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Ch 15 Part 1 (8th Ed) Ch 16 7th Ed
 

Ch 15 Part 1 (8th Ed) Ch 16 7th Ed

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    Ch 15 Part 1 (8th Ed) Ch 16 7th Ed Ch 15 Part 1 (8th Ed) Ch 16 7th Ed Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 15
    •  Asia, Africa, and Latin America  Theatres in India, China, and Japan ▪ Increasing interchange between Asian and Western theatres ▪ Western theatre had a growing influence on modern theatres in India, China, and Japan ▪ A return to traditional forms © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2
    •  Asia, Africa, and Latin America continued  India ▪ Theatre declined with the advent of film in the first part of the 20th century ▪ Theatre reemerged in the latter half of the 20th century, mainly in amateur theatre © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3
    •  Asia, Africa, and Latin America continued  China ▪ During the cultural revolution in the 1960s, theatrical activity became more restricted ▪ Increasing emphasis on a few dance-dramas that had heavy ideological or propagandistic content ▪ Since the death of Mao and the opening of China to the West, Chinese traditions and western drama have blended ▪ Popular traditional forms like Beijing Opera are becoming popular again © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 4
    •  Asia, Africa, and Latin America continued  Japan  Since the end of WWII, theatre has been healthy  Three main branches of theatre:  Nō, bunraku, and kabuki  Shingeki – 20th century Japanese theatre that incorporated western ideas about playwriting and theatre production  Avant-garde or experimental  Tadashi Suzuki: director centered with emphasis on ensemble playing, physical movement and combining old and new © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 5
    •  Asia, Africa, and Latin America continued  Theatres in the Middle East ▪ Greatly affected by the politics of the region ▪ Islam has strong prohibitions against theatre ▪ After WWII, there has been development of professional theatre ▪ Influenced by Western practices and artists ▪ The rise of Islamic fundamentalism and totalitarianism has curtailed, halted, controlled theatrical activities © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 6
    •  Asia, Africa, and Latin America continued  African Theatre and Drama ▪ Early performances were connected with ceremonies and rituals ▪ Today, use traditional forms and subverted forms of popular western theatre © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 7
    •  Asia, Africa, and Latin America continued  African Theatre and Drama ▪ Reflect anticolonial struggles as well as attacks against totalitarian regimes ▪ African theatre and society are divided ▪ Portuguese-speaking Africa – missionaries introduced religious dramas to spread Catholicism. ▪ French-speaking Africa – influenced by traditional forms of storytelling and music as well as French traditions ▪ English-speaking Africa – highly developed in the 1950s because of universities and has had significant international impact © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 8
    •  Asia, Africa, and Latin America continued  Wole Soyinka and Athol Fugard ▪ Most internationally renowned of all contemporary African playwrights ▪ Both concerned with political and social equality ▪ Fugard’s work attacked apartheid (South African racially segregated society) ▪ Soyinka’s work led to his arrest and imprisonment in Nigeria in 1967 ▪ Soyinka won the Nobel Prize in literature in 1986 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 9
    • AFRICAN THEATRE: WOLE SOYINKA A major African playwright of the past century is Wole Soyinka of Nigeria. A poet and author as well as a playwright, he won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1986. Prior to that, he had been imprisoned in Nigeria for his political views. Mixing traditional African ceremonial events with modern themes and characters , the play shown here, “The Lion and the Jewel,” is a comedy about a man, (the lion), in a village in Yoruba who persues a maid, (the jewel). © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 10
    •  Asia, Africa, and Latin America continued  Latin American Theatre ▪ After WWII, many Latin American dramatists began to focus on the unique national issues and concerns that confronted their countries ▪ All Latin American countries have significant theatres and playwrights ▪ Augusto Boal – renowned Brazilian playwright, director and theorist ▪ Wrote “Theatre of the Oppressed” (1975) – a manifesto for revolutionary and socially conscious theater © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 11
    •  Experimentation and Departures from Realism Continued  Existentialism and Theatre of the Absurd ▪ Inspired by political unrest and a desire to question political authority ▪ Existentialism – term applied to plays illustrating a philosophy whose modern advocate was Jean-Paul Sartre and which holds that there are no longer any fixed standards or values ▪ Articulated by Jean-Paul Sartre and Albert Camus ▪ Existence has little meaning ▪ God does not exist; humanity is alone in an irrational universe ▪ Only significant thing we can do is accept responsibility for our own actions © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 12
    •  Experimentation and Departures from Realism Continue continued  Existentialism and Theatre of the Absurd ▪ Theatre of the absurd ▪ Combined existentialist philosophy with revolutionary, avant-garde dramatic form ▪ Much of what happens in life is ridiculous or absurd and cannot be explained logically ▪ This ridiculousness or absurdity should be reflected in dramatic action ▪ Samuel Beckett, Jean Genet, Eugene Ionesco and Edward Albee are some famous absurdist playwrights © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 13
    •  Existentialism and Theatre of the Absurd ▪ Theatre of the absurd cont’d ▪ Their plays present our existence as futile or nonsensical, including our relationships and language ▪ To reinforce this theme, their plots often move in a circle, ending the way they began ▪ Characters are not realistic ▪ Settings are strange and unrecognizable ▪ Language is sparse and characters fail to communicate ▪ Most famous absurdist play is “Waiting for Godot,” by Samuel Beckett © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 14
    •  Experimental Theatre ▪ In 1960’s and ‘70’s, experiments in Europe and US went in many different directions – a reflection of the fragmentation of modern life. Experiments included: ▪ Happenings – nonliterary or unscripted event using a scenario that allows for chance occurrences ▪ Multimedia – use of electronic media, such as slides, film, video in live theatrical productions ▪ Environmental Theatre – branch of avant garde theater stressing the environment in which a performance takes place.  Term coined by American director, Richard Schechner, in the 1960s. © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 15
    •  Environmental Theatre cont’d ▪ Treat entire theater space as a performance area, suggesting any division between performer and audience is artificial ▪ Jerzy Grotowski was a major influence on Schechner. ▪ Poor Theater – term coined by Grotowski to describe his theater, which was stripped to the bare essentials. Emphasis is on actors, not scenery or special effects. © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 16
    •  Eclectics  Many European directors have borrowed and experimented with avant-garde theatre techniques ▪ Peter Brook – his “Marat/Sade” borrowed from Artaud’s “Theater of Cruelty,” and his “Midsummer Night’s Dream” borrowed from Meyerhold and the circus ▪ Some work only in alternative environments ▪ Others have brought their style to national theatre © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 17
    • © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 18
    •  American Alternative Theatre  Regional Theatre ▪ Nonprofit versus commercial ▪ Employ professional performers, directors, and designers ▪ Present dramas from the past as well as new plays ▪ In recent years, the chief source of new works in the U.S. © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 19
    •  American Alternative Theatre continued  Off-Broadway, Off-Off-Broadway, and Alternative Regional Theatres ▪ Off-Broadway ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ A less expensive alternative to commercial Broadway Began in the 1950s Smaller than Broadway theatres Offered more opportunity for producing serious classics and experimental works © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 20
    •  American Alternative Theatre continued  Off-Broadway, Off-Off-Broadway, and Alternative Regional Theatres ▪ Off-Off-Broadway ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Less expensive than off-Broadway Produced wherever inexpensive space is available Low price and a wide variety of offerings Much experimental work takes place here  Robert Wilson and Richard Foreman  The Living Theater, Open Theater, Wooster Group © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 21
    •  American Alternative Theatre continued  Off-Broadway, Off-Off-Broadway, and Alternative Regional Theatres ▪ Off-Off-Broadway ▪ Counter parts of off-Broadway and off-off-Broadway  Located in other major cities  Alternatives to the larger, established regional theatres and can gear to interests of specific groups (Hispanic, GLBT, African-American, feminist, etc. © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 22
    •  American Alternative Theatre continued  Off-Broadway, Off-Off-Broadway, and Alternative Regional Theatres ▪ Two Contemporary Theater Artists with roots in Alternative ▪ Both explore American mythology, violence of American society and degeneration  Sam Shepard – fuses surreal and absurdist. “Buried Child” won Pulitzer in 1979. Also “True West” and “Fool for Love”  David Mamet – Naturalistic language and settings with recognizable characters but not clear exposition or dramatic resolution like in traditional realism. “Oleanna,” “Glengarry Glen Ross,” “American Buffalo” © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 23
    •  Two important forms of theater that came to prominence after WW II:  African American Theatre  Musical Theatre © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 24
    •  African American Theatre – long history and impact on our contemporary theater  African American Theatre from 1900 to 1950 ▪ Rhythms of ragtime had a strong influence ▪ Bob Cole and William Johnson created, produced, and directed first black musical, “A Trip to Coontown” (1898) ▪ Bert Williams and George Walker and their wives joined composers and writers to produce musicals like “In Dahomey” (1902) and “Abyssinia” (1906). ▪ First time, African-Americans acting on a Broadway stage without burnt-cork makeup, speaking without dialect and dressed in high fashion. © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 25
    •  African American Theatre  African American Theatre from 1900 to 1950 ▪ Formation of African American stock companies ▪ Lafayette Players – most significant, founded by Anita Bush in 1914-1932; over 250 productions and employed a number of black stars. ▪ 1920s—black performers and writers made inroads ▪ 20 plays with black themes presented on Broadway; 5 of them written by African-Americans, including “Shuffle Along” ▪ Also some important black actors in drama like Charles Gilpin, Paul Robeson and Ethel Waters © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 26
    •  African American Theatre  African American Theatre from 1900 to 1950 ▪ Depression forced black performers to find other ways to make a living or create their own theater ▪ A few off Broadway productions like folk musical “Run Little Children” (1933) and “Mulatto” (1935) by Langston Hughes ▪ 1930s—the Federal Theatre Project ▪ Meant to help theatre artists through the Depression ▪ Employed thousands of African American writers, performers, and technicians © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 27
    •  African American Theatre  African American Theatre from 1900 to 1950 ▪ 1940s included stage adaptation of controversial novel “Native Son” by Richard Wright directed by Orson Welles for his Mercury Theater ▪ Paul Robeson had a record run of 296 performances on Broadway in “Othello” and “Anna Lucasta,” adapted by Abram Hill © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 28
    •  African American Theatre continued  African American Theatre since 1950 ▪ 1950s—an explosion of black theatre ▪ “Take a Giant Step” by Louis Patterson, about growing up in an integrated neighborhood, premiered in 1953 ▪ Greenwich Mews Theater, an off-Broadway Theater, began casting plays without regard to race and staged “Trouble in Mind” by Alice Childress, the first play by an AfricanAmerican woman to receive a commercial production. © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 29
    •  African American Theatre continued  African American Theatre since 1950 ▪ 1950s—an explosion of black theatre ▪ Perhaps most important production in postwar era was the 1959, “Raisin in the Sun” by Lorraine Hansberry directed by Lloyd Richards, first black director on Broadway  Richards went on to head Yale School of Drama  Nurtured talents of black playwrights like August Wilson, “Ma Rainey’s Black Bottom,” “Joe Turner’s Come and Gone” “The Piano Lesson” and many more ▪ 1960-1990s—theatre reflected the struggle for civil rights © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 30
    •  African American Theatre continued  African American Theatre since 1950 ▪ 1960-1990s—theatre reflected the struggle for civil rights ▪ 1964, “Dutchman” by LeRoi Jones (Amiri Baraka) ▪ Many other significant black dramatists during these two decades including Charles Fuller: he wrote “A Soldier’s Play” which won the Pulitzer Prize for drama ▪ 1970, Black Theatre Alliance listed over 125 producing groups and larger African-American audience at Broadway theaters ▪ 70s had more commerical African-American Broadway productions like “The Wiz,” “Don’t Bother Me, I Can’t Cope” and “Bubbling Brown Sugar” © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 31
    •  African American Theatre continued  African American Theatre since 1950 ▪ 1980s and onward, African-American artists continued to make a significant impact on commercial and non-commercial theater ▪ George C. Wolfe – writer/director ▪ “Jelly’s Last Jam” and “Bring in da Noise, Bring in da Funk” on Broadway ▪ “The Colored Museum” ▪ Directed “Angels in America” ▪ Kenny Leon – founded True Colors Theater in Atlanta in 2002 and directed “A Raisin in the Sun” on Broadway in 2004 © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 32
    •  African American Theatre continued  African American Theatre since 1950 ▪ Numerous prominent contemporary female AfricanAmerican playwrights like: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Suzan Lori-Parks Pearl Cleage Cheryl West Kia Corthron © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 33
    • © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 34
    •  American Musical Theatre  Antecedents ▪ In the 19th century, music accompanied the action of melodramas ▪ Other forms of singing and dancing entertainment: ▪ Vaudeville ▪ Burlesque ▪ Operetta – a romantic musical piece featuring melodic solos, duets and choruses interspersed with spoken dialogue  Gilbert and Sullivan’s The Pirates of Penzance (1879)  Victor Herbert’s Naughty Marietta (1910) © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 35
    •  American Musical Theatre continued  Antecedents ▪ George M. Cohan’s musicals in early part of the century had more realistic dialogue and moved a step closer to today’s “book” musicals. ▪ Musical – broad category that includes opera, operetta, musical comedy and other musical plays ▪ Book – spoken, as opposed to sung, portion of the text of a musical play © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 36
    •  American Musical Theatre continued  Antecedents ▪ Truly native American musicals began to emerge ▪ Featured a typically frivolous story and enduring songs  Show Boat (1927) – songs integrated into plot, and serious subjects including the love story between a black woman and a white man  Porgy and Bess (1935) – set in African-American community, even more realistic than "Showboat." Score so powerful that some consider it an opera. © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 37
    •  American Musical Theatre continued  The High Point of American Musicals ▪ Oklahoma! (1943) ▪ Praised for seamlessly fitting together story, music, lyrics, and dances so that tone, mood, and intention become a unified whole ▪ South Pacific ▪ The Sound of Music © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 38
    •  American Musical Theatre continued  Some say “Fiddler on the Roof” (1964) marks the end of this era of book musicals  American Musicals After 1975 ▪ After Hair, the musical scene became increasingly fragmented ▪ Ascendancy of the choreographer as the director in 1970s and 1980s ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Jerome Robbins (West Side Story, Fiddler on the Roof) Gower Champion (Hello Dolly!, 42nd Street ) Bob Fosse (Sweet Charity, Pippin ) Susan Stroman (The Producers) Kathleen Marshall (Anything Goes) © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 39
    •  American Musical Theatre continued  American Musicals After 1975 ▪ Reawakening of the American Form ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Rent (1996) Wicked (2003) Light in the Piazza (2005) Avenue Q (2003) The Book of Mormon (2011) Spiderman: Turn off the Dark (2011) © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 40
    •  American Musical Theatre continued  American Musicals After 1975 ▪ Adaptations of films into stage musicals: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ The Producers (2001) Hairspray (2003) Monty Python’s Spamalot (2005) Billy Elliott (2005) The Lion King (1997) Aida (1999) © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 41
    • RECENT AMERICAN MUSICALS The new musical The Book of Mormon successfully combines traditional musical theatre elements with contemporary edgy comments and observations. It concerns a group of Mormon missionaries who visit the African country of Uganda and much of the humor stems from the clash of cultures. Written by Trey Parker and Matt Stone, the music by Robert Lopez. The actors are (l-r) Rema Webb, Andrew Rannelis and Josh Gad © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 42
    •  Canada and Australia  Developments in theatre that have paralleled the     complexity found in international theatre Before WWII, commercial theaters and some “little theaters” Many regional theatres established in ‘50s and ‘60s Avant-garde companies and theatres in late ‘60s to today Playwrights and theatre artists have dealt with issues related to these countries’ diverse populations © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 43
    •  The future of theatre  The live performer: human contact between audience     and performer will continue to meet a profound, fundamental need Human impulse to create theatre: humans have a universal impulse to create theatrical activity Theatre will continue with new works alongside a rich mixture of plays from the past Theatre will be as complex and fragmented as the world in which it exists Theatre will continue to focus on human concerns © 2013 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 44