Government 2.0: Utilization Model,Implementation Scenarios, &RelationshipsAuthorsGohar Feroz Khan (Korea University of Technology & Education, South Korea)Bobby Swar (SolBridge International School of Business, South Korea)Pre-ECIS workshop: E-Government 2.0: Case studies and experience reportsJune 4, Utrecht, the Netherlands.
Table of Contents What is social media? Social media defined Social media-based government Government 2.0 vs. e-govt. How is Social Media Used in Public Sector? Method ResultsThe big pictureGovt. 2.0 Utilization modelGovt. 2.0 implementation scenariosGovt. 2.0 Relationships Conclusion
What is Social Media? Social media consists of a variety of tools andtechnologies that includes: Collaborative projects (e.g., Wikipedia and wikispaces), Blogs (e.g., WordPress) and microblogs (e.g., Twitter), Content communities (e.g., YouTube), Social networking sites (e.g., Facebook), Virtual game worlds (e.g., World of Warcraft), Virtual social worlds (e.g., Second Life), and All other Web 2.0 platforms that facilitate the creation &exchange of UGC.
Social Media Defined “A Web 2.0 based technologies/tools— that allows thecreation and exchange of user-generated contents whileletting users establish one or more of these: Identity Conversations Connectivity (i.e., presence) Relationships Reputation Groups, and Share contents.” (Khan, 2013, p.2)
What is Government 2.0? Is driven by social media/Web 2.0 Also known as: Collaborative Government (McGuire, 2006), Do-it-yourself Government (Dunleavy & Margetts,2010), Government as a Platform (OReilly, 2010), Social Government (Khan, et al., 2012), or We-Government (Linders, 2012), among others.
Government 2.0 VS., E-GovernmentTable 1 e-Government VS., Government 2.0e-Government Government 2.0Technology Static enterprise anddomain specifictechnologies;Web 1.0 phenomenon;Consumer and commoditisedtechnologies;Web 2.0 & Social Media;Strategy Inside-Out Outside-InService Focus Citizens as Receivers Citizens as Active Participants
Research Question How is Social Media Used in PublicSector?
How is Social Media Used inPublic Sector? Method (Inductive Approach) A Web survey of 200 govt. websites from 40 countries (20Developed and 20 Developing), to look for:1) SNS2) multimedia sharing services3) discussion forums ,4) blogging ,5) wikis ,6) rich site summery , and7) social tagging services, Coded either as “yes” or “no”.
How is Social Media Used inPublic Sector? Method (Inductive Approach) Also, reviewed 45 Web 2.0 initiatives from around theworld.Each initiative was assessed based on a codingscheme covering four dimensions: 1) citizens’ engagement, 2) mass collaboration, 3) social transaction, and 4) Web 2.0 complexityThe variables were coded as: 1) low, 2) medium,and 3) high to access the four dimensions
Results The Big Picture: Social Media in PublicSector Govt. 2.0 Utilization Model Govt. 2.0 Implementation Scenarios Govt. 2.0 Relationships
The Big Picture: Social Mediain Public Sector This is what we found it isPosts, Likes, Tweets, & SharesPosts, Likes, Tweets, & SharesMass collaborations, citizen sourcing,co-creation, etc.Mass collaborations, citizen sourcing,co-creation, etc.Social transactionSocial transaction-SM use is mostly informational and limitedly collaboration and transactional.
Social Media in Public Sector This is what it should bePosts, Likes, Tweets, & SharesPosts, Likes, Tweets, & SharesMass collaborations, citizen sourcing,co-creation, etc.Mass collaborations, citizen sourcing,co-creation, etc.Social transactionSocial transaction
The Big Picture The social media pipe (i.e., socialmedia tools/technologies) connectsproducer and consumer orprosumers (i.e., governmentagencies, citizens, andbusinesses) where the governmentservices are co-produced thatflows in both directions makinggovernment and citizen partners inthe delivery of public services.Figure 1. Conceptual Model of Social Media Use in Public Sector
Govt. 2.0 Utilization ModelFigure 2: Government 2.0 Utilization Model
1. Information Socialization (IS) At this stage, public sector leverage socialmedia as an informational and participatorychannel to increase citizen’s awareness andenable them to monitor and participate ingovernment activities.
Socialization of informationis achieved in two ways: Simple Information Socialization, and Complex Information Socialization
Simple InformationSocialization Simple information socialization isachieved through merely incorporatingsocial media tools in the existinggovernment websites e.g., through incorporating commentsand discussions features, and/or through establishing dedicatedsocial media pages/accounts (e.g.,Facebook fan page or Twitteraccount) to delivery day-to-dayinformation/news to the citizens.
Complex InformationSocialization Complex information socializationrequires establishing advancesocial media/web 2.0 basedinformational government portalsfor informational and participatorypurposes, such as: http://maplight.org/ http://www.data.gov/about, and http://blogs.justice.gov/main/.
Note An important use of the socialization of informationis in situation where the immediate delivery ofinformation/news is crucial, such as: disseminating news and information about public safetyand in crisis management situations such as,weather,traffic,diseases, andnature or man-made disasters.
2. Mass Collaboration At this stage, public sector leveragesocial media tools to poster mass socialcollaboration between government andcitizens and cross agency collaboration. Mass collaboration was instrumental in regulation, crowd sourcing, and lawenforcement. Mostly observed in Developedcountries
Example 1-Regulation For example, the Peer-To-Patent (www.peertopatent.com)initiative by the Patent andTrademark Office (USPTO) ofthe United States is a goodexample of mass governmentand citizen social collaborationin reinforcing regulations.
Example 2-Law Enforcement Another example is the Koreangovernment’s smart phone appsdeveloped to enable mass collaboration inreporting illegal car parking, wastedisposal, energy misuse, and reportingother inappropriate behaviour.
Example 3-Croud Sourcing Similarly, a good exampleof croudsourcing is the“apps for democracy”initiative:http://www.appsfordemocracy.org/application-directory/. A U.S. governmentinitiative to engage thepublic in developing newapplications fordemocracy.
3. Social Transaction Public sector use (limitedly though) socialmedia tools to establish tangible onlinetransactions with the citizens.
Example 1 Another example of usingsocial media for servicedelivery is the “Fixmystreet”initiative:http://www.fixmystreet.com/) Where citizens using aninteractive portal report aproblem related to their locality(e.g., fly tipping, broken pavingslabs, or street lighting) whichis then forwarded to the councilto fix the problem.
Example 2 For example, the U.K.government use a Web2.0 based website(www.gov.uk) to providesimple, one-stop accessto government servicesonline where citizenscan access to publicservices such as: tax, driving test, passport,births, deaths, marriages,and health care.
Example-3 The Korea NTS isoperating online"Year-end TaxSettlement Service“at:www.yesone.go.kr to enable taxpayersto gather all sorts ofthe receipts forincome deductiononline.
Standalone Govt. 2.0 In the standalone implementation scenarios,informational Government 2.0 (i.e., stage 1)can be implement directly under traditionalgovernment settings (i.e., paper basedgovernment). Mostly, observed in developing countries (e.g.,Zimbabwe, Rwanda, and Fiji) where e-Government is not yet fully implemented
Nested Govt. 2.0 Under this scenario, governmentsfunnel existing e-Governmentinfrastructure and capabilities toleverage social media tools in the day-to-day governance. Scenario 2 is the most likely scenariowhere Government 2.0 is realized underthe umbrella of e-government
Nested Govt. 2.0 Observed in the developing and transitionaleconomies, such as: Estonia India Pakistan Kazakhstan Lithuania Poland South Africa, and Thailand
Hybrid govt. 2.0 Hybrid Government 2.0, from a conceptual pointof view, can be defined as, a flavor (or subset) of ICT based government(e.g., e-Government & m-Government) thatharness social media tool/technologies toestablish an open, transparent, andparticipative government (see Figure 4).
Hybrid govt. 2.0 This type of government is observed inadvanced economies, such as: Denmark New Zealand South Korea the Netherlands the United Kingdom, and the United States who have already made significantachievement in the e-Government
Govt. 2.0 Relationships C2G Informational Relationship e.g., inform of feedback and exert opinion, or reportingcrimes and natural disasters using social media tools. C2G Service Relationship the “Apps for America 2”: A U.S. governmentinitiative where citizens are invited to developedapps for the government Other possible relationships B2G informational relationship B2G service relationship
Conclusion Social media in public sector is more than just “likes”,“tweets”, and “shares” Social media tools and channels useful todisseminate information, foster mass collaboration,enforce laws, and execute regulation. SM use is mostly informational and limitedtransactional. SM has great potential for DCs
Conclusion Limitations we only focused on the use of and opportunitiesrelated to social mediastudies are needed to access the risk andreward of social media in public sectorsystematicallyStages based risks Skills and capabilities needed to implement socialmedia are not discussed
Thank You In case you are interested SSCR special issue on Best Practices in Social Media at Non-profit, Public, Education, and HealthcareOrganizations CFP:http://laton.wikispaces.com/SSCOR+Special+Issue+on+Social+Media
References Eggers, W. D. (2005). Government 2.0: Using Technology to Improve Education, Cut Red Tape, ReduceGridlock, and Enhance Democracy. Lanhma, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. McGuire, M. (2006). Collaborative public management: Assessing what we know and how we know it.Public Administration Review, 66, 33-43. Dunleavy, P., & Margetts, H. Z. (2010). The second wave of digital era governance. APSA 2010 AnnualMeeting Papers. Khan, G. F., Yoon, H. Y., & Park, H. W. (2012). Social Media Use in Public Sector: Acomparitive study of the Korean & US Government Paper presented at the ATHS panelduring the 8th International Conference on Webometrics, Informatics and Scientometrics &13th COLLNET Meeting, 23-26 October 2012, Seoul, Korea. OReilly, T. (2010). Government as a Platform (Chap 2). In D. Lathrop & L. Ruma (Eds.), Opengovernment: Collaboration, transparency, and participation in practice: OReilly Media. Linders, D. (2012). From e-government to we-government: Defining a typology for citizencoproduction in the age of social media. Government Information Quarterly, 29(4), 446-454.doi: 10.1016/j.giq.2012.06.003 Patrice, M. (2010). Building open government. Government Information Quarterly, 27(4),401-413. doi: 10.1016/j.giq.2010.07.002
Is the Social Media andSNS same things? No All SNS (social networking site) aresocial media, but not all social mediaare SNS.Or All SNS are based on Web 2.0, but notall Web 2.0 concepts are SNS
ExampleBased on Social Media/Web2.0Based on Social Media/Web2.0Facebook is an SNS (i.e., facilitateonline social networking)Wikipedia is not an SNS (i.e., doesnot facilitate online socialnetworking)An application/example of socialmedia/web 2.0 to facilitate onlinesocial networkingAn example/application of socialmedia/web 2.0 to facilitate onlinecollaborative content creationVS.,