE 4-2: TYPICAL HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE ..............................................155
  • 6. TABLE 4-3: TYPICAL RECOMMENDED PROCESSOR REQUIREMENTS....................157TABLE 4-4: TYPICAL RAM REQUIREMENTS..........................................................159TABLE 4-5: TYPICAL INPUT DEVICES ....................................................................161TABLE 4-6: TYPICAL OUTPUT DEVICES ................................................................163TABLE 4-7: TYPICAL STORAGE DEVICES...............................................................165TABLE 6-1: VARIOUS GRAPHIC FORMATS ...........................................................217TABLE 6-2: COMMONLY USED AUDIO FILE FORMATS .........................................222TABLE 6-3: VARIOUS APPLICATION SOFTWARE ..................................................230TABLE 8-1: COMPARISON OF DATA AND INFORMATION ....................................300TABLE 8-2: FIELDS DATA TYPES ...........................................................................305TABLE 8-3: POPULAR DATABASE TYPES ..............................................................308TABLE 8-4: DATABASE MODELS ..........................................................................325TABLE 9-1: USER INVOLVEMENT IN SYSTEM DESIGN ..........................................345TABLE 9-2: COMPARISON OF HIGH-LEVEL AND LOW-LEVEL LANGUAGES ...........367TABLE 9-3: COMPARISON OF MACHINE LANGUAGE AND ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE...........................................................................................................................367TABLE 9-4: CLASSIC PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES .............................................375TABLE 10-1: LAYERS OF OSI MODEL ....................................................................387TABLE 10-2: TRANSFER SPEEDS OF 802.11 STANDARDS......................................409TABLE 10-3: THICK COAX CABLE CHARACTERISTICS ............................................419TABLE 10-4: THICK COAX CABLE CHARACTERISTICS ............................................420TABLE 10-5: TRANSMISSION SPEEDS OF WIRED MEDIA......................................421TABLE 10-6: TRANSMISSION SPEEDS OF WIRELESS MEDIA .................................427TABLE 10-7: COMPARISON OF IP ADDRESS CLASSES...........................................431TABLE 10-8: GENERIC TOP-LEVEL DOMAINS AND THEIR USE ..............................433TABLE 11-1: SEARCH ENGINES AND SEARCH DIRECTORIES .................................449TABLE 11-2: COMMONLY USED SEARCH ENGINE OPERATORS AND THEIR USE...450
  • 7. TABLE 11-3: POPULAR PLUG-INS.........................................................................455TABLE 11-4: BANDWIDTHS OF INTERNET CONNECTIVITY OPTIONS ....................471TABLE 12-1: ONLINE SECURITY SERVICES ............................................................506TABLE 13-1: JOB CHARACTERISTICS AND THEIR MEANING TO WORKERS ...........511TABLE 14-1: FUNCTIONAL UNITS AND APPLICATIONS USED ...............................531TABLE 14-2: COMPARISON OF BACKUP METHODS .............................................562TABLE 15-1: INTERNATIONAL PRIVACY LAWS .....................................................574TABLE 15-2: CRITERIA FOR WEB SITE CONTENT EVALUATION.............................580
  • 8. List of FiguresFIGURE 1-1: DATA PROCESSING CYCLE................................................................... 6FIGURE 1-2: COMMON DATA TYPES ...................................................................... 9FIGURE 1-3: PARALLEL PROCESSING .....................................................................32FIGURE 2-1: DUAL CORE PROCESSOR....................................................................45FIGURE 2-2: QUAD CORE PROCESSOR...................................................................45FIGURE 2-3: COMMUNICATION MECHANISM BETWEEN PROCESSOR AND OTHERDEVICES ................................................................................................................49FIGURE 2-4: MACHINE CYCLE ................................................................................54FIGURE 2-5: MACHINE CYCLE WITH OR WITHOUT PIPELINING..............................55FIGURE 2-6: MEMORY CACHE ...............................................................................65FIGURE 2-7: DISK CACHE .......................................................................................66FIGURE 2-8: COMPONENTS OF A HARD DISK ........................................................69FIGURE 2-9: CYLINDERS, PLATTERS, TRACKS, AND SECTORS .................................70FIGURE 2-10: VARIOUS HARD DISK CONTROLLERS................................................73FIGURE 2-11: SPEED OF VARIOUS STORAGE MEDIA AND ITEMS STORED..............87FIGURE 2-12: WORKING OF BUSES......................................................................125FIGURE 2-13: BUS WIDTH ...................................................................................126FIGURE 3-1: INTERACTION AMONG VARIOUS SOFTWARE TYPES ........................139FIGURE 4-1: ELEMENTS OF INFORMATION SYSTEM ............................................151FIGURE 5-1: VIRTUAL MEMORY ..........................................................................200FIGURE 7-1: INTERNET EXPLORER USER INTERFACE............................................235FIGURE 7-2: WORD 2010 USER INTERFACE .........................................................243FIGURE 7-3: EXCEL 2012 USER INTERFACE...........................................................259FIGURE 7-4: POWERPOINT 2010 USER INTERFACE ..............................................271
  • 9. FIGURE 7-5: PROJECT TRIANGLE .........................................................................283FIGURE 7-6: PROJECT 2010 USER INTERFACE ......................................................284FIGURE 8-1: FIELDS AND RECORDS .....................................................................306FIGURE 8-2: DATA DICTIONARY ..........................................................................315FIGURE 8-3: TABLES IN A DATABASE...................................................................326FIGURE 8-4: ACCESS 2010 USER INTERFACE ........................................................328FIGURE 8-5: ACCESS 2010 DATABASE .................................................................329FIGURE 9-1: PEOPLE INVOLVEMENT IN SYSTEM ANALYSIS .................................344FIGURE 9-2: PROJECT REQUEST ..........................................................................347FIGURE 9-3: AN ERD ...........................................................................................351FIGURE 9-4: DFD OF HOSPITAL PHARMACY ........................................................352FIGURE 9-5: DIFFERENT LEVELS OF DFD ..............................................................353FIGURE 9-6: STRUCTURED ENGLISH ....................................................................354FIGURE 9-7: DECISION TABLE..............................................................................355FIGURE 9-8: DECISION TREE................................................................................355FIGURE 9-9: USE CASE DIAGRAM ........................................................................357FIGURE 9-10: CLASS DIAGRAM ...........................................................................358FIGURE 9-11: INTERACTION OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES WITH HARDWARE...........................................................................................................................368FIGURE 10-1: THE OSI MODEL.............................................................................386FIGURE 10-2: A WAN ..........................................................................................394FIGURE 10-3: A CLIENT-SERVER NETWORK .........................................................395FIGURE 10-4: BUS TOPLOGY ...............................................................................398FIGURE 10-5: RING TOPOLOGY ...........................................................................399FIGURE 10-6: STAR TOPOLOGY ...........................................................................400FIGURE 10-7: WORKING OF INTERNET................................................................403FIGURE 10-8: A WIRELESS LAN............................................................................408
  • 10. FIGURE 10-9: CLASSIFICATION OF TRANSMISSION MEDIA ..................................417FIGURE 10-10: WORKING OF CELLULAR RADIO ...................................................423FIGURE 10-11: WORKING OF TERRESTRIAL MICROWAVE ...................................425FIGURE 10-12: WORKING OF COMMUNICATION SATELLITE................................426FIGURE 10-13: IPV4 AND IPV6 ADDRESSES .........................................................430FIGURE 10-14: WORKING OF DNS .......................................................................432FIGURE 11-1: WORKING OF E-MAIL ....................................................................443FIGURE 11-2: WEB ADDRESS STRUCTURE ...........................................................446FIGURE 11-3: SUBJECT DIRECTORY......................................................................451FIGURE 11-4: VOIP CONFIGURATION ..................................................................461FIGURE 11-5: DIAL-UP INTERNET CONNECTION ..................................................465FIGURE 11-6: ISDN INTERNET CONNECTION .......................................................466FIGURE 11-7: DSL INTERNET CONNECTION .........................................................468FIGURE 11-8: LASED-LINE CONNECTION..............................................................470FIGURE 11-9: SATELLITE INTERNET CONNECTION ...............................................472FIGURE 12-1: A PHISHING MESSAGE ...................................................................485FIGURE 12-2: A CAPTCHA....................................................................................495FIGURE 12-3: WORKING OF FIREWALL ................................................................500FIGURE 12-4: THE PROCESS OF ENCRYPTION ......................................................502FIGURE 12-5: WORKING OF VPN .........................................................................505FIGURE 14-1: IT IN ENTERPRISE...........................................................................525FIGURE 14-2: AN EIS ...........................................................................................534FIGURE 14-3: AN EXPERT SYSTEM .......................................................................535FIGURE 14-4: WORKING OF CRM SYSTEM...........................................................537FIGURE 14-5: WORKING OF CIM SYSTEM ............................................................538FIGURE 14-6: WORKING OF ERP SYSTEM ............................................................539
  • 11. FIGURE 14-7: WORKING OF CMS ........................................................................540FIGURE 14-8: WORKING OF DATA WAREHOUSE .................................................542FIGURE 14-9: WORKING OF WEB SERVICE ..........................................................545FIGURE 14-10: WORKING OF NAS .......................................................................553FIGURE 14-11: WORKING OF SAN AND NAS .......................................................554FIGURE 14-12: ENTERPRISE STORAGE SYSTEM ...................................................555FIGURE 14-13: A BLADE SERVER .........................................................................556FIGURE 14-14: A THIN CLIENT .............................................................................557FIGURE 14-15: WORKING OF CDP .......................................................................561
  • 12. T ABLE OF C ONTENTSINTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ................................................. 1 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY: INTRODUCTION................................................................... 2 Definition of Computer...................................................................................... 2 Communications Technology (or Telecommunication technology)................... 3 THREE KEY CONCEPTS TO UNDERSTAND HOW COMPUTERS WORK....................................... 3 COMMON CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPUTER..................................................................... 4 DATA PROCESSING CYCLE ............................................................................................. 5 DATA REPRESENTATION ............................................................................................... 6 TYPES OF DATA........................................................................................................... 9 String Data ...................................................................................................... 10 Numeric Data .................................................................................................. 10 TYPES OF DATA PROCESSING DEVICES ........................................................................... 11 IMPACTS OF USING COMPUTERS .................................................................................. 12 Health.............................................................................................................. 12 Public Safety .................................................................................................... 13 Labor Force...................................................................................................... 13 Environment: ................................................................................................... 13 GENERATIONS OF COMPUTERS .................................................................................... 13 CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTERS .................................................................................. 15 Classes of Computers by Working Principle..................................................... 15 Classes of Computers by Capabilities .............................................................. 17 Classes of Computers by Function ................................................................... 27 Other Classifications of Computers ................................................................. 31 COMPUTER APPLICATIONS IN EVERYDAY LIFE.................................................................. 32 Education......................................................................................................... 32 Finance ............................................................................................................ 33 Banking............................................................................................................ 33 Government..................................................................................................... 33 HealthCare....................................................................................................... 34 Science............................................................................................................. 34 Business ........................................................................................................... 35 Publishing ........................................................................................................ 35 Travel............................................................................................................... 36
  • 13. Engineering...................................................................................................... 36 Transportation................................................................................................. 36 Entertainment ................................................................................................. 37 Construction .................................................................................................... 37 Sports............................................................................................................... 37 Hospitality ....................................................................................................... 37 Space Exploration ............................................................................................ 38 Meteorology .................................................................................................... 38 Agriculture ....................................................................................................... 39 National and Local Security ............................................................................. 39 Textile Industry ................................................................................................ 40 Municipal Services ........................................................................................... 40 Informatics ...................................................................................................... 40 References/Further Readings .......................................................................... 41COMPUTER HARDWARE .......................................................................................43 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................... 44 PROCESSING DEVICES................................................................................................. 44 Central Processing Unit (CPU) ......................................................................... 44 Memory ........................................................................................................... 56 STORAGE DEVICES ..................................................................................................... 66 Storage Disks ................................................................................................... 67 Removable Storage and/or Disk Drives ........................................................... 80 Flash Memory Storage .................................................................................... 80 Other Types of Storage.................................................................................... 83 How the Processor Searches for Data or Program Instructions....................... 87 INPUT DEVICES ......................................................................................................... 88 Keyboard ......................................................................................................... 88 Pointing Devices .............................................................................................. 89 Other Pointing Devices .................................................................................... 90 Touch Screens and Touch-Sensitive Pads ........................................................ 90 Pen Input ......................................................................................................... 91 Scanners and Reading Devices ........................................................................ 91 Mark Recognition and Character Recognition Devices.................................... 94 Audio Input ...................................................................................................... 96 Voice Input....................................................................................................... 96 Video Input ...................................................................................................... 96
  • 14. Biometric Input Devices................................................................................... 98 Terminals......................................................................................................... 98 Input Devices for Physically Challenged Users................................................. 99 OUTPUT DEVICES .................................................................................................... 101 Display Devices .............................................................................................. 101 Printers .......................................................................................................... 106 Audio Output Devices .................................................................................... 114 Other Output Devices .................................................................................... 115 Output Devices for Physically Challenged Users............................................ 116 COMMUNICATION DEVICES ....................................................................................... 116 Modem .......................................................................................................... 117 SYSTEM UNIT (SYSTEM CASE).................................................................................... 117 Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards............................................................... 118 Cables, Ports, And Connectors....................................................................... 119 BUSES................................................................................................................... 123 BAYS .................................................................................................................... 127 POWER SUPPLY ...................................................................................................... 127 POWER PROTECTION DEVICES ................................................................................... 127 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS .............................................................................. 129COMPUTER SOFTWARE ......................................................................................131 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................... 132 RELATIONSHIP OF COMPUTER SOFTWARE TO COMPUTER HARDWARE ............................... 133 TYPES OF COMPUTER SOFTWARE ............................................................................... 134 System software ............................................................................................ 134 Programming software ................................................................................. 137 Application software ..................................................................................... 137 SOFTWARE VERSION AND RELEASES............................................................................ 143 SOFTWARE REGISTRATION/ACTIVATION ...................................................................... 143 SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT ....................................................................................... 143 SOFTWARE LICENSE ................................................................................................. 144 PATENTS ............................................................................................................... 144 PROGRAM AND LIBRARY ........................................................................................... 144 USER-CENTRIC SOFTWARE CLASSIFICATION-LAYERED APPROACH ..................................... 144 Platform Software ......................................................................................... 145 Application Software ..................................................................................... 145 User-written Software ................................................................................... 145
  • 15. COMPUTER SOFTWARE OPERATIONS .......................................................................... 145 ETHICS AND RIGHTS FOR SOFTWARE USERS .................................................................. 146 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS .............................................................................. 147BUSINESS COMPUTER USERS AND BASIC COMPUTER OPERATIONS ...................148 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................... 149 WORKING OF COMPUTER ......................................................................................... 149 ELEMENTS OF AN INFORMATION SYSTEM ..................................................................... 150 CATEGORIES OF BUSINESS COMPUTER USERS ............................................................... 151 Small Office/Home Office User...................................................................... 151 Mobile User ................................................................................................... 152 Power User .................................................................................................... 152 Enterprise User .............................................................................................. 152 SELECTING APPROPRIATE HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE ................................................... 153 TIPS FOR APPROPRIATE HARDWARE SELECTION............................................................. 165 Selecting a Processor ..................................................................................... 165 Selecting Input Devices.................................................................................. 166 Selecting Output Devices ............................................................................... 166 Selecting RAM................................................................................................ 167 USING SOFTWARE ................................................................................................... 168 Files and Documents...................................................................................... 168 Folders and Directories.................................................................................. 168 Saving Files or Documents............................................................................. 169 PRINTING .............................................................................................................. 170 EXIT OR QUIT ......................................................................................................... 170 MENUS ................................................................................................................. 170 INSTALLING NEW SOFTWARE ..................................................................................... 172 BACKING UP FILES ................................................................................................... 173 COMPRESSION AND DECOMPRESSION ......................................................................... 174 THE DESKTOP ......................................................................................................... 175 PROGRAMS AND FEATURES ....................................................................................... 177 Features of Modern Software Programs ....................................................... 177 DIFFERENT METHODS OF OPENING DOCUMENTS AND PROGRAMS ................................... 179 CREATING FOLDERS ................................................................................................. 180 MOVING AND DELETING FILES AND FOLDERS ................................................................ 180 MULTIPLE FILE AND FOLDER SELECTION ....................................................................... 181 ORGANIZING YOUR FILES AND FOLDER......................................................................... 181
  • 16. TROUBLESHOOTING ................................................................................................. 182 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS .............................................................................. 183OPERATING SYSTEMS .........................................................................................185 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................... 186 HISTORY OF OPERATING SYSTEMS .............................................................................. 186 CATEGORIES OF OPERATING SYSTEMS ......................................................................... 187 Stand-Alone Operating Systems.................................................................... 188 Network Operating Systems.......................................................................... 192 Embedded Operating Systems ...................................................................... 194 Real-time operating system (RTOS)............................................................... 197 OPERATING SYSTEMS: FEATURES AND TECHNOLOGY ...................................................... 197 Boot-Strapping .............................................................................................. 197 Program Execution ........................................................................................ 198 Interrupts....................................................................................................... 198 Protected Mode and Supervisor Mode.......................................................... 198 Memory Management .................................................................................. 198 Multitasking .................................................................................................. 200 Disk Access and File Systems ......................................................................... 201 Device Drivers................................................................................................ 201 Networking.................................................................................................... 201 Security.......................................................................................................... 202 File System Support ....................................................................................... 202 Graphical User Interfaces .............................................................................. 203 FUNCTIONS OF OPERATING SYSTEMS .......................................................................... 203 Starting (Booting) and Shutting Down a Computer ...................................... 203 Providing User Interface................................................................................ 204 Managing the Hardware ............................................................................... 204 Managing the File System ............................................................................. 205 Supporting Programs .................................................................................... 205 Coordinating Tasks ........................................................................................ 205 Configuring Devices....................................................................................... 206 Establishing an Internet Connection.............................................................. 206 Monitoring Performance ............................................................................... 206 Updating Software Automatically................................................................. 207 Controlling a Network ................................................................................... 207 Administering Security .................................................................................. 207
  • 17. REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS .............................................................................. 208BUSINESS SOFTWARE AND THEIR APPLICATIONS ...............................................209 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................... 210 WORD PROCESSING SOFTWARE ................................................................................. 210 PRESENTATION SOFTWARE........................................................................................ 211 SPREADSHEET SOFTWARE ......................................................................................... 212 DATABASE SOFTWARE .............................................................................................. 213 GRAPHICS SOFTWARE .............................................................................................. 215 NOTE TAKING SOFTWARE ......................................................................................... 217 BUSINESS SOFTWARE SUITE ...................................................................................... 218 PERSONAL INFORMATION MANAGER SOFTWARE........................................................... 218 PHONE SOFTWARE .................................................................................................. 218 PROJECT MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE ........................................................................... 219 ACCOUNTING SOFTWARE.......................................................................................... 219 DOCUMENT MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE....................................................................... 219 ENTERPRISE COMPUTING SOFTWARE .......................................................................... 220 SOUND RECORDING SOFTWARE ................................................................................. 220 VIDEO AND AUDIO EDITING SOFTWARE ....................................................................... 221 MULTIMEDIA AUTHORING SOFTWARE ......................................................................... 223 ANIMATION SOFTWARE ............................................................................................ 224 COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN SOFTWARE ........................................................................ 224 DESKTOP PUBLISHING (DTP) SOFTWARE ..................................................................... 224 WEB PAGE AUTHORING SOFTWARE ............................................................................ 225 LEGAL SOFTWARE ................................................................................................... 226 TAX PREPARATION SOFTWARE ................................................................................... 227 TRAVEL AND MAPPING SOFTWARE ............................................................................. 227 WEB-BASED TRAINING SOFTWARE ............................................................................. 227 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS .............................................................................. 231MICROSOFT OFFICE 2010....................................................................................232 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................... 233 MICROSOFT INTERNET EXPLORER 9 (IE 9).................................................................... 233 Important Features........................................................................................ 233 Keyboard Shortcuts ....................................................................................... 236 Common Commands ..................................................................................... 237 MICROSOFT WORD 2010 ........................................................................................ 241 Important Features........................................................................................ 241
  • 18. Keyboard Shortcuts ....................................................................................... 244 Common Commands ..................................................................................... 245 MICROSOFT EXCEL 2010 ......................................................................................... 258 Important Features ....................................................................................... 258 Keyboard Shortcuts ....................................................................................... 260 Common Commands ..................................................................................... 261 MICROSOFT POWERPOINT 2010............................................................................... 270 Important Features ....................................................................................... 270 Keyboard Shortcuts ....................................................................................... 272 Common Commands ..................................................................................... 273 MICROSOFT PROJECT 2010...................................................................................... 283 Project Planning and Management............................................................... 283 Keyboard Shortcuts ....................................................................................... 285 Common Commands ..................................................................................... 286 REFERENCES / FURTHER READINGS ............................................................................. 297DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS ..................................................................298 DATA, INFORMATION, AND KNOWLEDGE ..................................................................... 299 DATABASE ............................................................................................................. 300 Components of a Database System............................................................... 301 Advantages of Database Systems ................................................................. 304 IMPORTANT DATABASE TERMINOLOGY ........................................................................ 304 Field ............................................................................................................... 304 Record ........................................................................................................... 305 File ................................................................................................................. 306 Key................................................................................................................. 306 DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DBMS)................................................................ 307 Functions of DBMS ........................................................................................ 309 Characteristics of a good DBMS .................................................................... 310 Advantages of DBMS..................................................................................... 310 Disadvantages of DBMS ................................................................................ 312 Difference between DBMS and a File Management System ......................... 313 Primary Functions of DBMS........................................................................... 313 Components of the DBMS ............................................................................. 314 DATABASE UTILITIES ................................................................................................ 319 TYPES OF DATABASES............................................................................................... 320 Individual databases ..................................................................................... 320
  • 19. Shared Databases.......................................................................................... 320 Distributed databases ................................................................................... 321 Public Databases ........................................................................................... 321 MAJOR TYPES OF DATABASE ORGANIZATIONS (OR MODELS)........................................... 322 Hierarchical Databases.................................................................................. 322 Network Database......................................................................................... 322 Relational Database ...................................................................................... 323 Object-Oriented Database............................................................................. 324 Navigational Database.................................................................................. 324 WEB-BASED DATABASES........................................................................................... 325 MICROSOFT ACCESS 2010........................................................................................ 326 Important Features........................................................................................ 326 Keyboard Shortcuts ....................................................................................... 330 Common Commands ..................................................................................... 331 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS .............................................................................. 338SYSTEM ANALYSIS, DESIGN, AND DEVELOPMENT...............................................339 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................... 340 SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE (SDLC).................................................................. 340 SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE (SDLC) MODELS ..................................................... 340 ADVANTAGES OF SDLC ............................................................................................ 342 SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES ........................................................................... 342 Grouping of Activities into Phases ................................................................. 342 User Involvement in System Design............................................................... 343 Standards ...................................................................................................... 345 Documentation.............................................................................................. 346 PHASES OF SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT............................................................................. 346 Planning, Feasibility Study, and Initiation ..................................................... 348 Gathering Requirements and System Analysis .............................................. 349 System Design ............................................................................................... 359 System Implementation................................................................................. 360 System Testing............................................................................................... 361 System Maintenance/Support....................................................................... 362 Post-Implementation Review ........................................................................ 363 COMPUTER PROGRAMS AND PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES.............................................. 364 Classification of Programming languages..................................................... 364 Classification of High-Level Programming Languages .................................. 368
  • 20. PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT TOOLS............................................................................... 371 Rapid Application Development (RAD).......................................................... 371 Microsoft .NET............................................................................................... 372 F#................................................................................................................... 372 Microsoft Visual Studio ................................................................................. 372 OTHER PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES AND DEVELOPMENT TOOLS ..................................... 374 Fourth Generation Languages (4GLs)............................................................ 374 Classic Programming Languages................................................................... 374 Application Generators ................................................................................. 376 Macros........................................................................................................... 376 WEB PAGE DEVELOPMENT ....................................................................................... 376 Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) and Extensible HTML (XHTML) .......... 376 Extensible Markup Language (XML) and wireless markup language (WML) 377 Scripts, Applets, Servlets, and ActiveX Controls............................................. 378 CGI Scripts ..................................................................................................... 379 Scripting Languages ...................................................................................... 380 Dynamic HTML (DHTML) ............................................................................... 381 Ruby on Rails (RoR) ....................................................................................... 382 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS .............................................................................. 383COMPUTER NETWORKS......................................................................................384 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................... 385 COMPUTER COMMUNICATIONS ................................................................................. 385 OSI Reference Model ..................................................................................... 385 Uses of Computer Communications .............................................................. 388 COMPUTER NETWORK ............................................................................................. 390 ADVANTAGES OF USING NETWORKS ........................................................................... 390 NETWORK CLASSIFICATION ....................................................................................... 392 Network Classification Based on Scale .......................................................... 392 Network Classification Based on Connection Method................................... 394 Network Classification Based on Functional Relationship............................. 395 NETWORK TOPOLOGY .............................................................................................. 397 INTERNETWORK ...................................................................................................... 401 Intranet.......................................................................................................... 401 Extranet......................................................................................................... 402 Internet.......................................................................................................... 402 INTERNET2 ............................................................................................................ 404
  • 21. NETWORK COMMUNICATIONS STANDARDS .................................................................. 405 Ethernet......................................................................................................... 406 Token Ring ..................................................................................................... 406 TCP/IP ............................................................................................................ 406 Wi-Fi .............................................................................................................. 407 Bluetooth ....................................................................................................... 409 Ultra-WideBand (UWB) ................................................................................. 409 IrDA................................................................................................................ 410 RFID ............................................................................................................... 410 Wi-Max .......................................................................................................... 410 Wireless Application Protocol (WAP)............................................................. 411 COMMUNICATIONS SOFTWARE .................................................................................. 412 BASIC HARDWARE COMPONENTS OF A NETWORK ......................................................... 412 Modems......................................................................................................... 412 Network Interface Cards................................................................................ 413 Wireless Access Points................................................................................... 414 Hub ................................................................................................................ 414 Switch ............................................................................................................ 414 Bridge ............................................................................................................ 414 Router............................................................................................................ 415 Repeater ........................................................................................................ 415 COMMUNICATION CHANNELS .................................................................................... 416 Transmission Media ...................................................................................... 416 CONNECTING TO A NETWORK .................................................................................... 427 The Network Hardware and Transmission Medium ...................................... 427 Network Protocol Software ........................................................................... 427 IP Addressing and Domain Names ................................................................ 428 Domain Name System (DNS) ......................................................................... 431 USE OF NETWORKS.................................................................................................. 435 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS .............................................................................. 437THE INTERNET ....................................................................................................439 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................... 440 INTERNET POPULATION: LANGUAGES AND ORIGIN ......................................................... 441 INTERNET AND THE WORKPLACE ................................................................................ 441 INTERNET ON MOBILE DEVICES .................................................................................. 441 COMMON USES OF INTERNET .................................................................................... 442
  • 22. E-MAIL ........................................................................................................... 442 Instant Messaging ......................................................................................... 444 World Wide Web (WWW) ............................................................................. 445 Search Engines and Subject Directories......................................................... 448 Blogs.............................................................................................................. 451 Podcasts ........................................................................................................ 452 Vodcasts ........................................................................................................ 452 Web Applications .......................................................................................... 452 Web 2.0 and Web 3.0.................................................................................... 452 Social Networking Sites ................................................................................. 453 Multimedia on the Web ................................................................................ 454 Web Advertising ............................................................................................ 456 Content Management ................................................................................... 456 Newsgroups and Message Boards ................................................................ 456 FTP and Telnet............................................................................................... 456 Remote Access............................................................................................... 457 Collaboration................................................................................................. 457 File Sharing .................................................................................................... 458 Streaming Media........................................................................................... 459 Voice Over IP (VoIP)....................................................................................... 460 Leisure Activities............................................................................................ 461 Marketing on The Web.................................................................................. 462 INTERNET ACCESS ................................................................................................... 463 Access Providers ............................................................................................ 463 INTERNET CONNECTIVITY OPTIONS ............................................................................. 464 Dial-Up .......................................................................................................... 465 Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)................................................... 466 Broadband Connections: Cable, DSL, FTTP, Leased Lines .............................. 467 Wireless Connections: Satellite, Wi-Fi, Fixed Wireless, Cellular Network...... 472 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS .............................................................................. 475COMPUTER SECURITY .........................................................................................477 COMPUTER SECURITY: INTRODUCTION ........................................................................ 478 SECURITY AND SYSTEMS DESIGN ................................................................................ 478 COSTS OF COMPUTER SECURITY BREACHES .................................................................. 479 REASONS FOR ATTACK ON THE COMPUTER SYSTEM ....................................................... 479 PEOPLE RESPONSIBLE FOR SECURITY BREACHES ............................................................ 480
  • 23. Hacker ........................................................................................................... 480 Cracker........................................................................................................... 480 Script kiddie ................................................................................................... 480 Corporate spy ................................................................................................ 481 Corrupt Employees ........................................................................................ 481 Cyber Extortionist .......................................................................................... 481 Cyber Terrorists ............................................................................................. 482 COMPUTER SECURITY RISKS ...................................................................................... 482 Internet and Network Attacks ....................................................................... 483 Unauthorized Access and Use of Computer and Network............................. 494 Hardware Theft and Vandalism..................................................................... 495 Software Theft ............................................................................................... 495 Information Theft .......................................................................................... 496 System Failure ............................................................................................... 496 MITIGATING SECURITY VULNERABILITIES ...................................................................... 496 CLASSIFICATION OF SECURITY MEASURES .................................................................... 498 SECURITY TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES ............................................................................. 499 Firewalls ........................................................................................................ 499 Intrusion Detection System (IDS) ................................................................... 500 Honeypots...................................................................................................... 501 Digital Forensics ............................................................................................ 501 Encryption...................................................................................................... 502 Digital Certificates ......................................................................................... 503 Transport Layer Security (TLS) ....................................................................... 503 Secure HTTP................................................................................................... 504 VPN................................................................................................................ 504 WIRELESS NETWORK SECURITY .................................................................................. 505 SECURITY SERVICES AND INFORMATION ....................................................................... 506 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS .............................................................................. 507HEALTH, SAFETY, AND ENVIRONMENT ...............................................................509 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................... 510 CHARACTERISTICS OF HEALTHY JOB............................................................................. 510 HEALTH AND SAFETY ................................................................................................ 511 Health Issues of Computer Use...................................................................... 511 Ergonomics and Workplace Design ............................................................... 512 Video Displays at Work.................................................................................. 512
  • 24. Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI).......................................................................... 513 Musculoskeletal Problems............................................................................. 513 Eye Strain....................................................................................................... 514 Working Environment ................................................................................... 514 Stress ............................................................................................................. 514 Computer Addiction....................................................................................... 515 Laptop Related Health Challenges ................................................................ 515 COMPUTER SYSTEMS, JOB AUTONOMY, AND POWER..................................................... 515 Computer System and Power ........................................................................ 516 COMPUTER SYSTEMS AND USE OF VALUED SKILLS ......................................................... 517 COMPUTER SYSTEMS AND MEANINGFULNESS OF WORK ................................................. 518 Variety and Scope of Work ............................................................................ 518 Computer-Mediated Work ............................................................................ 519 COMPUTER SYSTEMS AND SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS ......................................................... 520 REFERENCES/FURTHER READINGS .............................................................................. 521INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN ENTERPRISE.....................................................523 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................... 524 TYPES OF ENTERPRISES ............................................................................................. 525 TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES OF ENTERPRISE INFORMATION MANAGEMENT............................ 526 Business Intelligence (BI) ............................................................................... 526 Business process Management (BPM) .......................................................... 527 Business Process Automation (BPA) .............................................................. 527 INFORMATION SYSTEMS IN THE ENTERPRISE ................................................................. 528 INFORMATION SYSTEMS WITHIN FUNCTIONAL UNITS ..................................................... 528 GENERAL PURPOSE INFORMATION SYSTEMS................................................................. 532 Office Information System (OIS) .................................................................... 532 Transaction Processing System (TPS) ............................................................ 532 Management Information System (MIS)....................................................... 533 Decision Support System (DDS) ..................................................................... 533 Expert System ................................................................................................ 534 OTHER ENTERPRISE INFORMATION SYSTEMS ................................................................ 536 Artificial Intelligence (AI) Systems ................................................................. 536 Knowledge Management System (KMS) ....................................................... 536 Integrated Information system (IIS) .............................................................. 536 Customer Relationship Management (CRM)................................................. 537 Customer Interaction Management (CIM) .................................................... 538
  • 25. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) System .................................................. 539 Content Management System (CMS) ............................................................ 539 ENTERPRISE-WIDE TECHNOLOGIES ............................................................................. 541 Portals ........................................................................................................... 541 Data warehouse ............................................................................................ 541 Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) ................................................................. 543 Extranets........................................................................................................ 544 Web services.................................................................................................. 544 Service – oriented Architecture (SOA) ........................................................... 547 Software As A Service (SAAS)......................................................................... 547 Data Centers.................................................................................................. 548 Document Management System (DMS) ........................................................ 548 Workflow ....................................................................................................... 549 Virtualization ................................................................................................. 549 Cloud computing and Grid computing........................................................... 549 E-commerce................................................................................................... 550 Neural Networks............................................................................................ 551 ENTERPRISE HARDWARE ........................................................................................... 551 Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks (RAID) ............................................... 551 Network Attached Storage and Storage Area Networks............................... 552 Enterprise Storage Systems ........................................................................... 554 Blade Servers ................................................................................................. 556 Thin Clients .................................................................................................... 557 MEASURING EFFECTIVENESS OF ENTERPRISE INFORMATION SYSTEMS ................................ 558 Availability..................................................................................................... 558 Scalability ...................................................................................................... 558 Interoperability.............................................................................................. 559 DISASTER RECOVERY ................................................................................................ 559 Disaster recovery Plan ................................................................................... 559 Emergency Plan ............................................................................................. 559 Backup Plan ................................................................................................... 560 Recovery Plan ................................................................................................ 562 Test Plan ........................................................................................................ 562 REFERENCES / FURTHER READINGS ............................................................................. 564ETHICS IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY.............................................................567 ETHICS AND SOCIETY ................................................................................................ 568
  • 26. Unauthorized Access and Use of Computer and Network............................. 568 Software Piracy ............................................................................................. 568 Information Accuracy .................................................................................... 569 Intellectual Property Rights ........................................................................... 569 Information Technology Codes of Conduct ................................................... 570 Green Computing .......................................................................................... 570 INFORMATION PRIVACY ............................................................................................ 571 International Privacy Laws ............................................................................ 572 Guidelines to Protect Privacy......................................................................... 575 Threats Against Privacy................................................................................. 576 Content Filtering............................................................................................ 578INDEX .................................................................................................................583