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Developing ASP.NET Applications Using the Model View Controller Pattern
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Developing ASP.NET Applications Using the Model View Controller Pattern

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Learn how to use the model-view-controller (MVC) pattern to take advantage of your favorite .NET Framework language for writing business logic in a way that is de-coupled from the views of the data.

Learn how to use the model-view-controller (MVC) pattern to take advantage of your favorite .NET Framework language for writing business logic in a way that is de-coupled from the views of the data.

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  • 1. MVC
  • 2. A new Web Project Type for ASP.NET. An option. More control over your <html/> A more easily Testable Framework. Not for everyone.
  • 3. “ScottGu”
  • 4. “The Gu”
  • 5. “His Gu-ness”
  • 6. “Sir”
  • 7. “Master Chief Gu”
  • 8. This is not Web Forms 4.0 It’s about alternatives. Car vs. Motorcycle. Flexible Extend it. Or not. Fundamental Part of System.Web and isn’t going anywhere. Plays Well With Others Feel free to use NHibernate for Models, Brail for Views and Whatever for Controllers. Keep it simple and DRY
  • 9. Maintain Clean Separation of Concerns Easy Testing Red/Green TDD Highly maintainable applications by default Extensible and Pluggable Support replacing any component of the system
  • 10. Enable clean URLs and HTML SEO and REST friendly URL structures Great integration within ASP.NET All the same providers still work Membership, Session, Caching, etc. ASP.NET Designer Surface in VS2008
  • 11. MVC
  • 12. Microsoft Visual Business Enabler Studio 2008R3v2 September Technical Preview Refresh MSVBES2k8R3v2lptrczstr for short
  • 13. MVC 27
  • 14. Model View Controller
  • 15. •Browser requests /Products/ Model •Route is determined •Controller is activated •Method on Controller is invoke •Controller does some stuff •Renders View, passing in custom ViewData •URLs are rendered, pointing to other View Controller Controllers
  • 16. • You can futz at each step Request in the process HTTP Http Controller Response Routing Handler Route View Route View Handler Engine
  • 17. MVC
  • 18. Developers adds Routes to a global RouteTable Mapping creates a RouteData - a bag of key/values RouteTable.Routes.Add( new Route(quot;blog/bydate/{year}/{month}/{day}quot;, new MvcRouteHandler()){ Defaults = new RouteValueDictionary { {quot;controllerquot;, quot;blogquot;}, {quot;actionquot;, quot;showquot;} }, Constraints = new RouteValueDictionary { {quot;yearquot;, @quot;d{1.4}quot;}, {quot;monthquot;, @quot;d{1.2}quot;}, {quot;dayquot;, @quot;d{1.2}quot;}} })
  • 19. Views Controllers Models Routes …are all Pluggable
  • 20. View Engines render output You get WebForms by default Can implement your own MVCContrib has ones for Brail, Nvelocity NHaml is an interesting one to watch View Engines can be used to Offer new DSLs to make HTML easier Generate totally different mime/types Images, RSS, JSON, XML, OFX, VCards, whatever.
  • 21. ViewEngineBase public abstract class ViewEngineBase { public abstract void RenderView(ViewContext viewContext); }
  • 22. <%@ Page Language=quot;C#quot; MasterPageFile=quot;~/Views/Shared/Site.Masterquot; AutoEventWireup=quot;truequot; CodeBehind=quot;List.aspxquot; Inherits=quot;MvcApplication5.Views.Products.Listquot; Title=quot;Productsquot; %> <asp:Content ContentPlaceHolderID=quot;MainContentPlaceHolderquot; runat=quot;serverquot;> <h2><%= ViewData.CategoryName %></h2> <ul> <% foreach (var product in ViewData.Products) { %> <li> <%= product.ProductName %> <div class=quot;editlinkquot;> (<%= Html.ActionLink(quot;Editquot;, new { Action=quot;Editquot;, ID=product.ProductID })%>) </div> </li> <% } %> </ul> <%= Html.ActionLink(quot;Add New Productquot;, new { Action=quot;Newquot; }) %> </asp:Content>
  • 23. %h2= ViewData.CategoryName %ul - foreach (var product in ViewData.Products) %li = product.ProductName .editlink = Html.ActionLink(quot;Editquot;, new { Action=quot;Editquot;, ID=product.ProductID }) = Html.ActionLink(quot;Add New Productquot;, new { Action=quot;Newquot; })
  • 24. MVC
  • 25. Mockable Intrinsics HttpContextBase, HttpResponseBase, HttpRequestBase Extensibility IController IControllerFactory IRouteHandler ViewEngineBase
  • 26. No requirement to test within ASP.NET runtime. Use RhinoMocks or TypeMock Create Test versions of the parts of the runtime you want to stub [TestMethod] public void ShowPostsDisplayPostView() { TestPostRepository repository = new TestPostRepository(); TestViewEngine viewEngine = new TestViewEngine(); BlogController controller = new BlogController(…); controller.ShowPost(2); Assert.AreEqual(quot;showpostquot;,viewEngine.LastRequestedView); Assert.IsTrue(repository.GetPostByIdWasCalled); Assert.AreEqual(2, repository.LastRequestedPostId); }
  • 27. This is not Web Forms 4.0 It’s about alternatives. Car vs. Motorcycle. Flexible Extend it. Or not. Fundamental Part of System.Web and isn’t going anywhere. Plays Well With Others Feel free to use NHibernate for Models, Brail for Views and Whatever for Controllers. Keep it simple and DRY
  • 28. HAI! IM IN YR Northwind HOW DUZ I ListProducts YR id PRODUCTS = GETPRODUCTS id OMG FOUND YR PRODUCTS IF U SEZ IM OUTTA YR Northwind
  • 29. HAI! WTF: I HAS A STRING GIMMEH STRING IM IN YR VAR UPPIN YR 0 TIL LENGTH OF STRING VISIBLE “GIMMEE A ” STRING!!VAR STEPPIN IM OUTTA YR VAR OMGWTF HALP!
  • 30. © 2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Microsoft, Windows, Windows Vista and other product names are or may be registered trademarks and/or trademarks in the U.S. and/or other countries. The information herein is for informational purposes only and represents the current view of Microsoft Corporation as of the date of this presentation. Because Microsoft must respond to changing market conditions, it should not be interpreted to be a commitment on the part of Microsoft, and Microsoft cannot guarantee the accuracy of any information provided after the date of this presentation. MICROSOFT MAKES NO WARRANTIES, EXPRESS, IMPLIED OR STATUTORY, AS TO THE INFORMATION IN THIS PRESENTATION.
  • 31. MVC
  • 32. Base Controller Class Basic Functionality most folks will use IController Interface Ultimate Control for the Control Freak IControllerFactory For plugging in your own stuff (IOC, etc)
  • 33. Scenarios, Goals and Design URLs route to controller “actions”, not pages – mark actions in Controller. Controller executes logic, chooses view. All public methods are accessible public void ShowPost(int id) { Post p = PostRepository.GetPostById(id); if (p != null) { RenderView(quot;showpostquot;, p); } else { RenderView(quot;nosuchpostquot;, id); } }
  • 34. public class Controller : IController { … protected virtual void Execute(ControllerContext controllerContext); protected virtual void HandleUnknownAction(string actionName); protected virtual bool InvokeAction(string actionName); protected virtual void InvokeActionMethod(MethodInfo methodInfo); protected virtual bool OnError(string actionName, MethodInfo methodInfo, Exception exception); protected virtual void OnActionExecuted(FilterExecutedContext filterContext); protected virtual bool OnActionExecuting(FilterExecutedContext filterContext); protected virtual void RedirectToAction(object values); protected virtual void RenderView(string viewName, string masterName, object viewData); }
  • 35. public class Controller : IController { … protected virtual void Execute(ControllerContext controllerContext); protected virtual void HandleUnknownAction(string actionName); protected virtual bool InvokeAction(string actionName); protected virtual void InvokeActionMethod(MethodInfo methodInfo); protected virtual bool OnError(string actionName, MethodInfo methodInfo, Exception exception); protected virtual void OnActionExecuted(FilterExecutedContext filterContext); protected virtual bool OnActionExecuting(FilterExecutedContext filterContext); protected virtual void RedirectToAction(object values); protected virtual void RenderView(string viewName, string masterName, object viewData); }
  • 36. public class Controller : IController { … protected virtual void Execute(ControllerContext controllerContext); protected virtual void HandleUnknownAction(string actionName); protected virtual bool InvokeAction(string actionName); protected virtual void InvokeActionMethod(MethodInfo methodInfo); protected virtual bool OnError(string actionName, MethodInfo methodInfo, Exception exception); protected virtual void OnActionExecuted(FilterExecutedContext filterContext); protected virtual bool OnActionExecuting(FilterExecutedContext filterContext); protected virtual void RedirectToAction(object values); protected virtual void RenderView(string viewName, string masterName, object viewData); }
  • 37. public class Controller : IController { … protected virtual void Execute(ControllerContext controllerContext); protected virtual void HandleUnknownAction(string actionName); protected virtual bool InvokeAction(string actionName); protected virtual void InvokeActionMethod(MethodInfo methodInfo); protected virtual bool OnError(string actionName, MethodInfo methodInfo, Exception exception); protected virtual void OnActionExecuted(FilterExecutedContext filterContext); protected virtual bool OnActionExecuting(FilterExecutedContext filterContext); protected virtual void RedirectToAction(object values); protected virtual void RenderView(string viewName, string masterName, object viewData); }
  • 38. Scenarios, Goals and Design: Are for rendering/output. Pre-defined and extensible rendering helpers Can use .ASPX, .ASCX, .MASTER, etc. Can replace with other view technologies: Template engines (NVelocity, Brail, …). Output formats (images, RSS, JSON, …). Mock out for testing. Controller sets data on the View Loosely typed or strongly typed data
  • 39. View Engines render output You get WebForms by default Can implement your own MVCContrib has ones for Brail, Nvelocity NHaml is an interesting one to watch View Engines can be used to Offer new DSLs to make HTML easier to write Generate totally different mime/types Images RSS, JSON, XML, OFX, etc. VCards, whatever.
  • 40. ViewEngineBase public abstract class ViewEngineBase { public abstract void RenderView(ViewContext viewContext); }
  • 41. <%@ Page Language=quot;C#quot; MasterPageFile=quot;~/Views/Shared/Site.Masterquot; AutoEventWireup=quot;truequot; CodeBehind=quot;List.aspxquot; Inherits=quot;MvcApplication5.Views.Products.Listquot; Title=quot;Productsquot; <asp:Content ContentPlaceHolderID=quot;MainContentPlaceHolderquot; runat=quot;serverquot;> <h2><%= ViewData.CategoryName %></h2> <ul> <% foreach (var product in ViewData.Products) { %> <li> <%= product.ProductName %> <div class=quot;editlinkquot;> (<%= Html.ActionLink(quot;Editquot;, new { Action=quot;Editquot;, ID=product.ProductID })%>) </div> </li> <% } %> </ul> <%= Html.ActionLink(quot;Add New Productquot;, new { Action=quot;Newquot; }) %> </asp:Content>
  • 42. %h2= ViewData.CategoryName %ul - foreach (var product in ViewData.Products) %li = product.ProductName .editlink = Html.ActionLink(quot;Editquot;, new { Action=quot;Editquot;, ID=product.ProductID }) = Html.ActionLink(quot;Add New Productquot;, new { Action=quot;Newquot; })
  • 43. Scenarios, Goals and Design: Hook creation of controller instance Dependency Injection. Object Interception. public interface IControllerFactory { IController CreateController(RequestContext context, string controllerName); } protected void Application_Start(object s, EventArgs e) { ControllerBuilder.Current.SetControllerFactory( typeof(MyControllerFactory)); }
  • 44. Scenarios, Goals and Design: Mock out views for testing Replace ASPX with other technologies public interface IViewEngine { void RenderView(ViewContext context); } Inside controller class: this.ViewEngine = new XmlViewEngine(...); RenderView(quot;fooquot;, myData);

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