2D CAD Module by gonzalochrisPresentation Transcript
USING MICROSOFT WINDOWS XP INTRODUCTION
Microsoft Windows XP Screen (Desktop)
Here is a typical look of a Windows XP desktop
screen everytime you start Windows XP or depending on how your computer was set up.
To start installed programs, open document, change system settings, find files, and exploring windows.
Navigating Windows using a mouse (Pointing Device)
As you move your mouse on a flat surface, your pointer moves on the screen. On the principles that first you place your mouse pointer on (point to) something on your screen, and then click with a mouse button to perform action on that item. To point, move the mouse until the tip of the pointer is over the item.
Click: Press and release the left mouse button
Double Click: Quickly press and release the left mouse button twice
Right Click: Press and release the right button once to show the shortcut menu
Accessing Files and Folder
You can use “My Computer” to quickly and easily see everything on your computer. Double-Click on the “My Computer” icon on the desktop to browse through your files and folders.
Exploring Local Drives
Open – To list contents of a disk
Explore – To list all files and folders to all local drives
Search – To find specific files or folders
Format – To prepare a new disk to a readable media
Properties – To view available amount and remaining disk space.
Exploring Files and Folders / Sub-Directories:
In Windows Explorer, you can see both the hierarchy of folders on your computer and all the files and folders in each selected folder. This is especially useful for copying and moving files. You can open the folder that contains the file you want to move or copy, and then drag it in the folder you want to put it in.
Figure above shows a Window Explorer
Files – A file is a collection of related data items. It is the basic unit of data storage
Folders / Sub-Directory
Your documents and programs are stored in folders, which you can see in “My Computer” and “Windows Explorer”. In previous versions of Windows and DOS, folders were called directories.
Sub-Directory of Program Files
Opening a File or Folder
Point and click on a specific folder, then use right button of a mouse. Then select Open on selection menu.
Icon Right-click on mouse Select Open
Or you can simply double-click on the icon
Or just click on the icon and press “Enter” from your keyboard
Navigating Active Window
Changing View – select View from the Menu bar
Creating your own folder in the Windows Environment
Open the “My Documents” folder by double clicking on it. (Or point over the “My Documents” shortcut folder then right click and choose open)
Inside the “My Documents” folder click on the File menu then choose New , then choose Folder . The computer creates a new folder for your files.
In the real world, it’s just like you’re working
Inside your Office Room (let’s say that is the
Computer). Inside your office is a File Cabinet
(that will be the “My Documents” folder). We’ve
just inserted inside that File Cabinet a New
Folder for your New files.
In a nutshell
Now let’s rename that folder as: GCAD (your name). This is the folder destination of all the files you will create and save.
Exit the “My Documents” folder.
Copying, Deleting and Renaming a file or folder
Send to – places a chosen file to a new location. If the destination is a floppy disk it creates a duplicate data.
Copy – Creates a duplicate data
You can select a multiple copy while holding CTRL key
AutoCAD 2-Dimensional Presentation with color rendering and basic customization AutoCAD® software is the 2D drafting and detailing and 3D design tool used by more designers worldwide than any other CAD software. It provides native DWG compatibility, plus you can personalize or program the software or add a third-party application to meet your specific design requirements. And now AutoCAD integrates new and enhanced productivity tools, presentation graphics, CAD standards, and more or faster, easier data creation and sharing.
Intel Pentium 4 or later, with at least 3GHz or faster processor, or compatible
Microsoft Windows XP (Professional, Home Edition, or Tablet PC Edition) or Windows Vista
512MB RAM (recommended)
300MB free disk space for installation
1024x768 VGA with true color (minimum) - 128MB Video card
Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 or 7.0 or other browser (Mozilla Firefox or Google Chrome)
Broadband or at least Dial Up connection
DVD or CD-ROM disc drive
Mouse with trackball or compatible pointing device
To start AutoCAD
When you open AutoCAD, the startup dialog box is displayed. The dialog box provides you with four ways to start drawing:
1. Open a Drawing (Open an existing drawing)
- opens an existing drawing you select from a list of the four most recently opened drawings.
Also, it displays the Browse button that you choose to look for another file.
> Click the Open a Drawing button
> The middle of the dialog box now displays a list of drawings that have been opened recently.
Highlight one of the names in the list to see a preview image of that particular drawing file.
> If the drawing you want is not in the list, click the browse button to choose a drawing from the available on your file system by another user.
2. Start from Scratch
(Start a drawing from scratch)
- opens a new drawing based on the measurement system you choose English (inches) or Metric (meters)
3. Use a Template (Start a drawing based on a template)
- opens a new drawing based on a template you select from a list. It displays template files (.dwt extension) that exist in the Drawing Template File location as
specified in the Options Dialog Box. Template files store all the settings for a drawing and can also include predefined layers, dimension styles, and views.
> Select the Use a Template button
> Scroll down the list of template files and highlight one that you are interested in.
An image preview of that template will be displayed.
> Click OK. A new drawing comes up based on the chosen template
4. Use a Wizard (Use a wizard to help you setup your drawing)
- opens a drawing that you set up using either the Quick Setup Wizard or the Advanced Setup Wizard.
> Click the Use a Wizard button
> Highlight Quick Setup and click OK
> Click on a unit of measurement, and then click Next.
> Enter a width and length for your drawing sheet. Then click Finished.
> A new drawing comes up. It has the units and Area that you set with the wizard.
Setting up Unit of Measurement
Set the AutoCAD unit of measurement to meters
- to ensure that any drawing made and inserted will have uniformed international Metric (meters) units
- to easily control plotting in scale
1. Go to FORMAT menu
2. Go to UNITS
3. In the dialog box; Drawing Units for Design Center Blocks portion, set it to meters
1. Go to TOOLS menu
2. Go to OPTIONS
3. Select USER PREFERENCE tab
4. In the AutoCAD Design Center portion set:
- Source Content Units = meters
- Target Drawing Units = meters
5. Then click OK to close the dialog box
You will do this each time you start a new drawing file not unless you create your own standard office-drawing template
None F12 Object Snap Tracking (same as F3) F11 Polar Tracking - (frequently used) F10 SNAPMODE - (frequently used) F9 ORTHOMODE - (frequently used) F8 GRIDMODE F7 DUCS F6 ISOPLANE F5 TABMODE F4 OSNAP - (frequently used) F3 Text window F2 This key is generally associated with HELP F1 DESCRIPTION STRING FUNCTION KEYS
> F4 is useful if you are using a digitizing pen or tablet PC. Not much of help when you're using a mouse to control the cursor
> F7 not much of a use. It just turns the grid on. It visually shows you where your drawing limits are (that is if you set limits).
ESC and ENTER button
- pressing either Esc or Enter button terminates the current command
- Pressing Esc button twice deselect a selected object
- Pressing Enter once accepts a typed in command or value
- pick or point button
- used to specify a point/ location/ position/ selection
- Return or Enter or Properties button
- to either open the shortcut menu or repeat last command
Point selection method
Window selection method
Crossing selection method
Fencing selection method
DRAW TOOLBAR MODIFY TOOLBAR UCS ICON MODEL TAB & LAYOUT TAB STATUS BAR COMMAND TEXT WINDOW CROSSHAIR/ CURSOR TITLE BAR STANDARD TOOLBAR LAYER PROPERTIES
RESETTING AUTOCAD WINDOW If your AutoCAD window have been customized and you want to set it back to its default interface, follow these steps: Tools> Options> Profiles> Reset> Yes By default: 1. Object Property toolbar 2. Standard toolbar 3. Draw toolbar 4. Modify toolbar
Navigate the following:
EDIT MENU- insert and link excel worksheet into AutoCAD
VIEW MENU- practice zooming and adding viewport
M’L LENGTH OF REBAR (M) = 6 1.O 0.5 6 4 C 1.O 0.5 7.5 3 B 1.O 0.5 9 2 A 1.O 0.5 12 1 AA SAND GRAVEL CEMENT CODE CLASS CONCRETE TABLE
if no command is active, you can repeat the previous command by pressing ENTER or SPACEBAR
or by right clicking in the drawing area and choosing the Repeat Command Name option from the shortcut menu.
PASSWORDS AND DIGITAL SIGNATURE
You can password protect drawings and add a digital signature to them.
SUMMARY OF DRAW COMMANDS
7.XLINE (Construction Line)
C. Special Objects
SPECIAL TEXT CHARACTERS
%%p - draws a plus/minus symbol = ±2.00m
%%d - draws a degree symbol = 45º
%%c - draws a diameter symbol = 16mmø
%%u - draws an underscore
ex.: ACADR 2007 = %%uACADR%%u2007
%%0 - draws an overscore
ex.: doña = do%%on%%oa
ALT + 0177 = (±) symbol
ALT + 0178 = (²) symbol
ALT + 0179 = (³) symbol
ALT + 0186 = (º) symbol
ALT + 0188 = (¼) symbol
ALT + 0189 = (½) symbol
ALT + 0190 = (¾) symbol
MODIFY AND EDIT COMMANDS
using Offset, Fillet, Trim and Extend
Create a 3X4 Studio room
Offset distance = 150mm = 0.15m
VPORTS - use three:below
Model space - this is where to create or draw
Paper space - print preview
Convert inches to mm
11" = 279.5mm
8.5" = 216mm
First way, use grid extents
Other way, use bounding objects
CREATING YOUR OWN 20"X30" TITLE BLOCK (507.5x762mm)
Command : rectang or rec
offset: margins = 20mm
another offset on left = 45mm
1. Commands to Duplicate
d.MIrror (set MIRRTEXT=0)
2. Commands to clean corners
3. Commands to edit Plines
4. Commands to edit text a.Spell b.DDedit c.DDmodify
5. Commands to edit attributes
6. Commands to change position of endpoints
7. Commands to mark/measure linears/curves
8. Use grips
COMMANDS TO EDIT TEXT
1.SPELL(sp) - command to check text spelling
2.DDEDIT(ed) - command to edit text value
3.DDMODIFY - command to edit text LOCATION,HEIGHT,ANGLE & VALUE
COMMANDS TO EDIT ATTRIBUTE
ATTRIBUTES - an attribute is an informational text associated with a block
1.ATTDEF or DDATTDEF(att) - command to define an attribute
Invinsible - the attribute value wont appear. ATTDISP overrides invisible mode.
Constant - gives attribute a fixed value for block insertion
Verify - prompts attribute value twice
Preset - sets the value to its default when you insert a block.
EXERCISE: Creating and Inserting a Door Schedule tag
Step1: Create a circle (r=217) with a horizontal line on its quadrant
Note: Font style should already be created
command:STYLE or st
Step2: Define an attribute for the door no.
PROMPT: ENTER DOOR NO.
JUSTIFY: BOTTOM CENTER
PICK POINT: pick approximately above the center point
Step3: define an attribute for the sheet no.
PROMPT: ENTER SHEET NO.
JUSTIFY: TOP CENTER
PICK POINT: pick approximately below the center point
Step4: convert into a block
SAVE AS: c:my documents(your folder)doortag.dwg
Step5: Open file: c:my documents(your folder)studio room.dwg
Step6: Insert DOOR TAG on the plan
Command: INSERT or i
Browse: c:my documents(your folder)doortag.dwg
ENTER DOOR NO.<D1>:D2
ENTER SHEET NO.<AR-1>:AR-7
*we can edit the attribute by ATTEDIT command
COMMANDS TO CHANGE POSITION OF ENDPOINTS
1.TRIM or TR
2.EXTEND or EX
3.LENGTHEN or LEN - command to lengthen or shorten some linear and curves
OPTIONS: (for lengthen)
SELECT OBJECT - displays the length of the selected object
>DELTA - adding length to a specified object
>PERCENT - specify percentage of the total length to be added or subtracted
>TOTAL - sets a new total length to a specified object
>DYNAMIC - lengthen or shorten an object by dynamic dragging
4.GRIP(stretch) 5.STRETCH - command to resize or relocate selected objects always use CROSSING or CROSSING POLYGON to select parts of an object to stretch Command: STRETCH or s select objects: C or CP select objects:(press enter) basepoint or displacement:(pick anywhere outside) second point of discplacement:(drag down and pick) 6.CHANGE point(-ch) - command to change location of point, also used to lengthen or shorten lines
COMMANDS TO MARK/MEASURE
POINT(po), MEASURE(me) and DIVIDE(div)
OTHER MODIFICATION COMMANDS
1.SCALE (sc) - enlarges or reduces selected objects equally in the x,y, and z directions
2.ROTATE (ro) - rotate selected objects at specified base point and angle
3.MOVE (m) - relocate selected objects
WORKING WITH LAYERS AND PROPERTIES
Layers(la)-an electronic overlay similar to acetate. Layers are the equivalent of the overlays used in paper-based drafting or manual animation. Every layer has an associated color and linetype.
Advantages of using a Layer
3.Control of regeneration
Capabilities of Layers
1.OFF -objects in layer turned off are invisible on screen or in plotting, but included in REGENeration. Use on to restore visibility.
2.ON -turn on layers
3.FREEZE -same effect using OFF, Frozen objects are not included in REGENeration thus improve your production speed.
4.UNFREEZE -disable FREEZE
5.LOCK -you cannot edit objects on locked layers. However they are still visible if the layer is on.
6.UNLOCK -objects can be edited again when unlocked
7.PLOT/NO PLOT -prevents the selected layers from being plotted
Command: matchprop or painter
Select source object: Select the object whose properties you want to copy
Current active settings: Currently selected matchprop settings
Select destination object(s) or [Settings]: Enter s or select one or more objects to copy properties to
TEXT / MTEXT AutoCAD® provides various ways to create text. For short, simple entries, use line text. For longer entries with internal formatting, use multiline text. Although all entered text uses the current text style, which establishes the default font and format settings, you can customize the text appearance.
TEXT – Text Single Line
Displays text on screen as entered. Text lines are independent to each other.
Command: TEXT Current text style: “Standard” Text height: 0.2000 (press ENTER) Specify start point of text or [Justify/Style]: (pick a location point) Specify height <0.2000>: (press ENTER) Specify rotation angle of text <0>: (press ENTER) Enter text: AUTOCAD 2007 (press ENTER) Enter text: Informatics Computer (press ENTER) Enter text: Training Institute (press ENTER) Enter text: *Cancel* (press ESC)
Here in this example Fit Justification was used
How to create text style
You can set a style for your text so that everytime you start creating text it is set to your own chosen style and font type.
STEP 1: go to Format menu and select Text Style
STEP 2: In the dialog box click New and name it “my text”
STEP 3: Select “simplex” on the Font Name and give it a height of 3.5 (3.5mm in the real world) then click apply, and then close. STEP 4: command: text and type “AutoCAD 2007”. See that “my text” style is now the current font style. NOTE: You can always go back to the standard style by changing the style name in the text style dialog box.
Mtext (Multiline Text Editor)
A brand new Mtext editor overhauls the capabilities of Mtext. Important new features includes:
You can indent and tab text to create columns and tables (also called schedules)
You can set line spacing (using the Line Spacing options of the MTEXT command on the command line) and change existing line spacing (using the Properties palette) to fit text into tables.
The editor has been redesigned. It zooms text in and out if necessary to make it readable. (You can switch this feature off) It includes a top ruler like the one in your word processor. For example, you can use the ruler to set tabs.
A new context (right-click) menu contains most of the editor’s features
During editing, you work in the new Mtext editor When you’re done, the text fits perfectly in the table
Using Multiline text
MTEXT Current text style: “Standard” Text Height: 0.2000
Specify first corner: (pick and drag a window box)
Specify opposite corner or [Height/Justify/Line Spacing/Rotation/Style/Width]:
(then type a paragraph in the dialog box… you can choose the font, size, style, and color in the dialog box)
Tip: “For older AutoCAD version we use DDEDIT command to revise the text that we’ve typed in. But for newer version we just double-left click on the text and place the cursor to the text which we are going to change”.
SPECIAL TEXT CHARACTERS %%p - draws a plus/minus symbol = ±2.00m %%d - draws a degree symbol = 45º %%c - draws a diameter symbol = 16mmø For older version we can use: %%u - draws an underscore ex.: ACADR 2007 = %%uACADR%%u2007 Or simply highlight the text then press Ctrl+U for underline %%o - draws an overscore ex.: doña = do%%on%%oa Or just used Alt+164 for lower case ñ and Alt+165 for upper case Ñ
Here’s more! To make it easier for you...
ALT + 0177 = (±) symbol
ALT + 0178 = (²) symbol
ALT + 0179 = (³) symbol
ALT + 0186 = (º) symbol
ALT + 0188 = (¼) symbol
ALT + 0189 = (½) symbol
ALT + 0190 = (¾) symbol
Tip: ”If you want to insert special text using Mline characters click on the symbol icon button in its dialog box”.
Dimensioning is the process of adding measurement annotation to a drawing. You can create dimension styles to format dimensions in your drawing conform to industry or project standards.
Dimension Type and Method
Linear – measures a straight line distance. It can be vertical or horizontal.
Aligned – A linear dimension that is parallel to the object being measured.
Ordinate – Creates a dimension showing x or y ordinate points
Radius – Measures the radius of circles and arcs
Diameter – Measures the diameter of circles and arcs
Angular – Measures angles
Using Linear Dimension
Or you can just type in “dli” command
Using Aligned Dimension
Or you can just type in “dal” command
Using Ordinate Dimension
Or you can just type in “id” or “dor” command
Using Radius Dimension
Or you can just type in “dra” command
Using Diameter Dimension
Or you can just type in “ddi” command
Using Angular Dimension
Or you can just type in “dan” command
Once a single dimension has been
placed in a drawing, if there is a need
for more dimension to be placed in
such a way that the dimension lines of
the new dimension line up with those
of the first, use the continue option.
Using Continue Dimension
Or you can just type in “dco” command after a “dli” command
It works the same way as continued
dimensioning, but it places each new
dimension above the last dimension
and measures all dimensions from the
same base point.
Using Baseline Dimension
To set baseline offset type dimdli and assign a
Or you can just type in “dba” command
Controls the spacing of the dimension lines in baseline dimensions. Each dimension line os offset from the previous one by this amount, if necessary, to avoid drawing over it. Changes made with DIMDLI are not applied to existing dimensions. When the location of baseline is undesirable type “U” for undo then re-pick the baseline points again.
Controlling Dimension Scale
DIMSCALE – Overall Scale Factor (sizes of dim variables).
Also affects the scale of leader objects created with the LEADER command
DIMSCALE does not affect tolerances or measured lengths, coordinates, or angles.
DIMLFAC – Linear unit scale factor
DIMLFAC affects the measured length of the linear dimensions. All linear dimension distances, including radii, diameters, and coordinates are multiplied by DIMLFAC before being converted to dimension text.
EXERCISE: Set DIMSCALE value to 100 and then Update the leader object
Plotting Created by: Chris Gonzalo Special Thanks to Mark
A three-dimensional drawing environment
You can create 2D and 3D
TILEMODE is set to 1
You can create TILED VIEWPORTS
Only active viewport is printable
A two-dimensional drawing environment
Used to compose your final drawing and ready for plotting
TILEMODE is set to 0
You can create different FLOATING VIEWPORTS
Commands associated with Paper Space and Model Space
TILEMODE - To switch to paper space (0) or to model space (1)
MS - Switches from paper space to modem space viewport
PS - Switches from a model space
Specifies the layout page, plotting device, paper size, and settings for each new layout.
Let’s finalize the composition of the new Plan STEP 1: Open your own Final Floor Plan STEP 2: Start to layout the plan in paper space… Pick the Layout1 tab STEP 3: In the Page Setup dialog box, set the plotter’s name to be used.
NOTE: If your plotter is not yet included in the list, go to File menu… Plotter Manager… double click Add a Plotter Wizard icon.
STEP 4: Create your own Paper Size (user defined) Choose Properties (at the right side of the plotter name) to launch the Plotter Configuration Editor.
In the Plotter Configuration Editor, choose Custom Paper Sizes at the bottom of the list.
In the Plotter Configuration Editor, choose Add button to launch the Custom Paper Size wizard.
Select Custom Paper Sizes, and then the Add… button
On the Custom Paper Size wizard – Begin page, choose Start from Scratch. Choose Next.
On the Custom Paper Size wizard – Media Bounds page, in the Units list, choose either Inches or Millimeters for paper size. Units = millimeters Width = 762 Height = 508 Click Next button…
If you are creating a paper size that is larger than the paper sizes offered as standard paper size, verify that the plotter is capable of plotting within the new dimensions by using the Print Test Page button on the Finish page.
On the Custom paper Size wizard – Printable Area page, use Top, Bottom, Left, and Right to specify the non-printable area. Then choose Next.
On the Custom Paper Size wizard – Paper Size Name page, type in a name for the paper size. Then choose Next. Then click Finish to exit the Custom Paper Size wizard .
Name it = My 20x30 paper
For older versions, you also have to type in a name for the PMP file. You also have to specify whether the paper source is Sheet-fed or Roll-fed.
In the Plotter Configuration Editor, choose OK to save your changes
When you are prompted to save a plotter configuration file, select Save Changes to the Following File, and then choose OK.
A plotter configuration file has now been created containing the new paper size. The plotter configuration file will appear in the Plot Device list in the Plot dialog box. Make sure you select this plotter configuration file when you plot.
STEP 5: Create your own Plot Style Table (user defined) In the Page Setup dialog box, click on the drop down arrow for Plot Style Table (pen assignments), choose New to launch the Plot Style Table wizard.
On the Plot Style Table wizard – Begin page, choose Start from Scratch.