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Environmental project f

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION OF PLANTS Plants are living organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. They include familiar organisms such as trees, herbs, bushes, grasses, vines, ferns, mosses, and green algae. About 350,000 species of plants, defined as seed plants, bryophytes, ferns and fern allies, are estimated to exist currently. As of 2004, some 287,655 species had been identified, of which 258,650 are flowering and 18,000 bryophytes (see table below). Green plants, sometimes called metaphytes or viridiplantae, obtain most of their energy from sunlight via a process called photosynthesisDefinition Aristotle divided all living things between plants (which generally do not move), and animals (which often are mobile to catch their food). In Linnaeus' system, these became the Kingdoms Vegetabilia (later Metaphyta or Plantae) and Animalia (also called Metazoa). Since then, it has become clear that the Plantae as originally defined included several unrelated groups, and the fungi and several groups of algae were removed to new kingdoms. However, these are still often considered plants in many contexts, both technical and popular. Informally, other creatures that carry out photosynthesis are called plants as well, but they do not constitute a formal taxon and represent species that are not closely related to true plants. There are around 375,000 species of plants, and each year more are found and described by science. Current definitions of "plant" When the name Plantae or plants is applied to a specific taxon, it is usually referring to one of three concepts. From smallest to largest in inclusiveness, these three groupings are: Land plants, also known as Embryophyta or Metaphyta. As the narrowest of plant categories, this is further delineated below. Green plants - also known as Viridiplantae, Viridiphyta or Chlorobionta - comprise the above Embryophytes, Charophyta (i.e., primitive stoneworts), and Chlorophyta (i.e., green algae such as sea lettuce). It is this clade which is mainly the subject of this article.
  3. 3. Archaeplastida - also known as Plantae sensu lato, Plastida or Primoplantae - comprises the green plants above, as well as Rhodophyta (red algae) and Glaucophyta (simple glaucophyte algae). As the broadest plant clade, this comprises most of the eukaryotes that eons ago acquired their chloroplasts directly by engulfing cyanobacteria. Outside of formal scientific contexts, the term "plant" implies an association with certain traits, such as multicellularity, cellulose, and photosynthesis.Many of the classification controversies involve organisms that are rarely encountered and are of minimal apparent economic significance, but are crucial in developing an understanding of the evolution of modern flora. Growth Most of the solid material in a plant is taken from the atmosphere. Through a process known as photosynthesis, plants use the energy in sunlight to convert carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, plus water, into simple sugars. These sugars are then used as building blocks and form the main structural component of the plant. Chlorophyll, a green-colored, magnesium-containing pigment is essential to this process; it is generally present in plant leaves, and often in other plant parts as well. Plants rely on soil primarily for support and water (in quantitative terms), but also obtain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus, and other crucial elemental nutrients. For the majority of plants to grow successfully they also require oxygen in the atmosphere and around their roots for respiration. However, some plants grow as submerged aquatics, using oxygen dissolved in the surrounding water, and a few specialized vascular plants, such as mangroves, can grow with their roots in anoxic conditions. Ecological relationships The Venus flytrap, a species of carnivorous plant.Numerous animals have coevolved with plants. Many animals pollinate flowers in exchange for food in the form of pollen or nectar. Many animals disperse seeds, often by eating fruit and passing the seeds in their feces. Myrmecophytes are plants that have coevolved with ants. The plant provides a home, and sometimes food, for the ants. In exchange, the ants defend the plant from herbivores and sometimes competing plants. Ant wastes provide organic fertilizer.
  4. 4. The majority of plant species have various kinds of fungi associated with their root systems in a kind of mutualistic symbiosis known as mycorrhiza. The fungi help the plants gain water and mineral nutrients from the soil, while the plant gives the fungi carbohydrates manufactured in photosynthesis. Some plants serve as homes for endophytic fungi that protect the plant from herbivores by producing toxins. The fungal endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum, in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) does tremendous economic damage to the cattle industry in the U.S. Various forms of parasitism are also fairly common among plants, from the semi-parasitic mistletoe that merely takes some nutrients from its host, but still has photosynthetic leaves, to the fully parasitic broomrape and toothwort that acquire all their nutrients through connections to the roots of other plants, and so have no chlorophyll. Some plants, known as myco- heterotrophs, parasitize mycorrhizal fungi, and hence act as epiparasites on other plants. Many plants are epiphytes, meaning they grow on other plants, usually trees, without parasitizing them. Epiphytes may indirectly harm their host plant by intercepting mineral nutrients and light that the host would otherwise receive. The weight of large numbers of epiphytes may break tree limbs. Many orchids, bromeliads, ferns and mosses often grow as epiphytes. Bromeliad epiphytes accumulate water in leaf axils to form phytotelmata, complex aquatic food webs. A few plants are carnivorous, such as the Venus flytrap and sundew. They trap small animals and digest them to obtain mineral nutrients, especially nitrogen Scientific and cultural uses Tree rings are an important method of dating in archeology and serve as a record of past climates. Basic biological research has often been done with plants, such as the pea plants used to derive Gregor Mendel's laws of genetics. Space stations or space colonies may one day rely on plants for life support. Plants are used as national and state emblems, including state trees and state flowers. Ancient trees are revered and many are famous. Numerous world records are held by plants. Plants are often used as
  5. 5. memorials, gifts and to mark special occasions such as births, deaths, weddings and holidays. Plants figure prominently in mythology, religion and literature. The field of ethnobotany studies plant use by indigenous cultures which helps to conserve endangered species as well as discover new medicinal plants. Gardening is the most popular leisure activity in the U.S. Working with plants or horticulture therapy is beneficial for rehabilitating people with disabilities. Certain plants contain psychotropic chemicals which are extracted and ingested, including tobacco, cannabis (marijuana), and opium.
  6. 6. TULSI PLANT Other names : It is known as Holy Basil in English and Tulasi in Sanskrit. Other names used for the Tulsi are Manjari, Krishna Tulsi, Trittavu, Tulshi and Thulsi. Description : Tulsi is a heavy branched having hair all over. It attains the height of about 75 – 90 cm. It has round oval shaped leaves which are up to 5 cm long. The leaves are 2- 4 cm in length. Its seeds are flat. Its flowers are purple – creamish in colour. The Tulsi with the green leaves is called the Shri Tulsi and one with the reddish leaves is called the Krishna Tulsi. Its seeds are yellow to reddish in colour. Leaves of Tulsi contains very essential oil. Other species : Ocimum canum (Ram tulsi or Kali Tulsi), Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum Kilmand, Ocimum scharicum are the other related species of the Tulsi (Ocimum Sanctum). Location : Tulsi is widely grown in the Gir Wildlife Sanctuary and Sasangir National Park in India. Tulsi grows wild in tropics and warm regions. Cultivation methods : Tulsi seeds germinate easily. The seeds are mainly sown in the spring season. They are watered from time to time and germinated in one to two weeks. Tulsi prefers rich soil for its growth. It requires full sunlight. It is mainly grown in the temperate climate. Medicinal uses : Tulsi has got the great medicinal value. Tulsi is taken as the herbal tea. The oil extracted from the Karpoora Tulsi is mostly used in the herbal toiletry. Its oil is also used against the insects and bacteria. The Rama Tulsi is the effective remedy for the Severe acute Respiratory Syndrome. Juice of its leaves gives relief in cold, fever, bronchitis and cough. Tulsi oil is also used as the ear drop. Tulsi helps in curing malaria. It si
  7. 7. very effective against indigestion, headache, hysteria, insomnia and cholera. The fresh leaves of Tulsi are taken by the million of people everyday. For over the centuries Tulsi (the queen of herbs) has been known for its remarkable healing properties. Other uses : Many people wears the Tulsi beads, which is said to have certain physical and medicinal properties. Its wood is considered as more powerful than any other gem that helps in protecting one from the negative influences. One can also buy several handicraft jewellery items made of Tulsi wood. Cultural Importance : Tulsi is the sacred plant dearer to the Lord Vishnu. Tulsi symbolises purity. It is considered as the holy plant in the Indian Subcontinent. Tulsi got its name from Tulasi Devi, who was one of Lord Krishna's eternal consorts. In India people grow Tulsi as the religious plant and worship it. Its leaves are used in temples for the worship purposes and also on the several occasions such as marriage. A Hindu house is considered incomplete without the Tulsi plant in the courtyard. Tulsi is belived to promote longevity and life long happiness. Hindus perform special Tulsi puja in the Kartik month which starts after Sharad Poornima.
  8. 8. PEEPAL TREE Classification Kingdom : Plantae Division Magnoliophyta Class: Magnoliopsida Order : Rosales Family : Moraceae Genus : Ficus Species : F. religiosa Scientific Name : Ficus religiosa Found In : Ranthambore Wildlife Sanctuary Other names : Bo tree, Bodhi tree, Sacred tree, Beepul tree, Pipers, Pimpal, Jari, Arani,Ashvattha, Ragi, Bodhidruma, Shuchidruma, Pipalla, Ashvattha and the Buddha tree are the other names used for the Banyan tree. Description : Peepal is a large, fast growing deciduous tree. It has a heart shaped leaves. It is a medium size tree and has a large crown with the wonderful wide spreading branches. It shed its leaves in the month of March and April. The fruits of the Peepal are hidden with the figs. The figs are ripen in the month of May. The figs which contain the flowers grow in pairs just below the leaves and look like the berries. Its bark is light gray and peels in patches. Its fruit is purple in colour. It is one of the longest living trees. Other Species : Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam, Artocarpus incissus L., Artocarpus nobilis Thw. Are some of the other species of the Peepal tree. Location : Peepal tree is grown throughout India. It is mainly grown in State of Haryana, Bihar, Kerala and Madhya Pradesh. It is also found in the Ranthambore National Park in India. Cultivation : Peepal tree is easily propagated through the seeds or through the cuttings. It can grow in any type of soil. Young peepal needs proper nourishment. It requires full sunlight and proper watering.
  9. 9. Medicinal uses : This tree of life has also got the medicinal value. The juice of its leaves extracted by holding them near the fire can be used as the ear drop. Its power bark has been used to heal the wounds for years. The bark of the tree is useful in inflammations and glandular swelling of the neck. Its root bark is useful for stomatitis, clean ulcers, and promotes granulations. Its roots are also good for gout. The roots are even chewed to prevent gum diseases. Its fruit is laxative which promotes digestion and checks vomiting. Its ripe fruits are good for the foul taste, thirst and heart diseases. The powered fruit is taken for Asthma. Its seeds have proved useful in urinary troubles. The leaves are used to treat constipation. Other uses : People in India collect the Peepal leaves, clean them, dry them and than paint them with the gold acrylic in order to preserve them for years. From the bark of the Peepal tree reddish dye is extracted. Its leaves are used to feed the camels and the elephants. When the leaves are dried they are used for the decoration purpose. Cultural importance : Peepal tree has the great importance in India especially among the Buddhist who regard Peepal tree as the personification of Buddha. Lord Buddha attained enlightenment mediating under the Peepal tree. It is regarded as the sacred tree and the people uses its leaves for the religious purposes. According to the Buddha – 'He who worships the Peepal tree will receive the same reward as if he worshiped me in person'. The Peepal tree has its own symbolic meaning of Enlightenment and peace.
  10. 10. NEEM TREE Description Neem is a fast-growing tree that can reach a height of 15-20 m (about 50-65 feet), rarely to 35-40 m (115-131 feet). It is evergreen but in severe drought it may shed most or nearly all of its leaves. The branches are wide spread. The fairly dense crown is roundish or oval and may reach the diameter of 15-20 m in old, free-standing specimens. Trunk The trunk is relatively short, straight and may reach a diameter of 1.2 m (about 4 feet). The bark is hard, fissured or scaly, and whitish-grey to reddish-brown. The sapwood is greyish-white and the heartwood reddish when first exposed to the air becoming reddish-brown after exposure. The root system consists of a strong taproot and well-developed lateral roots. Leaves The alternate, pinnate leaves are 20-40 cm (8 to 16 in.) long, with 20 to 31 medium to dark green leaflets about 3-8 cm (1 to 3 in.) long. The terminal leaflet is often missing. The petioles are short. Very young leaves are reddish to purplish in colour. The shape of mature leaflets is more or less asymmetric and their margins are dentate with the exception of the base of their basiscopal half, which is normally very strongly reduced and cuneate or wedge-shaped. Razor Leaf. leaves and flowers in Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Flowers The (white and fragrant) flowers are arranged axillary, normally in more-or- less drooping panicles which are up to 25 cm (10 in.)long. The inflorescences, which branch up to the third degree, bear from 150 to 250 flowers. An individual flower is 5-6 mm long and 8-11 mm wide. Protandrous, bisexual flowers and male flowers exist on the same individual.
  11. 11. A Neem tree with Spring blossoms at Guntur, India Fruit Animals under a Neem tree in a rural Punjabi homeThe fruit is a smooth (glabrous) olive-like drupe which varies in shape from elongate oval to nearly roundish, and when ripe are 1.4-2.8 x 1.0-1.5 cm. The fruit skin (exocarp) is thin and the bitter-sweet pulp (mesocarp) is yellowish-white and very fibrous. The mesocarp is 0.3-0.5 cm thick. The white, hard inner shell (endocarp) of the fruit encloses one, rarely two or three, elongated seeds (kernels) having a brown seed coat. The neem tree is very similar in appearance to the Chinaberry, all parts of which are extremely poisonous. Neem flowers in closeup Ecology The neem tree is noted for its drought resistance. Normally it thrives in areas with sub-arid to sub-humid conditions, with an annual rainfall between 400 and 1200 mm. It can grow in regions with an annual rainfall below 400 mm, but in such cases it depends largely on ground water levels. Neem can grow in many different types of soil, but it thrives best on well drained deep and sandy soils . It is a typical tropical to subtropical tree and exists at annual mean temperatures between 21-32 °C. It can tolerate high to very high temperatures and does not tolerate temperature below 4 °C . Neem is a life giving tree, especially for the dry coastal, southern districts. It is one of the very few shade-giving trees that thrive in the drought prone areas. The trees are not at all delicate about the water quality and thrive on the merest trickle of water, whatever the quality. In Tamil Nadu it is very common to see neem trees used for shade lining the streets or in most people's back yards. In very dry areas like Sivakasi, the trees are planted in large tracts of land, in whose shade fireworks factories function.
  12. 12. Invasiveness Neem is considered an invasive species in many areas where it is non-native. Chemical compounds The Pakistani scientist Salimuzzaman Siddiqui was the first scientist to bring the plant to the attention of phytopharmacologists. In 1942, while working at the Scientific and Industrial Research Laboratory at Delhi University, he extracted three bitter compounds from neem oil, which he named nimbin, nimbinin, and nimbidin respectively.[1] The seeds contain a complex secondary metabolite azadirachtin. Uses In India, the tree is variously known as "Divine Tree," "Heal All," "Nature's Drugstore," "Village Pharmacy" and "Panacea for all diseases." Products made from neem have proven medicinal properties, being anthelmintic, antifungal, antidiabetic, antibacterial, antiviral, anti-fertility, and sedative. It is considered a major component in Ayurvedic medicine and is particularly prescribed for skin disease. All parts of the tree (seeds, leaves, flowers and bark) are used for preparing many different medical preparations. Neem oil is used for preparing cosmetics (soap, shampoo, balms and creams), and is useful for skin care such as acne treatment, and keeping skin elasticity. Neem oil has been found to be an effective mosquito repellent. Neem derivates neutralise nearly 500 pests worldwide, including insects, mites, ticks, and nematodes, by affecting their behaviour and physiology. Neem does not normally kill pests right away, rather it repels them and affects their growth. As neem products are cheap and non-toxic to higher animals and most beneficial insects, it is well-suited for pest control in rural areas. Besides its use in traditional Indian medicine the neem tree is of great importance for its anti-desertification properties and possibly as a good carbon dioxide sink. Practitioners of traditional Indian medicine recommend that patients suffering from chicken pox sleep on neem leaves. Neem gum is used as a bulking agent and for the preparation of special purpose food (those for diabetics).
  13. 13. Aqueous extracts of neem leaves have demonstrated significant antidiabetic potential. Traditionally, teeth cleaning was conducted by the chewing of slender neem branches. Neem twigs are still collected and sold in markets for this use, and one often sees youngsters in the streets chewing on neem twigs. A decoction prepared from neem roots is ingested to relieve fever in traditional Indian medicine. Neem leaf paste is applied to the skin to treat acne. Neem blossoms are used in Andhra Pradesh to prepare "Ugadi pacchadi. Extract of neem leaves is thought to be helpful as malaria prophylaxis despite the fact that no comprehensive clinical studies are yet available. Private initiatives in Senegal were successful in several cases to prevent malaria [2]. However, major NGOs such as USAID are not supposed to use neem tree extracts unless the medical benefit has been proved with clinical studies. Entomological usages Neem is a source of environment-friendly biopesticides. The unique feature of neem products is that they do not directly kill the pests, but alter the life-processing behavior in such a manner that the insect can no longer feed, breed or undergo metamorphosis. However, this does not mean that the plant extracts are harmful to all insects. Since, to be effective, the product has to be ingested, only the insects that feed on plant tissues succumb. Those that feed on nectar or other insects, such as butterflies, bees, and ladybugs, hardly accumulate significant concentrations of neem products. Uses in pest and disease control Neem is deemed very effective in the treatment of scabies although only preliminary scientific proof exists which still has to be corroborated, and is recommended for those who are sensitive to permethrin, a known insecticide which might be an irritant. Also, the scabies mite has yet to become resistant to neem, so in persistent cases neem has been shown to be very effective. There is also anecdotal evidence of its effectiveness in treating infestations of head lice in humans. A tea made of boiled neem leaves, sometimes combined with other herbs such as ginger, can be ingested to fight intestinal worms.
  14. 14. The oil is also used in sprays against fleas in cats and dogs. Neem and its association with Hindu festivals in India The tender shoots and flowers of the neem tree are eaten as a vegetable in India. Neem flowers are very popular for their use in Ugadi Pachadi (soup- like pickle)which is made on Ugadi day in the South Indian States of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. A souplike dish called Veppampoo Rasam (translated as "juice of neem flower") made of the flower of neem is prepared in Tamil Nadu. Leaf or bark is considered an effective pitta pacifier due to its bitter taste. Hence, it is traditionally recommended during early summer in Ayurveda (that is, month of Chaitra as per the Hindu Calendar which usually falls in the month of March - April), and during Gudi Padva which is the New Year in the state of Maharashtra, we find an ancient practice of drinking a small quantity of neem juice or paste on that day before starting festivities. Like many Hindu festivals and their association with some food to avoid negative side-effects of that season or season change, neem juice is associated with Gudi Padva to remind people of using it during that particular month or season to pacify summer pitta. Neem is also used in parts of mainland Southeast Asia, particularly in Cambodia and Thailand (where it is known as sadao or sdao), Laos (where it is called kadao) and Vietnam. Even lightly cooked, the flavour is quite bitter and thus the food is not enjoyed by all inhabitants of these nations, though it is believed to be good for one's health. Neem Gum is a rich source of protein.
  15. 15. GINGER PLANT Ginger is a spice which is used for cooking and is also consumed whole as a delicacy or medicine. It is the underground stem of the ginger plant, Zingiber officinale. The ginger plant has a long history of cultivation, having originated in Asia and is grown in India, Southeast Asia, West Africa and the Caribbean.Its actual name is Root Ginger. However, it is commonly referred to as ginger, as the meaning is well known Chemistry The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger root is caused by a mixture of zingerone, shogaols and gingerols, volatile oils that compose about one to three percent of the weight of fresh ginger. In laboratory animals, the gingerols increase the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and have analgesic, sedative, antipyretic and antibacterial properties. Ginger sectionGinger contains up to three percent of a fragrant essential oil whose main constituents are sesquiterpenoids, with (-)-zingiberene as the main component. Smaller amounts of other sesquiterpenoids (β-sesquiphellandrene, bisabolene and farnesene) and a small monoterpenoid fraction (β-phelladrene, cineol, and citral) have also been identified. The pungent taste of ginger is due to nonvolatile phenylpropanoid-derived compounds, particularly gingerols and shogaols, which form from gingerols when ginger is dried or cooked. Zingerone is also produced from gingerols during this process; this compound is less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma.Ginger is also a minor chemical irritant, and because of this was used as a horse suppository by pre-World War I mounted regiments for feaguing. Ginger has a sialagogue action, stimulating the production of saliva, which makes swallowing easier Medicinal uses The medical form of ginger historically was called "Jamaica ginger"; it was classified as a stimulant and carminative, and used frequently for dyspepsia and colic. It was also frequently employed to disguise the taste of medicines. Ginger is on the FDA's 'generally recognized as safe' list, though it does interact with some medications, including warfarin. Ginger is contraindicated in people suffering from gallstones as the herb promotes the release of bile from the gallbladder.Ginger may also decrease joint pain from arthritis, though studies on this have been inconsistent, and may have blood thinning and cholesterol lowering properties that may make it useful for treating heart disease.
  16. 16. Diarrhea Ginger compounds are active against a form of diarrhea which is the leading cause of infant death in developing countries. Zingerone is likely to be the active constituent against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea.[7] Nausea Ginger has been found effective in multiple studies for treating nausea caused by seasickness, morning sickness and chemotherapy,though ginger was not found superior over a placebo for post-operative nausea.
  17. 17. ALOE VERA PLANT Aloe barbedancis, also known as the Medicinal Aloe, is a species of succulent plant that probably originated in Northern Africa, Madagascar and the Arabian Peninsula. Aloe vera grows in arid climates and is widely distributed in Africa and other arid areas. The species is frequently cited as being used in herbal medicine. There have been many scientific studies of the use aloe vera, some of it conflicting. Despite these limitations, there is some preliminary evidence that A. vera extracts may be useful in the treatment of diabetes and elevated blood lipids in humans. These positive effects are thought to be due to the presence of compounds such as polysaccharides, mannans, anthraquinones and lectins Description Spotted forms of A. vera are sometimes known as A. vera var. chinensis A. vera is a stemless or very short-stemmed succulent plant growing to 60–100 cm (24– 39 in) tall, spreading by offsets. The stems are thick and fleshy, green to grey-green, with some varieties showing white flecks on the upper and lower stem surfaces. The margin of the stem is serrated and has small white teeth. The flowers are produced in summer on a spike up to 90 cm (35 in) tall, each flower pendulous, with a yellow tubular corolla 2– 3 cm (0.8–1.2 in) long. Like other Aloe species, A. vera forms arbuscular mycorrhiza, a symbiosis that allows the plant better access to mineral nutrients in soil Uses - Juice and Gel Aloe vera juice The consumption of aloe vera juice has also been traditionally used internally for healing and soothing of digestive conditions such as heartburn and irritable bowel syndrome. Relatively few clinical studies have been done on the effectiveness of Aloe Vera, therefore more research is needed. "aloe for heartburn".
  18. 18. Medicine Aloe vera has a long association with herbal medicine, although it is not known when its medical applications were first discovered. Early records of A. vera use appear in the Ebers Papyrus from 16th century BCE, in both Dioscorides' De Materia Medica and Pliny the Elder's Natural History written in the mid-first century CEalong with the Juliana Anicia Codex produced in 512 CE. A. vera is non-toxic, with no known side effects, provided the aloin has been removed by processing. Taking A. vera that contains aloin in excess amounts has been associated with various side effects. However, the species is used widely in the traditional herbal medicine of China, Japan, Russia, South Africa, The United States,Jamaica and India. A. vera yogurt Aloe vera is alleged to be effective in treatment of wounds. Evidence on the effects of A. vera sap on wound healing, however, is limited and contradictory. Some studies, for example, show that A. vera promotes the rates of healing,while in contrast, other studies show that wounds to which Aloe vera gel was applied were significantly slower to heal. A more recent review (2007) concludes that the cumulative evidence supports the use of Aloe vera for the healing of first to second degree burns. In addition to topical use in wound or burn healing, internal intake of A. vera has been linked with improved blood glucose levels in diabetics, and with lower blood lipids in hyperlipidaemic patients. In other diseases, preliminary studies have suggested oral A. vera gel may reduce symptoms and inflammation in patients with ulcerative colitis. Compounds extracted from A. vera have been used as an immunostimulant that aids in fighting cancers in cats and dogs; however, this treatment has not been scientifically tested in humans. The injection of A. vera extracts to treat cancer has resulted in the deaths of several patients. Topical application of Aloe vera may be effective for genital herpes and psoriasis. However, it is not effective for the prevention of radiation-induced injuries, nor does it offer protection from sunburn or suntan. In a double-blind clinical trial the group using an Aloe vera containing dentifrice and the group using a fluoridated dentifrice both demonstrated a statistically significant reduction of gingivitis and plaque. A. vera extracts have antibacterial and antifungal activities. A. vera extracts have been shown to inhibit the growth of fungi that cause tinea, however, evidence for control beneath human skin remains to be established. For bacteria, inner-leaf gel from A. vera was shown to inhibit growth of Streptococcus and Shigella species in vitro. In contrast, A. vera extracts failed to show antibiotic properties against Xanthomonas specie
  19. 19. ROSE PLANT Classification Kingdom : Plantae Division Magnoliophyta Class: Magnoliopsida Order : Rosales Family : Rosaceae Subfamily : Rosoideae Genus : Rosa l Found In : Valley of Flowers and Mahim National Park Other names : Dublin Bay, Impatient, Quing, Gul, Gulbahar, Hravart, Roosevelt, Vartan, Arrosa, Aygul, Oklahoma Hulthemosa, Hesperrhodos, Platyrhodon, Banksianae, Carolinae, Pimpinellifoliae , Rosa, Laevigatae, Gymnocarpae are some of the other names of the Rose plant.. Description : There are several varieties of the Indian Roses which includes white rose, pink rose, maroon rose, red rose, yellow rose and orange rose. It has thorn on its stems. The cane has leaves and budeyes. A leaf consists of stipule, petiole, and leaflets. The leaves are -15 cm long. The leaflets usually have the segrrated margins and few small prickles on the underside of the stem. Most of the roses are deciduous. The flower has five petals. Other Species : Rosa acicularis, Rosa x alba, Rosa pendulina, Rosa anemoniflora, Rosa arkansana, Rosa arvensis, Rosa nutkana, Rosa gigantea, Rosa omeiensis, Rosa oxyacantha, Rosa palutris, Rosa nutkana, Rosa gigantea, Rosa sharardii, Rosa oxyacantha, Rosa palustris Re some of the related species of Rose. There are more than 120 species of Roses pant. Location : Roses are found inn almost all the parts of India. They are widely grown in the Valley of Flowers and Mahim Nature Park
  20. 20. Cultivation methods : Rose plants are propagated by the seeds, cuttings, layers and by budding. Roses require loamy, well drained soil. Budding is considered as the best method for propagating rose plants. They are planted in the circular pits about 60- 90 cm across and 60 -75 cm deep. Remove all the broken and bruised leaves while planting the plant. Roses require atleast six hours of direct sunlight for the growth. The best time to plant the Rose plants rests between September to October. The rose plant needs cutting from time to time. It requires manures and fertilizers at the time of planting. Medicinal uses : Gulkand made by the mixture of Rose petals and white sugar in equal proportion acts as the tonic and laxative. Hips, the fruit of roses are the good source of Vitamin C. Rose petals are used to make skin healthy and glowing. It cures dry and patchy skin. The rose scent has been used in pill making for centuries. Its herbal tea is used in the treatment of cold and cough. Other uses : Dried Rose petals called Pankhuri are used during the hot weather for preparing cool drinks. Roses are also used in the preparation of rose water and rose vinegar. Rose hips are sometime eaten. They are used for making herbal tea, jam and jellies. Rose plantss are generally used for beautifying the gardens and walkways. Rose petals are used in cooking, which increases its flavour and make it even more delicious. Relaxing therapies with rose smells are used in candles, lotion, bath oils and perfumes.