SUBMITTED BY: JAIN GAURAV
SUBMITTED TO: PAYAL MA’M
ROLL NO.: 10
DATE: 16TH JUNE,2009.
INTRODUCTION OF PLANTS
Plants are living organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. They include
familiar organisms such as trees, herbs, bushes, grasses, vines, ferns,
mosses, and green algae. About 350,000 species of plants, defined as seed
plants, bryophytes, ferns and fern allies, are estimated to exist currently.
As of 2004, some 287,655 species had been identified, of which 258,650
are flowering and 18,000 bryophytes (see table below). Green plants,
sometimes called metaphytes or viridiplantae, obtain most of their energy
from sunlight via a process called photosynthesisDefinition
Aristotle divided all living things between plants (which generally do not
move), and animals (which often are mobile to catch their food). In Linnaeus'
system, these became the Kingdoms Vegetabilia (later Metaphyta or Plantae)
and Animalia (also called Metazoa). Since then, it has become clear that the
Plantae as originally defined included several unrelated groups, and the fungi
and several groups of algae were removed to new kingdoms. However, these
are still often considered plants in many contexts, both technical and
Informally, other creatures that carry out photosynthesis are called plants
as well, but they do not constitute a formal taxon and represent species that
are not closely related to true plants. There are around 375,000 species of
plants, and each year more are found and described by science.
Current definitions of "plant"
When the name Plantae or plants is applied to a specific taxon, it is usually
referring to one of three concepts. From smallest to largest in inclusiveness,
these three groupings are:
Land plants, also known as Embryophyta or Metaphyta. As the narrowest of
plant categories, this is further delineated below.
Green plants - also known as Viridiplantae, Viridiphyta or Chlorobionta -
comprise the above Embryophytes, Charophyta (i.e., primitive stoneworts),
and Chlorophyta (i.e., green algae such as sea lettuce). It is this clade which
is mainly the subject of this article.
Archaeplastida - also known as Plantae sensu lato, Plastida or Primoplantae -
comprises the green plants above, as well as Rhodophyta (red algae) and
Glaucophyta (simple glaucophyte algae). As the broadest plant clade, this
comprises most of the eukaryotes that eons ago acquired their chloroplasts
directly by engulfing cyanobacteria.
Outside of formal scientific contexts, the term "plant" implies an association
with certain traits, such as multicellularity, cellulose, and
photosynthesis.Many of the classification controversies involve organisms
that are rarely encountered and are of minimal apparent economic
significance, but are crucial in developing an understanding of the evolution
of modern flora.
Most of the solid material in a plant is taken from the atmosphere. Through
a process known as photosynthesis, plants use the energy in sunlight to
convert carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, plus water, into simple sugars.
These sugars are then used as building blocks and form the main structural
component of the plant. Chlorophyll, a green-colored, magnesium-containing
pigment is essential to this process; it is generally present in plant leaves,
and often in other plant parts as well.
Plants rely on soil primarily for support and water (in quantitative terms),
but also obtain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus, and other crucial
elemental nutrients. For the majority of plants to grow successfully they
also require oxygen in the atmosphere and around their roots for
respiration. However, some plants grow as submerged aquatics, using oxygen
dissolved in the surrounding water, and a few specialized vascular plants,
such as mangroves, can grow with their roots in anoxic conditions.
The Venus flytrap, a species of carnivorous plant.Numerous animals have
coevolved with plants. Many animals pollinate flowers in exchange for food in
the form of pollen or nectar. Many animals disperse seeds, often by eating
fruit and passing the seeds in their feces. Myrmecophytes are plants that
have coevolved with ants. The plant provides a home, and sometimes food,
for the ants. In exchange, the ants defend the plant from herbivores and
sometimes competing plants. Ant wastes provide organic fertilizer.
The majority of plant species have various kinds of fungi associated with
their root systems in a kind of mutualistic symbiosis known as mycorrhiza.
The fungi help the plants gain water and mineral nutrients from the soil,
while the plant gives the fungi carbohydrates manufactured in
photosynthesis. Some plants serve as homes for endophytic fungi that
protect the plant from herbivores by producing toxins. The fungal
endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum, in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea)
does tremendous economic damage to the cattle industry in the U.S.
Various forms of parasitism are also fairly common among plants, from the
semi-parasitic mistletoe that merely takes some nutrients from its host, but
still has photosynthetic leaves, to the fully parasitic broomrape and
toothwort that acquire all their nutrients through connections to the roots
of other plants, and so have no chlorophyll. Some plants, known as myco-
heterotrophs, parasitize mycorrhizal fungi, and hence act as epiparasites on
Many plants are epiphytes, meaning they grow on other plants, usually trees,
without parasitizing them. Epiphytes may indirectly harm their host plant by
intercepting mineral nutrients and light that the host would otherwise
receive. The weight of large numbers of epiphytes may break tree limbs.
Many orchids, bromeliads, ferns and mosses often grow as epiphytes.
Bromeliad epiphytes accumulate water in leaf axils to form phytotelmata,
complex aquatic food webs.
A few plants are carnivorous, such as the Venus flytrap and sundew. They
trap small animals and digest them to obtain mineral nutrients, especially
Scientific and cultural uses
Tree rings are an important method of dating in archeology and serve as a
record of past climates. Basic biological research has often been done with
plants, such as the pea plants used to derive Gregor Mendel's laws of
genetics. Space stations or space colonies may one day rely on plants for life
support. Plants are used as national and state emblems, including state trees
and state flowers. Ancient trees are revered and many are famous.
Numerous world records are held by plants. Plants are often used as
memorials, gifts and to mark special occasions such as births, deaths,
weddings and holidays. Plants figure prominently in mythology, religion and
literature. The field of ethnobotany studies plant use by indigenous cultures
which helps to conserve endangered species as well as discover new medicinal
plants. Gardening is the most popular leisure activity in the U.S. Working
with plants or horticulture therapy is beneficial for rehabilitating people
with disabilities. Certain plants contain psychotropic chemicals which are
extracted and ingested, including tobacco, cannabis (marijuana), and opium.
Other names : It is known as Holy Basil in English and Tulasi in Sanskrit.
Other names used for the Tulsi are Manjari, Krishna Tulsi, Trittavu, Tulshi
Description : Tulsi is a heavy branched having hair all over. It attains the
height of about 75 – 90 cm. It has round oval shaped leaves which are up to
5 cm long. The leaves are 2- 4 cm in length. Its seeds are flat. Its flowers
are purple – creamish in colour. The Tulsi with the green leaves is called the
Shri Tulsi and one with the reddish leaves is called the Krishna Tulsi. Its
seeds are yellow to reddish in colour. Leaves of Tulsi contains very essential
Other species : Ocimum canum (Ram tulsi or Kali Tulsi), Ocimum basilicum,
Ocimum Kilmand, Ocimum scharicum are the other related species of the
Tulsi (Ocimum Sanctum).
Location : Tulsi is widely grown in the Gir Wildlife Sanctuary and Sasangir
National Park in India. Tulsi grows wild in tropics and warm regions.
Cultivation methods : Tulsi seeds germinate easily. The seeds are mainly
sown in the spring season. They are watered from time to time and germinated
in one to two weeks. Tulsi prefers rich soil for its growth. It requires full
sunlight. It is mainly grown in the temperate climate.
Medicinal uses : Tulsi has got the great medicinal value. Tulsi is taken as the
herbal tea. The oil extracted from the Karpoora Tulsi is mostly used in the
herbal toiletry. Its oil is also used against the insects and bacteria. The
Rama Tulsi is the effective remedy for the Severe acute Respiratory
Syndrome. Juice of its leaves gives relief in cold, fever, bronchitis and
cough. Tulsi oil is also used as the ear drop. Tulsi helps in curing malaria. It si
very effective against indigestion, headache, hysteria, insomnia and cholera.
The fresh leaves of Tulsi are taken by the million of people everyday. For
over the centuries Tulsi (the queen of herbs) has been known for its
remarkable healing properties.
Other uses : Many people wears the Tulsi beads, which is said to have
certain physical and medicinal properties. Its wood is considered as more
powerful than any other gem that helps in protecting one from the negative
influences. One can also buy several handicraft jewellery items made of Tulsi
Cultural Importance : Tulsi is the sacred plant dearer to the Lord Vishnu.
Tulsi symbolises purity. It is considered as the holy plant in the Indian
Subcontinent. Tulsi got its name from Tulasi Devi, who was one of Lord
Krishna's eternal consorts. In India people grow Tulsi as the religious plant
and worship it. Its leaves are used in temples for the worship purposes and
also on the several occasions such as marriage. A Hindu house is considered
incomplete without the Tulsi plant in the courtyard. Tulsi is belived to
promote longevity and life long happiness. Hindus perform special Tulsi puja
in the Kartik month which starts after Sharad Poornima.
Classification Kingdom : Plantae
Order : Rosales
Family : Moraceae
Genus : Ficus
Species : F. religiosa
Scientific Name : Ficus religiosa
Found In : Ranthambore Wildlife Sanctuary
Other names : Bo tree, Bodhi tree, Sacred tree, Beepul tree, Pipers, Pimpal,
Jari, Arani,Ashvattha, Ragi, Bodhidruma, Shuchidruma, Pipalla, Ashvattha
and the Buddha tree are the other names used for the Banyan tree.
Description : Peepal is a large, fast growing deciduous tree. It has a heart
shaped leaves. It is a medium size tree and has a large crown with the
wonderful wide spreading branches. It shed its leaves in the month of March
and April. The fruits of the Peepal are hidden with the figs. The figs are
ripen in the month of May. The figs which contain the flowers grow in pairs
just below the leaves and look like the berries. Its bark is light gray and
peels in patches. Its fruit is purple in colour. It is one of the longest living
Other Species : Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam, Artocarpus incissus L.,
Artocarpus nobilis Thw. Are some of the other species of the Peepal tree.
Location : Peepal tree is grown throughout India. It is mainly grown in State
of Haryana, Bihar, Kerala and Madhya Pradesh. It is also found in the
Ranthambore National Park in India.
Cultivation : Peepal tree is easily propagated through the seeds or through
the cuttings. It can grow in any type of soil. Young peepal needs proper
nourishment. It requires full sunlight and proper watering.
Medicinal uses : This tree of life has also got the medicinal value. The juice
of its leaves extracted by holding them near the fire can be used as the ear
drop. Its power bark has been used to heal the wounds for years. The bark
of the tree is useful in inflammations and glandular swelling of the neck. Its
root bark is useful for stomatitis, clean ulcers, and promotes granulations.
Its roots are also good for gout. The roots are even chewed to prevent gum
diseases. Its fruit is laxative which promotes digestion and checks vomiting.
Its ripe fruits are good for the foul taste, thirst and heart diseases. The
powered fruit is taken for Asthma. Its seeds have proved useful in urinary
troubles. The leaves are used to treat constipation.
Other uses : People in India collect the Peepal leaves, clean them, dry them
and than paint them with the gold acrylic in order to preserve them for
years. From the bark of the Peepal tree reddish dye is extracted. Its leaves
are used to feed the camels and the elephants. When the leaves are dried
they are used for the decoration purpose.
Cultural importance : Peepal tree has the great importance in India
especially among the Buddhist who regard Peepal tree as the personification
of Buddha. Lord Buddha attained enlightenment mediating under the Peepal
tree. It is regarded as the sacred tree and the people uses its leaves for
the religious purposes. According to the Buddha – 'He who worships the
Peepal tree will receive the same reward as if he worshiped me in person'.
The Peepal tree has its own symbolic meaning of Enlightenment and peace.
Neem is a fast-growing tree that can reach a height of 15-20 m (about
50-65 feet), rarely to 35-40 m (115-131 feet). It is evergreen but in severe
drought it may shed most or nearly all of its leaves. The branches are wide
spread. The fairly dense crown is roundish or oval and may reach the
diameter of 15-20 m in old, free-standing specimens.
The trunk is relatively short, straight and may reach a diameter of 1.2 m
(about 4 feet). The bark is hard, fissured or scaly, and whitish-grey to
reddish-brown. The sapwood is greyish-white and the heartwood reddish
when first exposed to the air becoming reddish-brown after exposure. The
root system consists of a strong taproot and well-developed lateral roots.
The alternate, pinnate leaves are 20-40 cm (8 to 16 in.) long, with 20 to 31
medium to dark green leaflets about 3-8 cm (1 to 3 in.) long. The terminal
leaflet is often missing. The petioles are short. Very young leaves are
reddish to purplish in colour. The shape of mature leaflets is more or less
asymmetric and their margins are dentate with the exception of the base of
their basiscopal half, which is normally very strongly reduced and cuneate or
wedge-shaped. Razor Leaf.
leaves and flowers in Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
The (white and fragrant) flowers are arranged axillary, normally in more-or-
less drooping panicles which are up to 25 cm (10 in.)long. The inflorescences,
which branch up to the third degree, bear from 150 to 250 flowers. An
individual flower is 5-6 mm long and 8-11 mm wide. Protandrous, bisexual
flowers and male flowers exist on the same individual.
A Neem tree with Spring blossoms at Guntur, India
Animals under a Neem tree in a rural Punjabi homeThe fruit is a smooth
(glabrous) olive-like drupe which varies in shape from elongate oval to nearly
roundish, and when ripe are 1.4-2.8 x 1.0-1.5 cm. The fruit skin (exocarp) is
thin and the bitter-sweet pulp (mesocarp) is yellowish-white and very
fibrous. The mesocarp is 0.3-0.5 cm thick. The white, hard inner shell
(endocarp) of the fruit encloses one, rarely two or three, elongated seeds
(kernels) having a brown seed coat.
The neem tree is very similar in appearance to the Chinaberry, all parts of
which are extremely poisonous.
Neem flowers in closeup
The neem tree is noted for its drought resistance. Normally it thrives in
areas with sub-arid to sub-humid conditions, with an annual rainfall between
400 and 1200 mm. It can grow in regions with an annual rainfall below 400
mm, but in such cases it depends largely on ground water levels. Neem can
grow in many different types of soil, but it thrives best on well drained deep
and sandy soils . It is a typical tropical to subtropical tree and exists at
annual mean temperatures between 21-32 °C. It can tolerate high to very
high temperatures and does not tolerate temperature below 4 °C . Neem is a
life giving tree, especially for the dry coastal, southern districts. It is one
of the very few shade-giving trees that thrive in the drought prone areas.
The trees are not at all delicate about the water quality and thrive on the
merest trickle of water, whatever the quality. In Tamil Nadu it is very
common to see neem trees used for shade lining the streets or in most
people's back yards. In very dry areas like Sivakasi, the trees are planted in
large tracts of land, in whose shade fireworks factories function.
Neem is considered an invasive species in many areas where it is non-native.
The Pakistani scientist Salimuzzaman Siddiqui was the first scientist to
bring the plant to the attention of phytopharmacologists. In 1942, while
working at the Scientific and Industrial Research Laboratory at Delhi
University, he extracted three bitter compounds from neem oil, which he
named nimbin, nimbinin, and nimbidin respectively. The seeds contain a
complex secondary metabolite azadirachtin.
In India, the tree is variously known as "Divine Tree," "Heal All," "Nature's
Drugstore," "Village Pharmacy" and "Panacea for all diseases." Products made
from neem have proven medicinal properties, being anthelmintic, antifungal,
antidiabetic, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-fertility, and sedative. It is
considered a major component in Ayurvedic medicine and is particularly
prescribed for skin disease.
All parts of the tree (seeds, leaves, flowers and bark) are used for
preparing many different medical preparations.
Neem oil is used for preparing cosmetics (soap, shampoo, balms and creams),
and is useful for skin care such as acne treatment, and keeping skin
elasticity. Neem oil has been found to be an effective mosquito repellent.
Neem derivates neutralise nearly 500 pests worldwide, including insects,
mites, ticks, and nematodes, by affecting their behaviour and physiology.
Neem does not normally kill pests right away, rather it repels them and
affects their growth. As neem products are cheap and non-toxic to higher
animals and most beneficial insects, it is well-suited for pest control in rural
Besides its use in traditional Indian medicine the neem tree is of great
importance for its anti-desertification properties and possibly as a good
carbon dioxide sink.
Practitioners of traditional Indian medicine recommend that patients
suffering from chicken pox sleep on neem leaves.
Neem gum is used as a bulking agent and for the preparation of special
purpose food (those for diabetics).
Aqueous extracts of neem leaves have demonstrated significant antidiabetic
Traditionally, teeth cleaning was conducted by the chewing of slender neem
branches. Neem twigs are still collected and sold in markets for this use, and
one often sees youngsters in the streets chewing on neem twigs.
A decoction prepared from neem roots is ingested to relieve fever in
traditional Indian medicine.
Neem leaf paste is applied to the skin to treat acne.
Neem blossoms are used in Andhra Pradesh to prepare "Ugadi pacchadi.
Extract of neem leaves is thought to be helpful as malaria prophylaxis
despite the fact that no comprehensive clinical studies are yet available.
Private initiatives in Senegal were successful in several cases to prevent
malaria . However, major NGOs such as USAID are not supposed to use
neem tree extracts unless the medical benefit has been proved with clinical
Neem is a source of environment-friendly biopesticides. The unique feature
of neem products is that they do not directly kill the pests, but alter the
life-processing behavior in such a manner that the insect can no longer feed,
breed or undergo metamorphosis. However, this does not mean that the
plant extracts are harmful to all insects. Since, to be effective, the product
has to be ingested, only the insects that feed on plant tissues succumb.
Those that feed on nectar or other insects, such as butterflies, bees, and
ladybugs, hardly accumulate significant concentrations of neem products.
Uses in pest and disease control
Neem is deemed very effective in the treatment of scabies although only
preliminary scientific proof exists which still has to be corroborated, and is
recommended for those who are sensitive to permethrin, a known insecticide
which might be an irritant. Also, the scabies mite has yet to become
resistant to neem, so in persistent cases neem has been shown to be very
effective. There is also anecdotal evidence of its effectiveness in treating
infestations of head lice in humans. A tea made of boiled neem leaves,
sometimes combined with other herbs such as ginger, can be ingested to
fight intestinal worms.
The oil is also used in sprays against fleas in cats and dogs.
Neem and its association with Hindu festivals in India
The tender shoots and flowers of the neem tree are eaten as a vegetable in
India. Neem flowers are very popular for their use in Ugadi Pachadi (soup-
like pickle)which is made on Ugadi day in the South Indian States of Andhra
Pradesh and Karnataka. A souplike dish called Veppampoo Rasam (translated
as "juice of neem flower") made of the flower of neem is prepared in Tamil
Nadu. Leaf or bark is considered an effective pitta pacifier due to its bitter
taste. Hence, it is traditionally recommended during early summer in
Ayurveda (that is, month of Chaitra as per the Hindu Calendar which usually
falls in the month of March - April), and during Gudi Padva which is the New
Year in the state of Maharashtra, we find an ancient practice of drinking a
small quantity of neem juice or paste on that day before starting festivities.
Like many Hindu festivals and their association with some food to avoid
negative side-effects of that season or season change, neem juice is
associated with Gudi Padva to remind people of using it during that
particular month or season to pacify summer pitta.
Neem is also used in parts of mainland Southeast Asia, particularly in
Cambodia and Thailand (where it is known as sadao or sdao), Laos (where it is
called kadao) and Vietnam. Even lightly cooked, the flavour is quite bitter
and thus the food is not enjoyed by all inhabitants of these nations, though
it is believed to be good for one's health. Neem Gum is a rich source of
Ginger is a spice which is used for cooking and is also consumed whole as a delicacy or
medicine. It is the underground stem of the ginger plant, Zingiber officinale.
The ginger plant has a long history of cultivation, having originated in Asia and is grown
in India, Southeast Asia, West Africa and the Caribbean.Its actual name is Root Ginger.
However, it is commonly referred to as ginger, as the meaning is well known
The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger root is caused by a mixture of zingerone,
shogaols and gingerols, volatile oils that compose about one to three percent of the
weight of fresh ginger. In laboratory animals, the gingerols increase the motility of the
gastrointestinal tract and have analgesic, sedative, antipyretic and antibacterial properties.
Ginger sectionGinger contains up to three percent of a fragrant essential oil whose main
constituents are sesquiterpenoids, with (-)-zingiberene as the main component. Smaller
amounts of other sesquiterpenoids (β-sesquiphellandrene, bisabolene and farnesene) and
a small monoterpenoid fraction (β-phelladrene, cineol, and citral) have also been
The pungent taste of ginger is due to nonvolatile phenylpropanoid-derived compounds,
particularly gingerols and shogaols, which form from gingerols when ginger is dried or
cooked. Zingerone is also produced from gingerols during this process; this compound is
less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma.Ginger is also a minor chemical irritant, and
because of this was used as a horse suppository by pre-World War I mounted regiments
Ginger has a sialagogue action, stimulating the production of saliva, which makes
The medical form of ginger historically was called "Jamaica ginger"; it was classified as
a stimulant and carminative, and used frequently for dyspepsia and colic. It was also
frequently employed to disguise the taste of medicines. Ginger is on the FDA's 'generally
recognized as safe' list, though it does interact with some medications, including
warfarin. Ginger is contraindicated in people suffering from gallstones as the herb
promotes the release of bile from the gallbladder.Ginger may also decrease joint pain
from arthritis, though studies on this have been inconsistent, and may have blood
thinning and cholesterol lowering properties that may make it useful for treating heart
Ginger compounds are active against a form of diarrhea which is the leading cause of
infant death in developing countries. Zingerone is likely to be the active constituent
against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea.
Ginger has been found effective in multiple studies for treating nausea caused by
seasickness, morning sickness and chemotherapy,though ginger was not found superior
over a placebo for post-operative nausea.
ALOE VERA PLANT
Aloe barbedancis, also known as the Medicinal Aloe, is a species of succulent plant that
probably originated in Northern Africa, Madagascar and the Arabian Peninsula.
Aloe vera grows in arid climates and is widely distributed in Africa and other arid areas.
The species is frequently cited as being used in herbal medicine. There have been many
scientific studies of the use aloe vera, some of it conflicting. Despite these limitations,
there is some preliminary evidence that A. vera extracts may be useful in the treatment of
diabetes and elevated blood lipids in humans. These positive effects are thought to be due
to the presence of compounds such as polysaccharides, mannans, anthraquinones and
Spotted forms of A. vera are sometimes known as A. vera var. chinensis
A. vera is a stemless or very short-stemmed succulent plant growing to 60–100 cm (24–
39 in) tall, spreading by offsets. The stems are thick and fleshy, green to grey-green, with
some varieties showing white flecks on the upper and lower stem surfaces. The margin of
the stem is serrated and has small white teeth. The flowers are produced in summer on a
spike up to 90 cm (35 in) tall, each flower pendulous, with a yellow tubular corolla 2–
3 cm (0.8–1.2 in) long. Like other Aloe species, A. vera forms arbuscular mycorrhiza, a
symbiosis that allows the plant better access to mineral nutrients in soil
Uses - Juice and Gel
Aloe vera juice
The consumption of aloe vera juice has also been traditionally used internally for healing
and soothing of digestive conditions such as heartburn and irritable bowel syndrome.
Relatively few clinical studies have been done on the effectiveness of Aloe Vera,
therefore more research is needed. "aloe for heartburn".
Aloe vera has a long association with herbal medicine, although it is not known when its
medical applications were first discovered. Early records of A. vera use appear in the
Ebers Papyrus from 16th century BCE, in both Dioscorides' De Materia Medica and
Pliny the Elder's Natural History written in the mid-first century CEalong with the
Juliana Anicia Codex produced in 512 CE. A. vera is non-toxic, with no known side
effects, provided the aloin has been removed by processing. Taking A. vera that contains
aloin in excess amounts has been associated with various side effects. However, the
species is used widely in the traditional herbal medicine of China, Japan, Russia, South
Africa, The United States,Jamaica and India.
A. vera yogurt
Aloe vera is alleged to be effective in treatment of wounds. Evidence on the effects of A.
vera sap on wound healing, however, is limited and contradictory. Some studies, for
example, show that A. vera promotes the rates of healing,while in contrast, other studies
show that wounds to which Aloe vera gel was applied were significantly slower to heal.
A more recent review (2007) concludes that the cumulative evidence supports the use of
Aloe vera for the healing of first to second degree burns. In addition to topical use in
wound or burn healing, internal intake of A. vera has been linked with improved blood
glucose levels in diabetics, and with lower blood lipids in hyperlipidaemic patients. In
other diseases, preliminary studies have suggested oral A. vera gel may reduce symptoms
and inflammation in patients with ulcerative colitis. Compounds extracted from A. vera
have been used as an immunostimulant that aids in fighting cancers in cats and dogs;
however, this treatment has not been scientifically tested in humans. The injection of A.
vera extracts to treat cancer has resulted in the deaths of several patients.
Topical application of Aloe vera may be effective for genital herpes and psoriasis.
However, it is not effective for the prevention of radiation-induced injuries, nor does it
offer protection from sunburn or suntan. In a double-blind clinical trial the group using an
Aloe vera containing dentifrice and the group using a fluoridated dentifrice both
demonstrated a statistically significant reduction of gingivitis and plaque.
A. vera extracts have antibacterial and antifungal activities. A. vera extracts have been
shown to inhibit the growth of fungi that cause tinea, however, evidence for control
beneath human skin remains to be established. For bacteria, inner-leaf gel from A. vera
was shown to inhibit growth of Streptococcus and Shigella species in vitro. In contrast,
A. vera extracts failed to show antibiotic properties against Xanthomonas specie
Kingdom : Plantae
Order : Rosales
Family : Rosaceae
Subfamily : Rosoideae
Genus : Rosa l
Found In : Valley of Flowers and Mahim National Park
Other names : Dublin Bay, Impatient, Quing, Gul, Gulbahar, Hravart,
Roosevelt, Vartan, Arrosa, Aygul, Oklahoma Hulthemosa, Hesperrhodos,
Platyrhodon, Banksianae, Carolinae, Pimpinellifoliae , Rosa, Laevigatae,
Gymnocarpae are some of the other names of the Rose plant..
Description : There are several varieties of the Indian Roses which includes
white rose, pink rose, maroon rose, red rose, yellow rose and orange rose. It
has thorn on its stems. The cane has leaves and budeyes. A leaf consists of
stipule, petiole, and leaflets. The leaves are -15 cm long. The leaflets usually
have the segrrated margins and few small prickles on the underside of the
stem. Most of the roses are deciduous. The flower has five petals.
Other Species : Rosa acicularis, Rosa x alba, Rosa pendulina, Rosa
anemoniflora, Rosa arkansana, Rosa arvensis, Rosa nutkana, Rosa gigantea,
Rosa omeiensis, Rosa oxyacantha, Rosa palutris, Rosa nutkana, Rosa gigantea,
Rosa sharardii, Rosa oxyacantha, Rosa palustris Re some of the related
species of Rose. There are more than 120 species of Roses pant.
Location : Roses are found inn almost all the parts of India. They are widely
grown in the Valley of Flowers and Mahim Nature Park
Cultivation methods : Rose plants are propagated by the seeds, cuttings,
layers and by budding. Roses require loamy, well drained soil. Budding is
considered as the best method for propagating rose plants. They are planted
in the circular pits about 60- 90 cm across and 60 -75 cm deep. Remove all
the broken and bruised leaves while planting the plant. Roses require atleast
six hours of direct sunlight for the growth. The best time to plant the Rose
plants rests between September to October. The rose plant needs cutting
from time to time. It requires manures and fertilizers at the time of
Medicinal uses : Gulkand made by the mixture of Rose petals and white
sugar in equal proportion acts as the tonic and laxative. Hips, the fruit of
roses are the good source of Vitamin C. Rose petals are used to make skin
healthy and glowing. It cures dry and patchy skin. The rose scent has been
used in pill making for centuries. Its herbal tea is used in the treatment of
cold and cough.
Other uses : Dried Rose petals called Pankhuri are used during the hot
weather for preparing cool drinks. Roses are also used in the preparation of
rose water and rose vinegar. Rose hips are sometime eaten. They are used
for making herbal tea, jam and jellies. Rose plantss are generally used for
beautifying the gardens and walkways. Rose petals are used in cooking, which
increases its flavour and make it even more delicious. Relaxing therapies
with rose smells are used in candles, lotion, bath oils and perfumes.