Research and Development of Hydro-ecological          Spatial Database and Management System                              ...
variety of thematic data, etc. These data are the entire basis for    B. Classification of the Data Typehydro-ecological m...
subclass, and the subclass is composed of several layers, that is,Map -Class-Subclass-Layer. According to the logical hier...
and key technologies of hydro-ecological spatial database were                                                            ...
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Research and Development of Hydro-ecological Spatial Database and Management System


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  1. 1. Research and Development of Hydro-ecological Spatial Database and Management System ZHANG Li ZHANG Yan Department of Life Science School of Earth Science and Resources Cangzhou Normal University Chang’an University Cangzhou, China Xi’an, China E-mail: E-mail: XU Bin ZHENG Miaomiao School of Environmental Science and Engineering Geo-Environmental Monitoring Central Station of Shaanxi Chang’an University Province Xi’an, China Xi’an, China E-mail: E-mail kitteny@126.comAbstract-Using spatial database, geographic information system Monitoring of hydro-ecological system is in a wide range(GIS) technology and system engineering theory, the and has large amounts of data, and integrated the spatialhydro-ecological spatial database was built, and the orresponding location information of observatory, sampling point, well in thehydro-ecological spatial database management information hydrological data. The observed data were associated with asystem was designed and developed. From aspects of the data specific position, this make the ability of data processing andorganization and classification, the overall structure of the analysis was expanded from the time dimension to the spatialdatabase, database construction processes and data integration dimensions. It can correlate the temporal and spatialmethods, the design and key technologies of hydro-ecological characteristics of the data together to do the analysis.spatial database were elaborated and discussed. And combiningwith this database, the hydrological database management Spatial database is a geographical elements data set, whichsystem based on ArcGIS Engine was developed. The functions of organized according to the model and rules, for the bettermanagement, storage, query, analysis were realized in the system. management and use of geospatial data [2]. Spatial databaseThe system provided a integrated data processing platform for organizes the spatial data into a hierarchical data objects,the security evaluation and prediction of hydro-ecological system including object classes, feature classes, feature data arid areas, effectively improved efficiency of the mass datastorage, management, processing and spatial analysis capabilities, Spatial information technology can achieve the unifiedas well as increased the work efficiency. spatial data and attribute data management, inter-query of shape and attribute, make the expression of the hydrological Keywords-hydro-ecological; spatial database; geographic information more intuitive, and more conducive to professionalinformation system; design and development issues analysis. This paper discussed the key technology of I. INTRODUCTION building hydro-ecological spatial database and the development of the corresponding information systems about For a long time, the processing, store and service of the hydro-ecological spatial data management. The author tookhydrological data mainly depend on hydrological yearbook. In Shihezi reclamation area in arid areas of Xinjiang province,this way, people manually abstract and analyze the data China as an example study area, built the hydro-ecologicalaccording to the specification of hydrologic data processing, spatial database and developed the hydro-ecological spatialand publish the yearbook to provide services for public [1]. database management information system of arid area.The hydrological data have the characteristics of abundantcontent and large amount data and rigorous inspection, which II. THE CONTENT OF HYDRO-ECOLOGICAL SPATIALmake processing of data time-consuming, laborious, and DATABASEexpensive. Storage of the yearbook needs dedicated space,equipment and staff, and it is not easily stored for long time, For 50 years, the nation and Xinjiang province have carriedand the manual searching method is outmoded. With the out a series of large-scale comprehensive survey of the Manasintroduction of GIS technology into the hydrology field, the River basin in Shihezi reclamation area, and accumulatedmanagement of hydrological data has developed into the abundant information, including the publication of the variousdatabase management phase. Various types of hydrological thematic maps, amounts of multimedia data, history, real-timedata management information system is developed and applied hydrological data, social economic, hydraulic engineering,to the related research. irrigation data, graphics and multi-scale basic geographic data, remote sensing image data, ecological monitoring data and Sponsor: “Subjects Innovation and Talents Introduction Plan of Collegesand Universities” (B08039)___________________________________978-1-61284-340-7/11/$26.00 ©2011 IEEE
  2. 2. variety of thematic data, etc. These data are the entire basis for B. Classification of the Data Typehydro-ecological management in the basin. In order to According to the basic principles of spatial dataeffectively manage the massive data and realize the unified classification, the hydro-ecological spatial database includesmanagement and evaluation of water resources in Shihezi, the two categories of data i.e. the basic geographic data and thedatabase and spatial information technology need be taken as thematic data of hydro-ecology.the main technical means. Under the control of the uniformspecifications and standards, to design the reasonable storage All major categories of data are divided into differentstructure and build the hydro-ecological spatial database of subclass according the different physical characteristics whichShihezi reclamation area, complete the hard work of collect represented by spatial information, each subclass data has itsbasic data for the data processing subsystem, and develop the special connotation [3]. According to the hydro-ecologicalcorresponding data management system, construct the operable properties of spatial data, data are divided into five majorhydro-ecological mass data services platform of Shihezi, at the subclasses: basic geographic data, basic geological data,meantime effectively support data access for other subsystems, socio-economic data, hydrological data, and data of theprovide the basis services for rational use of water sources and ecological environment (Fig. 1).protection of hydro-ecological environment. Basic geographic data includes administrative region, The specific content is as follows: drainage, transportation, topography, vegetation, and monitoring station. Administrative region includes x According to the national standards and industry administrative boundary, and irrigation district boundary; standards, integrating the special requirements of Drainage includes rivers and lakes, reservoirs, hydraulic hydro-ecological system of Shihezi reclamation area, engineering. Transportation includes railway and roads; establish the data coding system, system construction Topography factors include contours and elevation point; specifications, to provide unified standards for geomorphic factor of different landforms; Factors of vegetation construction of the basic database, the thematic includes vegetation types, vegetation area; Monitoring station database, the results database. includes meteorological station and hydrologic station. x On the basis of attribute data collection in Shihezi Basic geological data includes formation and lithologic reclamation area, build the hydrological, ecological, character, structure, and so on. environmental, hydraulic engineering, social and economic etc. thematic database system, implement Social economic data including area of irrigation district, the data integration, processing with the unified land use type and gross national product, agriculture and the database standard, then develop and utilize the farmland area, population and gross domestic product (GDP) application systems. growth rates, irrigation quota and so on. x In the unified spatial coordinate framework, and based Data of the ecological environment includes land on various types of digital topographic maps, thematic desertification type and degree of soil salinization, soil salt maps, to build vector basin data management system content, soil moisture and vegetation coverage, water table and digital elevation model (DEM), and develop the decline rate, buried deep groundwater, groundwater pollution GIS-based database management system. zoning and groundwater mineralization zoning, groundwater quality deterioration partition. III. CLASSIFICATION AND ORGANIZATION OF HYDRO-ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION AND DATAA. Data Standardization Design In order to effectively organize various kinds of spatial data,improve efficiency of data transmission and utilization, andachieve the goal of spatial data sharing, standardizing thehydro-ecological spatial data in accordance with the relevantstandards and specification is the foundation and prerequisitefor construction of hydro-ecological spatial database In this research, the referenced standards and guidelines are:The Basic Terms of Surveying and Mapping, Subdivision andNumbering for the National Primary Scale Topographic Map,Classification and Codes for the Thematic Map Information,Fundamental Geographic Information Metadata of Digital Figure 1. Structure of hydro-ecological data classificationProducts, Topographic Map Symbols (1:5000 and 1:10000),Quality Standard for Groundwater, The Groundwater C. Data OrganizationResources Data File Format, Hydrogeological Borehole DataFile Format, Hydrogeologic Terminology and part content of 1) Spatial Data Organizationthe spatial database instruction of China Geological Survey According to the hierarchy of spatial data model, theBureau which applied in groundwater resources surveying and highest level is the database, the database is composed ofevaluation of Northwest China. classes, subclasses of the class can be divided into different
  3. 3. subclass, and the subclass is composed of several layers, that is,Map -Class-Subclass-Layer. According to the logical hierarchyof the data, various kinds of data in hydro-ecological spatialdatabase are defined as the different map layers withconsidering the entity type and the corresponding attributeswhich represented by the spatial information. In the system, thedata are organized and managed in the form of layer, whichcorresponds with the physical memory unit. Layer definitionneed to consider the convenience of shape operations,management and calculation, as well as the major features ofthe data itself. An example of the hierarchy of spatial datamodel is as follows: Groundwater hydro-ecological spatialdatabase - groundwater environmental class - groundwaterhydro-chemical subclass - SO42- ion zoning layer. 2) Attribute Data Structures Figure 2. Function structure of Hydro-ecological spatial database Attribute data is the non-spatial data which describes the management systemcharacteristic, state, relationship and variation law of the mapelement [4]. In information systems, such data’s management Hydro-ecological database stores massive graphic andhas two ways: one is to establish the build-in attribute tables of attribute data, manages hydrogeology , environment, ecology,the map element for organization and management; the second social economy and geological different types of fundamentalis to construct external database to manage the attributes of the geographic data, provides data query , indexing, accessmap element dynamically. functions to support the related work. Hydro-ecological spatial database management system should also have data edit, data IV. CONSTRUCTION OF HYDRO-ECOLOGICAL SPATIAL query, and security maintenance function (Fig. 2). DATABASE Spatial database construction mainly included: material B. System Implementationcollection, data preparation, attribute data collection and spatial In accordance with the design of system and database,data collection, remote sensing image data collection, shapes using reusable software architecture and object - orientedediting and topological construction, projection transformation, analysis and design techniques, based on ArcGIS Enginemap connection, format conversion, linking of spatial data and platform, the author developed hydro-ecological databaseattribute data, and so on. Construction of hydro-ecological management system. In the system, database management, dataspatial database is implemented by ArcGIS spatial data browsing, data preprocessing, security management, and othermanagement module, spatial data are organized in the form of major functions were realized, and the user - friendly interfacethe category tree. Construction steps of spatial database are as was designed for users convenient use, improved the workfollows: efficiency of database construction and management in hydro-ecological security evaluation research, ensure the safety x According to designed structures of system database, and effectiveness of data, has played an important role in the define and construct every thematic database. research of hydro-ecological system. The results of the system x According to the subclass content in database build implementation were shown in Fig. 3 and Fig. 4. elements data set at the corresponding location, and define its spatial reference. x According to the contained layer in subclass, define the element class at the corresponding location. x Using Feature Class to Geodatabase tools, import Coverage data into spatial database. V. DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF HYDRO-ECOLOGICA L SPATIAL DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMA. Architecture and Design System Hydro-ecological database management system is thesystem to manage, browse and maintenance hydro-ecologicalspatial data, and exchange data between the database and themanagement system by spatial data engine (SDE) [4].Structure of the hydro-ecological database management systemwas divided into three parts, four modules: database Figure 3. Hydro-ecological spatial database management system interfacemanagement module, data browsing module, datapreprocessing module and security maintenance module.
  4. 4. and key technologies of hydro-ecological spatial database were elaborated and discussed. And combining with this database, the hydrological database management system based on ArcGIS Engine was developed. The functions of management, storage, query, analysis were realized in the system. The system provided a integrated data processing platform for the security evaluation and prediction of hydro-ecological system in arid areas, effectively improved efficiency of the mass data storage, management, processing and spatial analysis capabilities, as well as increased the work efficiency. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This research was supported by the project “Subjects Innovation and Talents Introduction Plan of Colleges and Universities” (B08039), which is fund by State Foreign Affairs Bureau and Ministry of Education, China. REFERENCES [1] J. L. Kong, Hydrogeology spatial information system, Changan University doctoral degree thesis, 2004. Figure 4. Implementation of query function [2] J. Clerk Maxwell, A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, 3rd ed., vol. 2. Oxford: Clarendon, 1892, pp.68–73. VI. CONCLUSIONS [3] I. S. Jacobs and C. P. Bean, “Fine particles, thin films and exchange Hydro-ecological spatial database and management system anisotropy,” in Magnetism, vol. III, G. T. Rado and H. Suhl, Eds. New York: Academic, 1963, pp. 271– one of the major research achievements of the project [4] G. B. Sun “Discussion on hydrology database development and“Subjects Innovation and Talents Introduction Plan of Colleges utilization of existing main problems and counter measures”, Jiangsuand Universities” which is committed by Water and Water Conservancy,2008, vol.12, pp.26 -27.Development Institute, Chang’an University. Using spatial [5] X. F. Wu, Y. M. Hu, Z. Y. Xu, “Design and implementation ofdatabase, geographic information system technology and GIS-based hydrological information system”, hydrology, 2007,system engineering theory, the hydro-ecological spatial vol.424, pp.71-79.database was built, and the corresponding hydro-ecological [6] W. Y. Qi, Mine Hydrogeological Information Management Systemspatial database management information system was designed Based On GIS, Hebei University of Engineering master degree theses,and developed. From aspects of the data organization and 2007.classification, the overall structure of the database, databaseconstruction processes and data integration methods, the design