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  • 1. Government 2.0: Utilization Model,Implementation Scenarios, &RelationshipsAuthorsGohar Feroz Khan (Korea University of Technology & Education, South Korea)Bobby Swar (SolBridge International School of Business, South Korea)Pre-ECIS workshop: E-Government 2.0: Case studies and experience reportsJune 4, Utrecht, the Netherlands.
  • 2. Table of Contents What is social media? Social media defined Social media-based government Government 2.0 vs. e-govt. How is Social Media Used in Public Sector? Method ResultsThe big pictureGovt. 2.0 Utilization modelGovt. 2.0 implementation scenariosGovt. 2.0 Relationships Conclusion
  • 3. What is Social Media? Social media consists of a variety of tools andtechnologies that includes: Collaborative projects (e.g., Wikipedia and wikispaces), Blogs (e.g., WordPress) and microblogs (e.g., Twitter), Content communities (e.g., YouTube), Social networking sites (e.g., Facebook), Virtual game worlds (e.g., World of Warcraft), Virtual social worlds (e.g., Second Life), and All other Web 2.0 platforms that facilitate the creation &exchange of UGC.
  • 4. Social Media Defined “A Web 2.0 based technologies/tools— that allows thecreation and exchange of user-generated contents whileletting users establish one or more of these: Identity Conversations Connectivity (i.e., presence) Relationships Reputation Groups, and Share contents.” (Khan, 2013, p.2)
  • 5. What is Government 2.0? Is driven by social media/Web 2.0 Also known as: Collaborative Government (McGuire, 2006), Do-it-yourself Government (Dunleavy & Margetts,2010), Government as a Platform (OReilly, 2010), Social Government (Khan, et al., 2012), or We-Government (Linders, 2012), among others.
  • 6. Government 2.0 VS., E-GovernmentTable 1 e-Government VS., Government 2.0e-Government Government 2.0Technology Static enterprise anddomain specifictechnologies;Web 1.0 phenomenon;Consumer and commoditisedtechnologies;Web 2.0 & Social Media;Strategy Inside-Out Outside-InService Focus Citizens as Receivers Citizens as Active Participants
  • 7. Research Question How is Social Media Used in PublicSector?
  • 8. How is Social Media Used inPublic Sector? Method (Inductive Approach) A Web survey of 200 govt. websites from 40 countries (20Developed and 20 Developing), to look for:1) SNS2) multimedia sharing services3) discussion forums ,4) blogging ,5) wikis ,6) rich site summery , and7) social tagging services, Coded either as “yes” or “no”.
  • 9. How is Social Media Used inPublic Sector? Method (Inductive Approach) Also, reviewed 45 Web 2.0 initiatives from around theworld.Each initiative was assessed based on a codingscheme covering four dimensions: 1) citizens’ engagement, 2) mass collaboration, 3) social transaction, and 4) Web 2.0 complexityThe variables were coded as: 1) low, 2) medium,and 3) high to access the four dimensions
  • 10. Results The Big Picture: Social Media in PublicSector Govt. 2.0 Utilization Model Govt. 2.0 Implementation Scenarios Govt. 2.0 Relationships
  • 11. The Big Picture: Social Mediain Public Sector This is what we found it isPosts, Likes, Tweets, & SharesPosts, Likes, Tweets, & SharesMass collaborations, citizen sourcing,co-creation, etc.Mass collaborations, citizen sourcing,co-creation, etc.Social transactionSocial transaction-SM use is mostly informational and limitedly collaboration and transactional.
  • 12. Social Media in Public Sector This is what it should bePosts, Likes, Tweets, & SharesPosts, Likes, Tweets, & SharesMass collaborations, citizen sourcing,co-creation, etc.Mass collaborations, citizen sourcing,co-creation, etc.Social transactionSocial transaction
  • 13. The Big Picture The social media pipe (i.e., socialmedia tools/technologies) connectsproducer and consumer orprosumers (i.e., governmentagencies, citizens, andbusinesses) where the governmentservices are co-produced thatflows in both directions makinggovernment and citizen partners inthe delivery of public services.Figure 1. Conceptual Model of Social Media Use in Public Sector
  • 14. Govt. 2.0 Utilization ModelFigure 2: Government 2.0 Utilization Model
  • 15. 1. Information Socialization (IS) At this stage, public sector leverage socialmedia as an informational and participatorychannel to increase citizen’s awareness andenable them to monitor and participate ingovernment activities.
  • 16. Socialization of informationis achieved in two ways: Simple Information Socialization, and Complex Information Socialization
  • 17. Simple InformationSocialization Simple information socialization isachieved through merely incorporatingsocial media tools in the existinggovernment websites e.g., through incorporating commentsand discussions features, and/or through establishing dedicatedsocial media pages/accounts (e.g.,Facebook fan page or Twitteraccount) to delivery day-to-dayinformation/news to the citizens.
  • 18. Complex InformationSocialization Complex information socializationrequires establishing advancesocial media/web 2.0 basedinformational government portalsfor informational and participatorypurposes, such as: http://maplight.org/ http://www.data.gov/about, and http://blogs.justice.gov/main/.
  • 19. Note An important use of the socialization of informationis in situation where the immediate delivery ofinformation/news is crucial, such as: disseminating news and information about public safetyand in crisis management situations such as,weather,traffic,diseases, andnature or man-made disasters.
  • 20. 2. Mass Collaboration At this stage, public sector leveragesocial media tools to poster mass socialcollaboration between government andcitizens and cross agency collaboration. Mass collaboration was instrumental in regulation, crowd sourcing, and lawenforcement. Mostly observed in Developedcountries
  • 21. Example 1-Regulation For example, the Peer-To-Patent (www.peertopatent.com)initiative by the Patent andTrademark Office (USPTO) ofthe United States is a goodexample of mass governmentand citizen social collaborationin reinforcing regulations.
  • 22. Example 2-Law Enforcement Another example is the Koreangovernment’s smart phone appsdeveloped to enable mass collaboration inreporting illegal car parking, wastedisposal, energy misuse, and reportingother inappropriate behaviour.
  • 23. Example 3-Croud Sourcing Similarly, a good exampleof croudsourcing is the“apps for democracy”initiative:http://www.appsfordemocracy.org/application-directory/. A U.S. governmentinitiative to engage thepublic in developing newapplications fordemocracy.
  • 24. 3. Social Transaction Public sector use (limitedly though) socialmedia tools to establish tangible onlinetransactions with the citizens.
  • 25. Example 1 Another example of usingsocial media for servicedelivery is the “Fixmystreet”initiative:http://www.fixmystreet.com/) Where citizens using aninteractive portal report aproblem related to their locality(e.g., fly tipping, broken pavingslabs, or street lighting) whichis then forwarded to the councilto fix the problem.
  • 26. Example 2 For example, the U.K.government use a Web2.0 based website(www.gov.uk) to providesimple, one-stop accessto government servicesonline where citizenscan access to publicservices such as: tax, driving test, passport,births, deaths, marriages,and health care.
  • 27. Example-3 The Korea NTS isoperating online"Year-end TaxSettlement Service“at:www.yesone.go.kr to enable taxpayersto gather all sorts ofthe receipts forincome deductiononline.
  • 28. Govt. 2.0 ImplementationScenarios Mainly three implementation scenarioswere observed: Standalone Nested, and Hybrid Govt. 2.0
  • 29. Standalone Govt. 2.0 In the standalone implementation scenarios,informational Government 2.0 (i.e., stage 1)can be implement directly under traditionalgovernment settings (i.e., paper basedgovernment). Mostly, observed in developing countries (e.g.,Zimbabwe, Rwanda, and Fiji) where e-Government is not yet fully implemented
  • 30. Paper-BasedWeb 2.0 & SocialMedia BasedStandalone Govt. 2.0Figure 3: standalone Government 2.0
  • 31. Nested Govt. 2.0 Under this scenario, governmentsfunnel existing e-Governmentinfrastructure and capabilities toleverage social media tools in the day-to-day governance. Scenario 2 is the most likely scenariowhere Government 2.0 is realized underthe umbrella of e-government
  • 32. Paper-BasedStatic ICTs & Web1.0 BasedWeb 2.0 & SocialMedia BasedNested Govt. 2.0Figure 2: Nested Government 2.0
  • 33. Nested Govt. 2.0 Observed in the developing and transitionaleconomies, such as: Estonia India Pakistan Kazakhstan Lithuania Poland South Africa, and Thailand
  • 34. Hybrid govt. 2.0 Hybrid Government 2.0, from a conceptual pointof view, can be defined as, a flavor (or subset) of ICT based government(e.g., e-Government & m-Government) thatharness social media tool/technologies toestablish an open, transparent, andparticipative government (see Figure 4).
  • 35. Hybrid Govt.Figure 4. Hybrid Government
  • 36. Hybrid govt. 2.0 This type of government is observed inadvanced economies, such as: Denmark New Zealand South Korea the Netherlands the United Kingdom, and the United States who have already made significantachievement in the e-Government
  • 37. Govt. 2.0 Relationships C2G Informational Relationship e.g., inform of feedback and exert opinion, or reportingcrimes and natural disasters using social media tools. C2G Service Relationship the “Apps for America 2”: A U.S. governmentinitiative where citizens are invited to developedapps for the government Other possible relationships B2G informational relationship B2G service relationship
  • 38. Conclusion Social media in public sector is more than just “likes”,“tweets”, and “shares” Social media tools and channels useful todisseminate information, foster mass collaboration,enforce laws, and execute regulation. SM use is mostly informational and limitedtransactional. SM has great potential for DCs
  • 39. Conclusion Limitations we only focused on the use of and opportunitiesrelated to social mediastudies are needed to access the risk andreward of social media in public sectorsystematicallyStages based risks Skills and capabilities needed to implement socialmedia are not discussed
  • 40. Thank You In case you are interested SSCR special issue on Best Practices in Social Media at Non-profit, Public, Education, and HealthcareOrganizations CFP:http://laton.wikispaces.com/SSCOR+Special+Issue+on+Social+Media
  • 41. References Eggers, W. D. (2005). Government 2.0: Using Technology to Improve Education, Cut Red Tape, ReduceGridlock, and Enhance Democracy. Lanhma, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. McGuire, M. (2006). Collaborative public management: Assessing what we know and how we know it.Public Administration Review, 66, 33-43. Dunleavy, P., & Margetts, H. Z. (2010). The second wave of digital era governance. APSA 2010 AnnualMeeting Papers. Khan, G. F., Yoon, H. Y., & Park, H. W. (2012). Social Media Use in Public Sector: Acomparitive study of the Korean & US Government Paper presented at the ATHS panelduring the 8th International Conference on Webometrics, Informatics and Scientometrics &13th COLLNET Meeting, 23-26 October 2012, Seoul, Korea. OReilly, T. (2010). Government as a Platform (Chap 2). In D. Lathrop & L. Ruma (Eds.), Opengovernment: Collaboration, transparency, and participation in practice: OReilly Media. Linders, D. (2012). From e-government to we-government: Defining a typology for citizencoproduction in the age of social media. Government Information Quarterly, 29(4), 446-454.doi: 10.1016/j.giq.2012.06.003 Patrice, M. (2010). Building open government. Government Information Quarterly, 27(4),401-413. doi: 10.1016/j.giq.2010.07.002
  • 42.  Is the Social Media and SNSsame things?
  • 43. Is the Social Media andSNS same things? No All SNS (social networking site) aresocial media, but not all social mediaare SNS.Or All SNS are based on Web 2.0, but notall Web 2.0 concepts are SNS
  • 44. ExampleBased on Social Media/Web2.0Based on Social Media/Web2.0Facebook is an SNS (i.e., facilitateonline social networking)Wikipedia is not an SNS (i.e., doesnot facilitate online socialnetworking)An application/example of socialmedia/web 2.0 to facilitate onlinesocial networkingAn example/application of socialmedia/web 2.0 to facilitate onlinecollaborative content creationVS.,