Seed treatment for plant disease control by K. M. Golam Dastogeer

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Seed treatment for plant disease control -A lecture note prepared for L-4 S-1 Students of Agriculture Faculty students at BAU

Seed treatment for plant disease control -A lecture note prepared for L-4 S-1 Students of Agriculture Faculty students at BAU

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  • 1. A Lecture note prepared for SEED TREATMENT FOR Level-4 Semester-1 students PLANT DISEASE CONTROL April-2013 Seed Treatment- Turn your seeds into super seedsIn modern times a lot of attention is paid to protecting plants from different kinds of diseases andpests. This is sometimes accomplished by breeding varieties that are resistant to diseases, therebyprotecting the crop through its growth cycle. However, when resistant varieties are not availableor the level of resistance is not sufficient under high disease and pest pressure, the grower maydecide to use crop protection methods i.e., applying plant protection compounds (chemicals orbiological material). These compounds can be used in two ways, either as an application to thesoil or sprayed directly on the plant. Such crop protection methods may require the use ofsignificant quantities of active substances.An excellent alternative is to apply crop protection compounds directly to the seed beforesowing. Such a treatment to the seed requires the use of very small quantities of activesubstances per unit area of land, and is a very effective and targeted method of controlling pestsand diseases. Seed treatments are a valuable tool for Integrated Pest Management (IPM) as theyexert little pressure on the environment Seed treatments promote seedling establishment and helpreduce yield and quality losses due to many pathogens and insects. Seed treatment is one of theeasiest methods of disease control in the home garden even though seed treatments will notcontrol foliar diseases that may attack the plants later on in the season. Seed treatments can be anenvironmentally more friendly way of using pesticides as the amounts used can be very small. Itis usual to add color to make treated seed less attractive to birds if spilt and easier to see andclean up in the case of an accidental spillage. However, the main value of seed treatment is theincrease in stand or the number of plants that emerge from the soil. Plants will also have healthyroot systems which enable them to get a vigorous start. Another side benefit of seed treatmentmay be to reduce the introduction of disease-causing fungi found on the seed from getting intopathogen-free soil.K. M. Golam Dastogeer, Lecturer, Department of Plant Pathology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202 Page 1
  • 2. Seed treatment- How to define itSeed treatment is the process by which seeds are treated with physical, chemical or biologicalagents to prevent the infection of seedlings and the subsequent development of the crops.Why do we treat seeds? To prevent germination failure, infection of seedlings and subsequent crops by destroying externally contaminated and internally seed-borne pathogens. To prevent the germinating seed and seedling from the attack of soil-borne pathogens by developing a protective zone around the seed in soil.Seed treatments are grouped according to the purpose 1. Seed disinfestation: Disinfestation is the control of spores and other forms of disease organisms on the surface of seed. 2. Seed disinfection: Disinfection is the elimination of a pathogen that has penetrated into living cells of seed, infected it, and become established. The purpose of seed disinfection is to eradicate seed-infecting pathogens from the seed coat, the embryo, or both 3. Seed protection: The purpose of seed protection is to prevent seed rots and damping-off caused by soil-inhabiting fungi. Seed protection is the application of a chemical to protect seed from disease organisms in the soil. A systemic fungicide seed protectant also may provide post-emergence protection to the crop, usually from foliage diseases, for several weeks after plant emergence.K. M. Golam Dastogeer, Lecturer, Department of Plant Pathology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202 Page 2
  • 3. History of seed treatment Although seed treatment has been a widely accepted practice in the United States for only 40 years, the practice has been recognized as beneficial for hundreds of years. The earliest reported use of seed treatment dates back to 60 A.D. when wine and crushed cypress leaves were used to protect seed from storage insects. Scientists today have given credence to the practice because hydrogen cyanide evolves under these conditions. In the early 17th century, a shipwreck resulted in a load of grain being soaked with seawater. Seed recovered from the ship produced a crop that contained significantly less bunt (stinking smut) than adjacent fields planted with un-soaked seed. Although this practice was described and recognized as beneficial at that time, it was not until 1750 that the Frenchman Tillet proved scientifically the benefits of salt and lime to control common bunt of wheat. Seed treatment has since evolved into a more complex science. The advent of the organic mercurials in the 1920s started a new era in seed treatment that has resulted in the multiple contact and systemic fungicides now available to the seed treater. Although safety concerns have led to the banning of mercurial compounds, the new contact and systemic fungicides allow for a more precise matching of treatment to specific needs. seedsDiseases and pathogen commonly associated with seedsDiseases:(a) Seed rot-rotting of seed before germination.(b) Damping-off and seedling blight--soft rot of stem tissues near ground level and water soakingof seedling tissues.(c) Seedling wilt--gray coloration starting at the leaf tips and extending rapidly to the whole leaf,causing complete collapse of seedlings in 24 to 28 hours.(d) Root rot—water soaking, browning and sloughing of rootless. (e) Loose and covered smut ofsmall grains.Disease Organisms:(a) Pythium sp, (b) Fusarium sp, (c) Diplodia sp, (d) Penicillium sp, (e) Helminthosporium sp, (f)Ustilago (g) Rhizoctonia sp (h) Bipolaris sp. (i) Alternaria sp. and many moreK. M. Golam Dastogeer, Lecturer, Department of Plant Pathology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202 Page 3
  • 4. Seeds commonly treatedField cropsCorn, small grains or cereals (barley, oats, rye, wheat, and rice), sorghum, forage grasses,millets, soybean, sugar cane, sugar beets, sunflowers, cotton, and flax all benefit from seedtreatment.Vegetable and other seedsEssentially all vegetable seeds benefits from seed treatment. Treated seed is available from anumber of vegetable seed supply houses. A wide range of garden and greenhouse floweringplants as well as nursery and forest plants benefits from seed treatment.Methods of seed treatmentA. Physical methodsB. Chemical methodsC. Biological methodA. Physical methods or procedures1. Hot water treatmentHot water seed treatment can be an important step in ensuring that seed is not a source ofpathogens causing diseases in your vegetable crops. Pathogens that are able to get inside seed areespecially difficult because a surface disinfectant won’t affect them. Only heat treatment can getin to these pathogens. The temperature of water for treating seed varies from 118 to 125oF (48-520C), depending on the crop, and the treatment period varies from 15 to 30 minutes. It isimportant to use the appropriate protocol for each crop to control pathogens without damagingthe seed. While hot-water seed treatment can be done effectively on a stovetop, it is much betterto use a precision water bath and an accurate thermometer. If properly used, hot-water soaks willkill most seed-borne fungi and bacteria without killing the seed. Seed lots of poor quality or lotsmore than one year old may not germinate well after hot-water treatment. Therefore, a smallsample of each seed lot should be treated and tested for germination before the entire lot istreated. The water temperature must be carefully controlled, since a slight reduction intemperature may result in a failure to kill the fungi or bacteria, and a slight increase may result inK. M. Golam Dastogeer, Lecturer, Department of Plant Pathology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202 Page 4
  • 5. severe seed injury. It is generally best to purchase seed that has been hot water treated by acommercial seed company. However, the following procedures should be strictly followed whencommercially treated seed is not available or desirable.In Bangladesh, the “Vegetable Seeds Treating Plant” has been developed by IPM Lab. BAU,Mymensingh. The device, made up of locally available materials works automatically controllingtemperature with time. The plant is designed to treat seeds of vegetables especially eggplant,tomato, chillies, cucurbits, cauliflower, cabbage, radish etc using hot water.Procedure of seed treatment by hot water using Vegetable Seeds Treating Plant Seeds in a cotton fabric bag were soaked in normal water for 3-4 hrs. Fill the treatment bag no more than half full and gently squeeze it during this soak to eliminate all air pockets and to make sure all seeds are wetted Two liters of water (below the red making) were poured Then the plant was connected with electricity The water in plant was stirred frequently for even distribution of heat after waiting 10 minutes to get the temperature 53°C Then the seed (in bag) was dipped in hot water, and the bag was stirred The seed bag was kept immersed in hot water for 15 minutes (at the recommended temperatures (Table 1). The time and temperature of treatment must be exact) . Immediately after the required treatment time has elapsed, place the sacks in cold water for a few minutes. Spread the seeds out to dry. Apply a protective seed treatment and make seeds ready for sowingK. M. Golam Dastogeer, Lecturer, Department of Plant Pathology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202 Page 5
  • 6. Precautions 1. Seed germination may be decreased at temperature above the deadline and pathogen may not be killed at bellow temperature. This may happen due to mishandling of the machine. 2. Seeds should be kept in loosely tied bag so that all seeds may come in touch with hot water. 3. The machine should be kept away from the children.2. Cold water treatmentSteps to be followed- i. Seeds should be kept in a loose bag and loosely tied at the top of the bags. ii. Seeds should be soaked for 30 minutes in normal water. iii. Seeds should be stored in a air tight container for- 80 hours at 68°F/70 hours at 70°F/60 hours at 75°F /40 hours at 80°F /hours at 90°F iv. After storage, the water should be drained off and then seeds should be spread and dried on clean light floor and the seeds should be stored with normal moisture content (10 18%).The grains are dried quickly to gain normal moisture content (10-18%). It is not permitted to heat seed above 100°F during drying.3. Anaerobic water treatmentThe seeds are soaked in water and held under anaerobic conditions for a definite period of timee.g. loose smut of barley was effectively controlled by soaking seeds in water at 24°C and at28°C for 6 hours and then drained and stored in air-tight container for 42 hours with V2 of thecontainer filled with grain. The procedure reduces the hazard of injury to seed germination fromoverheating.4. Dry heat treatmentThis has been little used, although different combinations of temperature have given promisingresults against certain pathogens while attempts against some other fungal pathogens gavenegative results. e.g. Colletotrichum gossypii in cotton and Puccinia antirrhini in snapdragonpositive results were reported.K. M. Golam Dastogeer, Lecturer, Department of Plant Pathology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202 Page 6
  • 7. Dry air treatment of tomato seed at 70°C for 3-4 days is partly effective against tobacco mosaicvirus (TMV) and lettuce seed infected with lettuce mosaic virus can be inactivated by treatingseeds at 55°C for 80-120 days.5. Solar heat treatment (Solar energy method): In countries with a hot climate like Bangladesh has its great use. Grain is presoaked in normal water for 4-5 hours at room or in the shade and then drained the water and dried the seeds on ground under sun for 4-6/8 hours. In our country drying of Aus paddy on concrete road or pucca floor under the sun is a sort of seed treatment by solar heat. The procedure has proved effective against loose smut of barley and wheat.6. Aerated steam treatmentThe principle is to treat dry seed in moving vapour by pressure flow. e.g. cabbage seed reportedto be treated at 56°C for 30 minutes to eliminate Alternaria brassicae .B) Chemical methods of seed treatment i. Steep treatment: The seed is soaked in fungicidal solution/suspension for a definite period and then drained and dried. ii. Sprinkle treatment: The seed is sprinkled with a fungicidal liquid solution or suspension, left damp with this for a definite period of time and then dried. iii. Dust treatment: Place the seed and fungicide (2 g/kg seed) in a closed container (Mason jar or drum) and agitate vigorously for several minutes until the seed is uniformly coated with dust. iv. Slurry treatment: Add enough water to a wettable powdery formulation of the selected fungicide to make a sloppy paste. Place the seed in the slurry and stir or swirl until the seeds are thoroughly coated. Dry the seed before planting. Precaution: Remember that 1 to 3 ounces of seed protectant are sufficient to treat an entire bushel of seed. Do not overdose. v. Wet treatment: The seed is mixed with a relatively small amount of concentrated liquid (about 100-300 ml/kg seed). There is no recovery of liquid after treatment, but drying is necessary. vi. Fumigation: The seed is treated in an air-tight container, for a definite period of time by use of volatile material (a fungicide or a nematicide).K. M. Golam Dastogeer, Lecturer, Department of Plant Pathology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202 Page 7
  • 8. vii. Pelleting: Application of sticker prior to mixing the seed with a dust fungicide. Tween-20 may be used as sticker. The seed is coated, first with the sticker in dilute solution in such as way that each seed becomes a pellet containing an outer zone of protectant. Some commonly used seed treatment fungicidesCaptanCaptan is a broad-spectrum, largely protective fungicide registered for use on numerous fieldcrops, fruit and nut crops, vegetables, and ornamentals. It is a seed protectant that gives goodcontrol of seed rots or decays and seedling blights (damping-off).CarboxinCarboxin is a protective contact-systemic fungicide. It is registered for use on small grains(except rye), corn, sorghum, soybean, cotton, peanuts, beans, and certain ornamentals. It controlsthe embryo borne loose smut fungi of wheat and barley; other seedborne and soilborne smuts;and certain seed rotting and seedling blight fungi, such as Rhizoctonia solani, species ofHelminthosporium and Fusarium, and Verticillium wilt of annuals.Mancozeb and ManebMancozeb and maneb are broad-spectrum, largely protectant-contact fungicides. They are fairlyeffective against seed externally contaminated with seedborne smut fungi (covered smuts ofsmall grains and forage grasses, loose smut of oats, semiloose or nigra smut of barley), andsurfaceborne Helminthosporium stripe of barley. They also are effective against many fungi thatcause seed rot and seedling blight (damping-off).MetalaxylMetalaxyl is systemic fungicides specific for seed rot and damping-off fungi that are watermolds, such as Pythium and Phytophthora; downy mildews, such as Peronospora andPseudopernospora, and related fungi.Pentachloronitrobenzene or PCNBPCNB is a long-lasting seed, bulb, corm, and soil fungicide. It is effective on seed externallycontaminated with seedborne and soilborne smut fungi (covered smuts of small grains and foragegrasses, loose smut of oats, and semiloose or nigra smut of barley). It also gives some protectionagainst seed rots and seedling blights (damping-off) caused by Rhizoctonia; common scab andK. M. Golam Dastogeer, Lecturer, Department of Plant Pathology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202 Page 8
  • 9. scurf of potatoes; root and stem rot of beans; and bulb, corm, crown (stem), and root rots ofbulbous ornamentals.StreptomycinStreptomycin is a short residual, antibacterial antibiotic sold as a seed protectant to controlbacterial blights, including halo blight, of dry and garden beans; corn; bacterial soft rot orblackleg of potatoes; and bacterial spot of pepper and tomato.TebuconazoleTebuconazole is a systemic fungicide for control of specified diseases (especially smuts; early-season Rhizoctonia root rot; early season Septoria disease complex; early season common rootrot; early-season Fusarium root rot; early-season suppression of powdery mildew; and early-season suppression of wheat leaf rust, barley leaf rust, and oat crown rust) on wheat, barley, andoats.Thiabendazole or TBZTBZ is a systemic fungicide that controls seedborne and soilborne common or stinking smut anddwarf bunt of wheat. TBZ can be used as an ornamental bulb and corm dip to control Fusariumbasal rot; Penicilliumblue mold; and other fungal crown, rhizome, root, and bulb rots. TBZ alsocontrols Fusarium (dry rot) of potato tubers in storage, and black rot, scurf, and root rot of sweetpotato. When combined with captan or maneb, TBZ controls wheat bunt, seedling blight, seeddecay, and root rot.ThiramThiram is a seed protectant fungicide registered for use on essentially all field crops. It is widelyused on vegetable, grass, and flower seed as well as on bulbs, corms, and tubers to controldecays, seedling blights (damping-off), and crown rots. Thiram also is effective for seedexternally contaminated with seedborne or soilborne smut fungi (onion smut, covered smut, orbunt of wheat, barley, and rye; nigra smut of barley; and covered kernel smut of sorghum); andHelminthosporium strip of barley. Thiram is sold in combination with many fungicides as wellas with some insecticides. One formulation of thiram is registered for the treatment of pine andother coniferous seeds to be planted directly in forest areas. Although thiram is an excellentfungicide, human allergy problems have been reported.K. M. Golam Dastogeer, Lecturer, Department of Plant Pathology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202 Page 9
  • 10. Important information Captan is sold as Gustafson Captan 30DD, 300, 400, 400-D, and Captan 75 Seed Protectant. Carboxin is sold as Vitavax and Vitavax 34 and in combination with PCNB as Vitavax- PCNB. Chloroneb is sold as Chloroneb 65W. Maneb is sold as Maneb 80. Metalaxyl is sold as Apron Dry, Apron FL, and Apron 25W. It is also sold in combination with PCNB as Apron-terrachlore. Thiabendazole is sold as Mertect 340F. Mancozeb is sold as Manzate 200, Dithane M-45, and Penncozeb. PCNB is sold as Terraclor 10G and 75% WP Dust. Streptomycin is sold as Agri-strep, Agrimycin 17, and Streptomycin 17. Thiram is sold as Chipco Thiram 75, Gustafson Thiram-30 Fungicide, 50WP, and 42-S.Some seed treating chemicals and their doses: 1. Thiram 75WP @ 0.25% (2.5 g/kg seed) 2. Captan 75 WP @ 0.25% (2.5 g/kg seed) 3. Carboxin @ 0.25-0.4% (2.5-4.0 g/kg seed) 4. Vitavax @ 0.25% (2.5g/kg seed) 5. Bavistin - 0.25% (2.Sg/kg seed) 6. Panoctine liquid to control internally seed-borne diseases 0.I%= 1 drop in l Og of seeds 0.4% = 4 drop in 10g; of seeds 7. Benomyl and Homai @ 0.3% (3g/kg seed)3) Biological methodBotanicals (i.e. Garlic and Allamanda tablet) and BAU-Biofungicide are the promising bioagents used for the treatment of seeds. These are reported as efficient and eco-friendly means tocontrol the seed borne diseases.K. M. Golam Dastogeer, Lecturer, Department of Plant Pathology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202 Page 10
  • 11. Do you know about BAU-Biofungicide?BAU-Biofungicide is formulated from naturally occurring fungus, Trichoderma by growing onan organic substrate (Agro-wastes) to protect crops from different diseases (root rot, foot rot,wilt etc.) caused by different harmful fungi (Fusarium, Sclerotium, Rhizotonia, Pythium,Phytophthora, Macrophomina, etc.). BAU Biofungicide protects seeds in the soil from largenumber of soil borne as well as seed borne fungi that can attack the seeds before germination aswell as after germination. It can also be used for protecting crop plants from the attack ofnematode.The benefits of using BAU- Biofungicide There is no health risk of using BAU Biofungicide. The product can be manufactured easily using locally available machinery and raw materials. The product can be stored for 6 months at room temperature even in farmer’s house. It is easy to handle, packaging, distribution and marketing. The product is environmental friendly and improves soil quality for the betterment of crop growth. It can be used as seed treatment, soil treatment and foliar application Its cost of production is extra-ordinarily low.Seed treatment with BAU- BiofungicideSeeds of different cereals, pulses and vegetable crops such as Sweet gourd, Snake gourd, Bittergourd, Bottle gourd, Ridge gourd, Tomato, Eggplant, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Kalmi shak,Amaranth, Raddish, Okra,Yard long bean, Indian spinach, Spinach etc. can effectively betreated with BAU-Biofungicide.Use and application1. Seed treatment: 2.5-3.0% of seed weight.2. Soil drenching: 2% in water3. Foliar spray: 2% in water.K. M. Golam Dastogeer, Lecturer, Department of Plant Pathology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202 Page 11
  • 12. Table. 1: Standard temperature and duration of hot water treatment of some vegetables Crop Water temperature (°F) Time (minutes) Broccoli 122 20-25 Brussels Sprout 122 25 Cabbage 122 25 Carrot 122 15-20 Cauliflower 122 20 Coriander 127 30 Cucumber 122 20 Eggplant 122 25 Garlic 120 20 Lettuce 118 30 Mustard 122 15 Onion (sets) 115 60 Pepper 125 30 Spinach 122 25 Sweetpotato (roots) 115 65 (cuttings, sprouts) 120 10 Tomato 122 25 Turnip 122 20Table 2. Seed Treatment, Materials, and Disease Control for Vegetable Crops aCrop Chemical & method Disease controlled, remarksAsparagus bleach soak Bleach soak controls Fusarium wilt Seed Crowns captan D Mancozeb controls crown rots mancozeb D bBean captan D, S, PB Seed rot, damping-off, Pythium and chloroneb S,PB Rhizoctonia root rot. Streptomycin is etridiazole and partially effective in eliminating surface c PCNB D,S,PB contamination by the halo blight metalaxyl S organism. PCNB can be used for better PCNB D,S protection against Rhizoctonia. streptomycin S Metalaxyl will provide optimal controlK. M. Golam Dastogeer, Lecturer, Department of Plant Pathology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202 Page 12
  • 13. thiram D,S of Pythium.Beet captan D,S Seed rot, damping-off, black rot thiram D,S (seedling stage). Application of Solubor may reduce damping-off if boron is deficient.Carrot hot water soak, followed Hot water soak controls seedborne by thiram D,S bacterial blight. Thiram controls seed rot and damping-off.Corn captan D,S Most of these products control seed rot (Pop and metalaxyl S and damping-off. Metalaxyl controls a sweet) thiram D,S, only Pythium. carboxin S,PB bCrucifers hot water soak, Hot water soak controls seedborne(cabbage, followed by black rot, blackleg, downy mildew,broccoli, captan D,S anthracnose, and Alternaria leaf spotbrussels thiram D,S and blight. Fungicides control seed rotsprouts, caulif- and damping-off.flower,collards, kale,kohlrabi,mustard,radish, turnip)Eggplant hot water soak, Hot water soak controls seedborne followed by Phomopsis blight and Collectotrichum captan, D,S fruit rot. Thiram controls seed rot and thiram D,S damping-off.Endive thiram D,S Seed rot, damping-offGarlic PCNB D,S White rot (cloves)Okra metalaxyl S Seed rot, damping-off thiram D,SOnion thiram D,S, Seed rot, damping-off, smut. pelleted with methocel stickerK. M. Golam Dastogeer, Lecturer, Department of Plant Pathology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202 Page 13
  • 14. Pea captan D,S,PB Seed rot, damping-off. Give partial etridiazole and control of Ascochyta and PCNB M,PB Mycosphaerella blights. metalaxyl S PCNB M,D,S thiram D,S bPepper hot water soak or Soaks control seedborne anthracnose bleach soak, and bacterial spot. Fungicides control followed by seed rot and damping-off. captan D,S thiram D,S -6-Potatob captan D Fusarium or seed piece rots or decays maneb D mancozeb D, dip thiophanate methyl and fir bark, D Blackleg (bacterial) Streptomycin, D Soak controls seedborne downySpinach hot water soak, mildew and anthracnose. Fungicides control seed followed by rot and captan D,S damping-off. thiram D,SSweet potato Botran dip Black rot, stem rot, scurf Thiabendazole dip bSwiss chard captan D,S Seed rot, damping-off, leaf spot. thiram D,STomato hot water soak, Soak controls seedborne bacterial spot, anthracnose, and Phoma rot. followed by Fungicides captan S, control seed rots and damping-off. thiram D,S, or mancozeb S Soak controls seedborne tobacco trisodium phosphate mosaic soak, virus. Fungicides control seed rots and followed by damping-off.K. M. Golam Dastogeer, Lecturer, Department of Plant Pathology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202 Page 14
  • 15. captan S, thiram D,S, or mancozeb S Soaks control seedborne tobacco trisodium phosphate mosaic and bleach soak, virus, anthracnose, and bacterial spot. Fungicides control seed rots and followed by damping- captan S, off. thiram D,S, or mancozeb S Seed rot, damping-off, seedborneVine crops captan D,S,PB Fusarium, (cantaloupe, thiram D,S foot rot of squash, black rot. cucumber, pumpkin, squash, watermelon)(Other melons) Seed rot, damping-off. captan D,Sa D = Dust; S = Slurry; PB = Planter Box; M = Machine.b Obtain certified disease-free seed or seed grown in the semi-arid areas of the western United cStates. Field, kidney, snap, and lima beans.d Sweet corn only Table.3. Recommendation of seed treatment for different cropsS.No. Name of Pest/Disease Seed Treatment Remarks Crop Sugarcane Root rot, wilt Carbendazim (0.1%) 2 gm/kg seed For seed dressing Trichoderma spp. 4-6 gm/kg. seed metal seed 1. dresser/earthern pots or polythene bags are used. 2. Rice Root rot disease Trichoderma 5-10 gm/kg seed (before transplanting) other insects/pests Chloropyriphos 3gm/kg seed. -do- Bacterial shealth Pseudomonas flourescens 0.5% W.P. 10 blight gm/kg. 3. Chillies Anthracnose spp. Seed treatment with Damping off Trichoderma viride 4g/kg, Carbandazim @ 1g/100 gm seed. -do- 4. Soil borne infection Trichoderma viride @ 2 gm/kg. seed and PseudomonasK. M. Golam Dastogeer, Lecturer, Department of Plant Pathology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202 Page 15
  • 16. of fungal disease flourescens,@10gm/kg. Captan 75 WS @ 1.5 to 2.5 gm a.i./litre for soil drenching. Imidacloprid 70 WS @ 10-15 gm a.i./kg -do- seed Jassid, aphid, thrips 5. Pigeon pea Wilt, Trichoderma spp. @ 4 gm/kg. seed For seed dressing Blight and Root rot metal seed dresser/earthern pots or polythene bags are used. 6. Pea Root rot Seed treatment with 1. Bacillus subtilis 2. Pseudomonas fluorescens Soil application @ 2.5 – 5 kg in 100kg White rot FYM or -do- 1. Carbendazim or Captan2 gm/kg. seed Thiram+Carbendazim 2gm/kg seed Carbendazim or Captan 2gm/kg seed 7. Bhendi Root knot nematode Paecilomyces -do- lilacinus andPseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 gm/kg as seed dresser. 8. Tomato Soil borne infection T. viride @ 2 gm/100gm seed. For seed dressing of fungal disease Captan 75 WS @ 1.5 to 2.0 gm a.i./litre for metal seed Early blight soil drenching. dresser/earthern Damping off pots or polythene bags are used. Wilt Pseudomonas fluorescens andV. clamydosporium @ 10gm/kg as seed dresser. 9. Coriander Wilt Trichoderma viride @ 4 gm./kg seed. -do- 10. Brinjal Bacterial wilt Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10gm/kg. -do- 11. Leguminous Soil borne infection Trichoderma viride @ 2 gm/100gms. seed. Vegetables Carbofuran/Carbosulfan 3% (w/w) -do- Nematode 12. Sunflower Seed rot Trichoderma viride @ 6 gm/kg seed. Imidaclorprid 48FS @ 5-9 gm a.i. per kg.K. M. Golam Dastogeer, Lecturer, Department of Plant Pathology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202 Page 16
  • 17. Jassids, Whitefly seed -do- Imidacloprid 70WS @ 7 gm a.i. per kg. seed 13. Wheat Termite Teat the seed before sowing with any one of the following insecticides. i) Chlorpyriphos @ 4 ml/kg seed or Endosulfan @ 7ml / kg seeds Thiram 75% WP Bunt/False Carboxin 75 % WP smut/loose Tebuconazole 2 DS @ 1.5 to 1.87 gm a.i. smut/covered smut per kg seed. T. viride 1.15 % WP @ 4 gm/kg. 14. Cruciferous Soil / Seed borne Seed treatment withTrichoderma viridi @ 2 vegetables diseases (Damping g / 100 g seeds (Cabbage, off) Captan 75% WS @ 1.5 to 2.5 gm a.i./litre Cauliflower, for soil drenching. Broccoli, -do- Knol-khol, Pseudomonas fluorescens andVerlicillium radish) Root knot nematode clamydosporium @ 10gm/kg seed as seed dresser 15. Gram Wilt and damping off Seed treatment withTrichoderma viridi 1% WP @ 9 gm/kg seeds Combination of Carbendazim with carbosulfan @ 0.2% Carbendazim with Thiram with carbosulfan @ 0.2% Treat the seed withChlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 15-30 ml a.i./kg seed. 16. Potato Soil and Tuber borne Seed treatment with MEMC 3% WS @ diseases 0.25% or boric acid 3% for 20 minuts before storage. 17. Barley Loos smut Carboxin 75% WP Covered smut Thiram 75% WP @ 1.5 to 1.87 gm a.i./kg Leaf stripe seed. Termite Treat the seed withChlorpyriphos @ 4 ml/kg seed. 18. Capsicum Root knot nematode Pseudomonas fluorescens 1% WP, Paecilomyces lilacirius andVerticillium chlamydosporium1% WP @ 10g/kg as seed dresser.K. M. Golam Dastogeer, Lecturer, Department of Plant Pathology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202 Page 17
  • 18. # DisclaimerAll information provided in this piece of lecture sheet is for academic purposes only and does notconstitute a legal contract between the author and any person or entity. Chemical related topics found onthese pages, should not be used for prescription purposes or be substituted for farmer’s advice. As withany new or ongoing development, always consult your local extension officers before beginning any newtreatment. It is your responsibility to research the accuracy, completeness, and usefulness of allinformation regarding seed health testing. The author is not liable for any outdated information containedon these pages.K. M. Golam Dastogeer, Lecturer, Department of Plant Pathology, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202 Page 18