TOWARDS INTEGRATED REPORTINGCommunicating Value in the 21st Century
ABOUT THIS DISCUSSION PAPER Contents                                                          The International Integrated...
SUMMARYThe development of Integrated Reporting is designed to enhance and consolidateexisting reporting practices...to mov...
THE WORLD HAS CHANGED –                                                                                                   ...
TOWARDS INTEGRATED REPORTING                                                                                              ...
AN INTERNATIONAL INTEGRATEDREPORTING FRAMEWORKThe Framework will provide high-level guidance to organizations that prepare...
An International Integrated Reporting Framework (continued)Business Model and Value CreationCentral to Integrated Reportin...
An International Integrated Reporting Framework (continued)The Building Blocks                                            ...
Ir discussion-paper-2011
Ir discussion-paper-2011
Ir discussion-paper-2011
Ir discussion-paper-2011
Ir discussion-paper-2011
Ir discussion-paper-2011
Ir discussion-paper-2011
Ir discussion-paper-2011
Ir discussion-paper-2011
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Ir discussion-paper-2011

2,142

Published on

Published in: Business, Economy & Finance
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,142
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Ir discussion-paper-2011"

  1. 1. TOWARDS INTEGRATED REPORTINGCommunicating Value in the 21st Century
  2. 2. ABOUT THIS DISCUSSION PAPER Contents The International Integrated Reporting Committee (IIRC) has About this Discussion Paper 1 brought together world leaders from the corporate, investment, Summary 2 accounting, securities, regulatory, academic, civil society and What is Integrated Reporting? standard-setting sectors to develop a new approach to reporting. Why do We Need Integrated Reporting? An International Framework This approach, Integrated Reporting, will meet the needs of the Future Direction Your Comments Requested 21st century. It builds on the foundations of financial, management The World has Changed – Reporting Must Too 4 commentary, governance and remuneration, and sustainability Towards Integrated Reporting 6 reporting in a way that reflects their interdependence. Integrated Reporting Defined The IIRC aims to forge a global consensus on the direction in which Building on Developments to Date reporting needs to evolve, creating a framework for reporting An International Integrated Reporting Framework 8 How is Integrated Reporting Different? that is better able to accommodate complexity, and, in so doing, Business Model and Value Creation brings together the different strands of reporting into a coherent, The Building Blocks integrated whole. Guiding Principles Content Elements This Discussion Paper considers the rationale behind the move Towards Integrated Reporting – Innovation in Action towards Integrated Reporting, offers initial proposals for the What will Integrated Reporting Mean for Me? 20 Benefits, Challenges and Responses development of an International Integrated Reporting Framework Reporting Organization Perspective and outlines the next steps towards its creation and adoption, Investor Perspective including the publication of an Exposure Draft in 2012. Its Policy-maker, Regulator and Standard-setter Perspective Other Perspectives purpose is to prompt input from all those with a stake in Future Direction 25 improved reporting, including both producers and users of reports. Summary of Consultation Questions 26 Your answers to the Consultation Questions in this Discussion Paper, and any Acknowledgements and Endnotes 28 other comments you would like to make, will be important to us in refining these proposals. They should be submitted to dpresponses@theiirc.org or online at www.theiirc.org. Please identify in your response the organization to which you belong and where it is located. All comments received will be consideredMANAGEMENT COMMENTARY a matter of public record and will be posted on www.theiirc.org. Comments should be submitted by Wednesday 14th December 2011.GOVERNANCE AND REMUNERATION REPORTING You can register at www.theiirc.org to be notified when additional information is published, when regional roundtables or webinars are held or for information about the IIRC Pilot Programme.www.theiirc.orgFINANCIAL STATEMENTSSUSTAINABILITY REPORTING Copyright © September 2011 by the International Integrated Reporting Committee. All rights reserved. Permission is granted to make copies of this work to achieve maximum exposure and feedback provided that each copy bears the following credit line: Copyright © September 2011 by the International Integrated Reporting Committee. All rights reserved. Used with permission of the International Integrated Reporting Committee. Permission is granted to make copies of this work to achieve maximum exposure and feedback. Towards Integrated Reporting 1
  3. 3. SUMMARYThe development of Integrated Reporting is designed to enhance and consolidateexisting reporting practices...to move towards a reporting framework that providesthe information needed to assess organizational value in the 21st century.What is Integrated Reporting? reflecting this growing complexity. Such a framework needs to The initial focus is on reporting by larger companies and on Future Direction bring together the diverse but currently disconnected strands of the needs of their investors. The Framework will help to elicitIntegrated Reporting brings together material information The development of Integrated Reporting is designed to enhance reporting into a coherent, integrated whole, and demonstrate consistent reporting by organizations, provide broad parametersabout an organization’s strategy, governance, performance and consolidate existing reporting practices and, through an organization’s ability to create value now and in the future. for policy-makers and regulators and provide a focus forand prospects in a way that reflects the commercial, social collaboration, consultation and experimentation, to move harmonizing reporting standards.and environmental context within which it operates. It provides towards a reporting framework that provides the informationa clear and concise representation of how an organization International differences in reporting needed to assess organizational value in the 21st century.demonstrates stewardship and how it creates and sustains value. Reporting requirements have evolved separately, and differently, The building blocks The next steps that the IIRC will take in this direction are listed below.An Integrated Report should be an organization’s primary in various jurisdictions. This has significantly increased the Five Guiding Principles underpin the preparation of anreporting vehicle. compliance burden for the growing number of organizations Integrated Report. • Undertake a Pilot Programme to encourage experimentation that report in more than one jurisdiction and makes it difficult to and innovation among companies and investors. • Strategic focus compare the performance of organizations across jurisdictions. • Develop an International Integrated Reporting FrameworkWhy do We Need Integrated Reporting? • Connectivity of information Exposure Draft, reflecting responses received to thisSince the current business reporting model was designed, • Future orientation Discussion Paper and the experience gained from the firstthere have been major changes in the way business is The benefits of Integrated Reporting • Responsiveness and stakeholder inclusiveness year of the Pilot Programme.conducted, how business creates value and the context in Research has shown that reporting influences behaviour. Integrated Reporting results in a broader explanation of • Conciseness, reliability and materiality • Work with others to support the development of emergingwhich business operates. These changes are interdependentand reflect trends such as: performance than traditional reporting. It makes visible an measurement and reporting practices relevant to These Principles should be applied in determining the content organization’s use of and dependence on different resources Integrated Reporting. of an Integrated Report, based on the key Content Elements• globalization, and relationships or “capitals” (financial, manufactured, human, • Raise awareness among investors and other stakeholders summarized below. The presentation of the Elements should• growing policy activity around the world in response to intellectual, natural and social), and the organization’s access make the interconnections between them apparent. and encourage organizations to adopt and contribute to financial, governance and other crises, to and impact on them. Reporting this information is critical to: the evolution of Integrated Reporting. • Organizational overview and business model• heightened expectations of corporate transparency and • a meaningful assessment of the long-term viability of the • Explore opportunities for harmonizing reporting accountability, • Operating context, including risks and opportunities requirements within and across jurisdictions. organization’s business model and strategy;• actual and prospective resource scarcity, • Strategic objectives and strategies to achieve those • Develop institutional arrangements for the ongoing • meeting the information needs of investors and other objectives governance of Integrated Reporting.• population growth, and stakeholders; and • Governance and remuneration• environmental concerns. • ultimately, the effective allocation of scarce resources. • Performance Your Comments RequestedAgainst this background, the type of information that is needed An International Framework • Future outlook Please join us in this unique effort to develop an overarchingto assess the past and current performance of organizationsand their future resilience is much wider than is provided for International Integrated Reporting Framework by providing The IIRC is developing an International Integrated Reporting feedback on this Discussion Paper. Your answers to theby the existing business reporting model. While there has Framework that will facilitate the development of reportingbeen an increase in the information provided, key disclosure Consultation Questions in this Discussion Paper, and any other over the coming decades. The core objective of the Framework comments you would like to make, should be submitted togaps remain. is to guide organizations on communicating the broad set of Who is the IIRC? dpresponses@theiirc.org or online at www.theiirc.org. For theReports are already long and are getting longer. But, because information needed by investors and other stakeholders to purpose of analysis, you are asked to identify the organization The International Integrated Reporting Committee (IIRC) isreporting has evolved in separate, disconnected strands, critical assess the organization’s long-term prospects in a clear, concise, to which you belong and where it is located. All comments an international cross-section of leaders from the corporate,interdependencies between strategy, governance, operations connected and comparable format. This will enable those received will be considered a matter of public record and will investment, accounting, securities, regulatory, academic, civiland financial and non-financial performance are not made clear. organizations, their investors and others to make better short- be posted on www.theiirc.org. society and standard-setting sectors. See page 28 for a listTo provide for the growing demand for a broad information and long-term decisions. of members.set from markets, regulators and civil society, a framework is Comments should be submitted by Wednesday 14thneeded that can support the future development of reporting, December 2011.2 www.theiirc.org Towards Integrated Reporting 3
  4. 4. THE WORLD HAS CHANGED – Key points in this section • The world has changed. Reporting needs to keep pace.REPORTING MUST TOO • While reporting has expanded and evolved, it has also become increasingly complex. Critical interdependencies are not brought to light and disclosure gaps remain. • It is not enough to keep on adding more information. The connections need to be made clear and the clutter needs to be removed. Only the most material information should be included in the Integrated Report. • Coordinated, international action is needed now. • The IIRC has brought together key organizations in response.While the architecture necessary to support changing information needs is developing,many currently perceive a reporting landscape of confusion, clutter and fragmentation.The world has changed due to globalization and resulting Reporting needs to keep pace. The traditional reporting For many organizations, reporting is seen as a legal compliance In the context of financial reporting, international convergenceinterdependencies in economies and supply chains, advances model was developed for an industrial world. Although it process, rather than as a process for communicating what matters. has been recognized as important, and progress has beenin technology, rapid population growth and increasing global continues to play a valuable role with respect to stewardship of Furthermore, different strands of reporting have tended to evolve made towards international standards, for example, throughconsumption. This has had a significant impact on the quality, financial capital, it nonetheless focuses on a relatively narrow separately, with additional requirements and information requests the current work on the convergence of International Financialavailability and price of resources, including water, food and account of historical financial performance and of the value- being bolted on to the existing model, rather than being integrated Reporting Standards (IFRS) and U.S. Generally Acceptedenergy. It also puts increasing pressure on ecosystems that are creation process. into it. The pressure to keep adding more continues to grow. Accounting Principles (U.S. GAAP). Nevertheless, many otheressential to the economy and society. aspects of reporting continue to be governed by national As business has become more complex and gaps in traditional This has created a complex and overlapping set of disconnected or regional laws, regulations and stock exchange listingThis has political, social and commercial implications. Businesses reporting have become prominent, new reporting requirements disclosures. As a result, critical interdependencies that exist are requirements, and by a mixture of mandatory and voluntaryare being forced to react to these changes in order to remain have been added through a patchwork of laws, regulations, not made clear, for example, between: standards, codes and guidance.successful and, in many cases, are developing new business standards, codes, guidance and stock exchange listing • strategy and risk,models that recognize the need to innovate and do more with less. requirements. This has led to an increase in the information The IIRC has brought together key organizations in provided through: • financial and non-financial performance, response. The IIRC was established in 2010 in recognition ofThe need for a broader information set is clearly demonstrated • governance and performance, and the need to move towards an International Integrated Reportingby the small percentage of market value now explained by • longer and more complex financial reports and • the organization’s own performance and that of others in Framework that is fit-for-purpose for the 21st century.physical and financial assets – down to only 19% in 2009 from management commentaries;283% in 1975. The remainder represents intangible factors, some its value chain. The IIRC seeks to build upon, enhance and support the work that • increased reporting on governance and remuneration; andof which are explained within financial statements, but many of Coordinated, international action is needed now. has been done to date, and is ongoing, to achieve a reporting • standalone sustainability reporting which has also evolved 3which are not.1 The information available to management, investors and framework that: rapidly over the past decade. other stakeholders, and the way in which it is presented, • communicates the organization’s strategy, business model, These developments, led by policy-makers, companies and have a fundamental impact on decision-making. The time hasComponents of S&P 500 market value performance and plans against the background of the other reporting organizations, investors and civil society, are come to step back and rethink what information is needed to100 context in which it operates; 83 68 32 20 19 welcome reactions designed to elicit the information needed in provide a clear, concise picture of performance, impacts and a changing world. However, while the architecture necessary • provides a coherent framework within which market and interdependencies. Such a picture must: to support changing information needs is developing, many regulatory driven reporting requirements can be integrated;80 80 81 currently perceive a reporting landscape of confusion, clutter • drive innovation, • is internationally agreed, so as to encourage convergence and fragmentation. Much of the information now provided is • be focused on communication and not just compliance, and of approach and hence more ready understanding of 68 disconnected and key disclosure gaps remain. • support resource allocation decisions that are consistent with information presented;60 As a result, although there is evidence that investors recognize sustained value creation and with long-term economic stability. • reflects the use of and effect on all of the resources and the materiality of non-financial factors, they do not feel that relationships or “capitals” (human, natural and social as In an increasingly global marketplace, comparability is well as financial, manufactured and intellectual) on which the information they have available is adequate for decision- important. Reporting requirements have evolved separately,40 making.4 For example, while there is management recognition the organization and society depend for prosperity; and and differently, in various jurisdictions. This has increased the that sustainability issues should be fully integrated into the reporting and administrative burden for the growing number • reflects and communicates the interdependencies between 32 strategy and operations of a company (with 96% of CEOs from the success of the organization and the value it creates for of organizations that report in more than one jurisdiction. It the world’s largest companies expressing this opinion5), only has also resulted in diverging disclosure practices that inhibit investors, employees, customers and, more broadly, society.20 17 21% of listed companies report any sustainability information investors and others from understanding and comparing the based on Bloomberg research.6 information they need for decision-making. It is not enough to keep on adding more information 1975 1985 1995 2005 2009 – the connections need to be made clear and the Physical and financial assets clutter needs to be removed. Corporate reports are Other factors already long and, in many cases, they are getting longer. Length and excessive detail can obscure critical information rather thanThe percentage of market value represented by physical and financial assets versus aid understanding.7 Only the most material information should Q1. (a) Do you believe that action is needed to help improve how organizations representintangible factors, some of which are explained within financial statements, but manyof which are not.1 be included in the Integrated Report. their value-creation process? Why/why not? (b) Do you agree that this action should be international in scope? Why/why not?4 www.theiirc.org Towards Integrated Reporting 5
  5. 5. TOWARDS INTEGRATED REPORTING Key points in this section • Integrated Reporting combines the different strands of reporting (financial, management commentary, governance and remuneration, and sustainability reporting) into a coherent whole that explains an organization’s ability to create and sustain value. • The main output of Integrated Reporting is an Integrated Report: a single report that the IIRC anticipates will become an organization’s primary report. • Integrated Reporting can reduce the reporting burden on organizations while improving investors’, andIntegrated Reporting brings together the material information about an organization’s other stakeholders’, insight and understanding.strategy, governance, performance and prospects in a way that reflects the commercial, • Integrated Reporting reflects and builds upon existing developments in reporting.social and environmental context within which it operates. It provides a clear andconcise representation of how an organization creates value, now and in the future.Integrated Reporting Defined contributes to success over time. It will increasingly be through Building on Developments to Date • The publication during 2010 and 2011 of: this process of “integrated thinking” that organizations are – the IFRS Practice Statement, “ManagementIntegrated Reporting brings together the material information Integrated Reporting reflects and builds upon existing able to create and sustain value. The effective communication Commentary”, an international framework for narrativeabout an organization’s strategy, governance, performance developments in reporting, including the following. of this process can help investors, and other stakeholders, reporting to provide a context for interpreting anand prospects in a way that reflects the commercial, social to understand not only an organization’s past and current • The ongoing international convergence of accounting organization’s financial position, financial performanceand environmental context within which it operates. It provides performance, but also its future resilience. standards through the collaborative efforts of the and cash flows;a clear and concise representation of how an organization International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and thedemonstrates stewardship and how it creates value, now and The main output of Integrated Reporting is an Integrated – the Integrated Reporting Committee of South Africa’s U.S.-based Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB)in the future. Integrated Reporting combines the most material Report: a single report that the IIRC anticipates will become an Discussion Paper, “Framework for Integrated Reporting to improve both IFRS and U.S. GAAP, and to eliminate theelements of information currently reported in separate reporting organization’s primary report, replacing rather than adding and the Integrated Report”; differences between them.strands (financial, management commentary, governance and to existing requirements. Such a report enables evolving – the Global Reporting Initiative’s “G3.1” Sustainabilityremuneration, and sustainability) in a coherent whole, and reporting requirements, both market-driven and regulatory, to • The work of The Prince’s Accounting for Sustainability Reporting Guidelines, and its current project to developimportantly: be organized into a coherent narrative. An Integrated Report Project, the Global Reporting Initiative, the World Business a fourth generation of Guidelines over the coming two provides a clear reference point for other communications, Council for Sustainable Development, the World Resources• shows the connectivity between them; and years; and including any specific compliance information, such as investor Institute, the World Intellectual Capital Initiative, the Carbon• explains how they affect the ability of an organization to Disclosure Project, the Climate Disclosure Standards Board, – the International Auditing and Assurance Standards presentations, detailed financial information, operational data create and sustain value in the short, medium and long term. the European Federation of Financial Analysts, the United Board’s Discussion Paper, “The Evolving Nature and sustainability information. Much of this information might Nations (UN) Conference on Trade and Development, of Financial Reporting: Disclosure and Its AuditIntegrated Reporting reflects what can be called “integrated move to an online environment, reducing clutter in the primary the UN Global Compact, the International Corporate Implications”.thinking” – application of the collective mind of those charged report, which will focus only on the matters that the organization considers most material to long-term success. Governance Network, the Collaborative Venture on Valuing The IIRC aims to forge a global consensus on the direction inwith governance (the board of directors or equivalent), and the Non-Financial Performance, and many others to develop which reporting needs to evolve, creating a framework forability of management, to monitor, manage and communicate principles, methodologies, guidelines and standards for the reporting that is better able to accommodate complexity and,the full complexity of the value-creation process, and how this accounting and reporting of non-financial information. in so doing, brings together the different strands of reporting into a coherent, integrated whole. All of the organizations referred to above are part of, or collaborating closely with, theThe evolution of corporate reporting IIRC to achieve this aim.1960 1980 2000 2020 Financial Statements Financial Statements Financial Statements Management Integrated Sustainability Commentary Reporting Reporting Management Commentary Environmental Management Reporting Commentary Governance Financial Governance Sustainability and Statements and Reporting Remuneration Remuneration Governance and Remuneration Q2. Do you agree with the above definition of Integrated Reporting? Why/why not?6 www.theiirc.org Towards Integrated Reporting 7
  6. 6. AN INTERNATIONAL INTEGRATEDREPORTING FRAMEWORKThe Framework will provide high-level guidance to organizations that prepare IntegratedReports, helping to provide consistency of content and approach in a way that demonstrates How is Integrated Reporting Different?the extent to which integrated thinking is occurring within the organization. Thinking Isolated Integrated Because traditional reporting occurs in silos, it encourages thinking in silos. Integrated Reporting, Key points in this section on the other hand, reflects, and supports, integrated thinking – monitoring, managing and • The IIRC is developing a Framework to support the future development of reporting. communicating the full complexity of the value creation process and how this contributes to success over time. Integrated Reporting demonstrates the extent to which integrated thinking is occurring • The Framework will help ensure consistent reporting by organizations, will provide broad parameters within the organization. for policy-makers and regulators, and will be a focus for harmonizing reporting standards. • The initial focus is on reporting by larger companies and on the needs of their investors. Stewardship Financial capital All forms of capital • An organization’s business model and its ability to create and sustain value in the short, medium and An Integrated Report displays an organization’s stewardship not only of financial capital, but also long term are central themes of the Framework, which includes Guiding Principles and Content Elements. of the other “capitals” (manufactured, human, intellectual, natural and social), their interdependence • Integrated Reporting results in a broader explanation of performance than traditional reporting. and how they contribute to success. This broader perspective requires consideration of resource • It makes visible how the organization uses different capitals (financial, manufactured, human, intellectual, usage and risks and opportunities along the organization’s full value chain. natural and social), its impact on them, and their interdependence. Focus Past, financial Past and future, connected, strategic Annual reporting at present is largely focused on past financial performance and financial risks. Other reports and communications may cover other resources and relationships, but they are seldom presented in a connected way, or linked to the organization’s strategic objectives and its ability to create and sustain value in the future.The aim of the International Integrated Reporting Framework is to The initial focus is on reporting by larger companies. However, Timeframe Short term Short, medium and long termsupport the development of reporting over the coming decades, the IIRC expects that the concepts underlying Integratedcentred on how an organization creates and sustains value. Reporting will be equally applicable to small- and medium-sized Much of the media and regulatory attention in response to the global financial crisis has focused enterprises, the public sector and not-for-profit organizations. on “short-termism” as one contributory factor. Although short-term considerations are important inThis section outlines initial proposals for the development of the many ways, placing them in context is also essential. Integrated Reporting specifically factors inFramework, setting out concepts, principles and key elements Integrated Reports will meet the needs of a broad range of short-, medium- and long-term considerations.around which it can be built. These proposals offer a starting stakeholders. Initially, however, the IIRC intends to focus thepoint for discussion, rather than a complete Framework. An development of the Framework on the needs of investors Trust Narrow disclosures Greater transparencyExposure Draft of the Framework is planned for release in 2012. (providers of debt and equity), consistent with the current dutiesDuring the comment period for this Discussion Paper, interim of those charged with governance in many jurisdictions. Financial reporting focuses primarily on a narrow series of mandated disclosures. Although anguidance material will be made available on the IIRC website. increasing number of organizations are improving their transparency, for example, through The following pages include: voluntary sustainability reporting, in absolute terms that number is still low. By emphasizingThis material will be built upon as further experience is obtainedthrough the IIRC Pilot Programme (see page 24). • a summary of the key differences between Integrated transparency, for example, covering a broader range of issues and disclosing the positive Reporting and traditional reporting; with the negative, Integrated Reporting helps to build trust.The Framework will provide high-level guidance to organizationsthat prepare Integrated Reports, helping to provide consistency • a discussion of the central importance of an organization’s Adaptive Rule bound Responsive to individual circumstancesof content and approach in a way that demonstrates the extent business model and of value creation;to which integrated thinking is occurring within the organization. Today’s reporting is often said to be too compliance orientated, reducing the scope for • guiding principles for developing an Integrated Report; andIt will also provide policy-makers and regulators with broad organizations to exercise an appropriate amount of judgement. While a certain level of • content elements that describe the core information to be compliance orientation is necessary to ensure consistency and enable comparison, Integratedparameters within which consistent regulatory reporting regimes included in an Integrated Report.can be developed across different jurisdictions. The Framework Reporting offers a principles-based approach that drives greater focus on factors that are materialwill be a focal point for the harmonization of current standards. to particular sectors and organizations. It permits an organization to disclose its unique situation in clear and understandable language. Concise Long and complex Concise and material Long and complex reports are often impenetrable for many readers. A key objective for Integrated Q3. Do you support the development of an International Integrated Reporting Reporting is to de-clutter the primary report so that it covers, concisely, only the most material Framework? Why/ why not? information. Q4. (a) Do you agree that the initial focus of Integrated Reporting should be on reporting Technology enabled Paper based Technology enabled by larger companies and on the needs of their investors? Why/why not? While the internet and XBRL are introducing elements of technological innovation, many corporate (b) Do you agree that the concepts underlying Integrated Reporting will be reports are still presented as if they were entirely paper based. Integrated Reporting takes advantage of new and emerging technologies to link information within the primary report equally applicable to small and medium enterprises, the public sector and and to facilitate access to further detail online where that is appropriate. not-for-profit organizations?8 www.theiirc.org Towards Integrated Reporting 9
  7. 7. An International Integrated Reporting Framework (continued)Business Model and Value CreationCentral to Integrated Reporting is the organization’s business By describing, and measuring where it is practicable, the Resources and relationships or “capitals”model. There is no single, generally accepted definition of the material components of value creation and, importantly, the All organizations depend on a variety of resources • ability to understand and implement an organization’sterm “business model”. However, it is often seen as the process relationships between them, Integrated Reporting results in a and relationships for their success. The extent to which strategies, andby which an organization seeks to create and sustain value. broader explanation of performance than traditional reporting. organizations are running them down or building them up • loyalties and motivations for improving processes, In particular, it makes visible all the relevant capitals on which has an important impact on the availability of the resourcesAn organization determines its business model through choices goods and services, including their ability to lead performance (past, present and future) depends, how the and the strength of the relationships that support the long-that typically recognize that value is not created by or within and to collaborate. organization uses those capitals, and its impact on them, as term viability of those organizations. These resources andthe organization alone, but is: illustrated by the diagram below. This information is critical relationships can be conceived as different forms of “capital”. Intellectual capital: Intangibles that provide competitive• influenced by external factors (including economic to the effective allocation of scarce resources. It will provide advantage, including: conditions, societal issues and technological change) that a meaningful presentation of the organization’s prospects for The purpose of the following categorization and descriptions, long term resilience and success, and facilitate the informational based on various sources and established models,8 is to help • intellectual property, such as patents, copyrights, present risks and opportunities, which create the context needs of, and assessments by, investors and other stakeholders. readers understand the concepts underlying this Discussion software and organizational systems, procedures within which the organization operates, Paper; it is not intended to be the only way the capitals can and protocols, and• co-created through relationships with others (including Importantly, a reporting framework centred around an be categorized or described. The extent to which different • the intangibles that are associated with the brand employees, partners, networks, suppliers and customers), and organization’s business model provides a better basis for organizations use or impact each of these capitals varies: not all and reputation that an organization has developed.• dependent on the availability, affordability, quality and management to explain what really matters, bringing reporting capitals are equally relevant or applicable to all organizations. management of various resources, or “capitals” (financial, closer to the way the business is run. Natural capital: Natural capital is an input to the manufactured, human, intellectual, natural and social). Financial capital: The pool of funds that is: production of goods or the provision of services. An organization’s activities also impact, positively or negatively,Integrated Reporting therefore aims to provide insights about: • available to the organization for use in the production on natural capital. It includes: of goods or the provision of services, and• significant external factors that affect an organization, • water, land, minerals and forests, and • obtained through financing, such as debt, equity or• the resources and relationships used and affected by grants, or generated through operations or investments. • biodiversity and eco-system health. the organization, and Manufactured capital: Manufactured physical objects Social capital: The institutions and relationships established• how the organization’s business model interacts with (as distinct from natural physical objects) that are available within and between each community, group of stakeholders external factors and resources and relationships to to the organization for use in the production of goods or the and other networks to enhance individual and collective well- create and sustain value over time. provision of services, including: being. Social capital includes: • buildings, • common values and behaviours, • equipment, and • key relationships, and the trust and loyalty that an • infrastructure (such as roads, ports, bridges and waste organization has developed and strives to build Financial Financial and protect with customers, suppliers and business and water treatment plants). External factors partners, and Human capital: People’s skills and experience, and their Manufactured Manufactured • an organization’s social licence to operate. motivations to innovate, including their: • alignment with and support of the organization’s Human Human governance framework and ethical values such as its recognition of human rights, Business model How the organization creates and sustains value in the short, medium and long term Intellectual Intellectual Natural Natural External factors Social Social Q5. Are: (a) the organization’s business model, and (b) its ability to create and sustain value in the short, medium and long term, appropriate as central themes for the future direction of reporting? Why/why not? Q6. Do you find the concept of multiple capitals helpful in explaining how an organization creates and sustains value? Why/why not?10 www.theiirc.org Towards Integrated Reporting 11
  8. 8. An International Integrated Reporting Framework (continued)The Building Blocks Guiding Principles The following guiding principles underpin the preparation of an Integrated Report, informing the content of the report and how information is presented.Guiding Principles – Five guiding principles underpin the Content Elements – The principles should be applied in Strategic focus: An Integrated Report provides insight into the This involves analyzing:preparation of an Integrated Report (see page 13). determining the content of an Integrated Report, based on the organization’s strategic objectives, and how those objectives • how sustainable the organization’s business model is; key elements summarized below. The presentation of the elements relate to its ability to create and sustain value over time and the• Strategic focus • the relationship between past and future performance; and should make the interconnections between them apparent resources and relationships on which the organization depends.• Connectivity of information (see page 14 – 15). • the factors that may change that relationship, for example, An Integrated Report communicates what is important to the• Future orientation whether the organization will be able to access the • Organizational overview and business model organization from a strategic perspective. It outlines: resources it needs at a price it can afford.• Responsiveness and stakeholder inclusiveness • Operating context, including risks and opportunities • the organization’s strategic objectives;• Conciseness, reliability and materiality An Integrated Report may include targets, forecasts, projections, • Strategic objectives and strategies to achieve • the strategies it has in place, or plans to implement, in order estimates and sensitivity analyses. those objectives to achieve them; and • how they relate to other components of its business model. Responsiveness and stakeholder inclusiveness: An Integrated • Governance and remuneration Report provides insight into the organization’s relationships with • Performance This may include, for example, highlighting significant new its key stakeholders and how and to what extent the organization • Future outlook opportunities, risks and dependencies that flow from the understands, takes into account and responds to their needs. organization’s market position, strategies and business model. Integrated Reporting emphasizes the importance of relationships It also clearly articulates how the organization uses resources and with the organization’s stakeholders. relationships. This includes reporting on financial, manufactured, Stakeholders provide useful insights about matters that are human, intellectual, natural and social capital to the extent each important to them, including economic, environmental and social contributes materially to the organization’s ability to create and issues. This assists the organization to: Co sustain value. nn • identify material issues; ec us tiv Connectivity of information: An Integrated Report shows ity foc of the connections between the different components of the • develop and evaluate strategies; and gic inf ate or organization’s business model, external factors that affect the • manage activities, including strategic and accountable Str ma tio organization, and the various resources and relationships on responses to material issues. n Operating context, which the organization and its performance depend. An Integrated Report enhances transparency and accountability, including risks and Connectivity is central to ensuring that an Integrated Report: which are essential in building trust and resilience, by disclosing: opportunities • illuminates the changing nature of business decision-making, • the nature and quality of the organization’s relationships and the critical linkages in business thinking and activity; and with key stakeholders, such as customers, suppliers, • helps to break down established silos in the way employees and local communities; and information is reported, and the traditional focus primarily • how their issues are understood, taken into account and Future outlook Strategic objectives on financial matters. responded to. Con Examples of connectivity include: Conciseness, reliability and materiality: An Integrated Report cisen Organizational provides concise, reliable information that is material to assessing • information about how changes in the market environment overview and the organization’s ability to create and sustain value in the short, ess, impact strategy; ation business model medium and long term. • links between the different elements in the organization’s market relia rient analysis and its assessment and explanation of risk; and Senior management and those charged with governance must bility exercise judgement in: re o • how strategies link to key performance indicators (KPIs), key risk indicators (KRIs) and remuneration. • distinguishing between information that is material and and Futu should therefore be included in the Integrated Report, mate Importantly, an Integrated Report clearly presents the linkage and other information that may be relatively static or only between financial performance and the organization’s use of, relevant to some report users; conciseness is enhanced rialit Performance Governance and and impact on, the significant resources and relationships upon remuneration when the latter is included separately on the organization’s which it depends. y website or in other forms of communication; and Future orientation: An Integrated Report includes • deciding whether information is sufficiently reliable to be management’s expectations about the future, as well as other included in an Integrated Report. Responsiveness and stakeholder inclusiveness information to help report users understand and assess the While reliable information needs to be complete, neutral and organization’s prospects and the uncertainties it faces. free from error, it is recognized that this is seldom, if ever, Future orientation includes: achievable in every respect, so the objective is to maximize • how the organization balances short- and long-term these qualities to the extent practicable, for example, by ensuring Q7. Do the Guiding Principles identified in the Discussion Paper provide a sound foundation for preparing interests; that any negative issues are as faithfully reported as positive an Integrated Report – are they collectively appropriate; is each individually appropriate; and are there ones. Reliability also encompasses the need for information to be • where the organization expects it will go over time; other Guiding Principles that should be added? Why/why not? comparable between organizations and consistent for the same • how it plans to get there; and organization over time. Reliability is enhanced by mechanisms • what the critical enablers, challenges and barriers may be such as robust stakeholder engagement and independent, along the way. external assurance.12 www.theiirc.org Towards Integrated Reporting 13

×