These two countries may be less economic developedcountries, but there is a high difference in the amount ofgrowth that is taking place in both. In one, there is futurehope of it becoming a MEDC, where as in the other, thereis still much more work to be done for it to be evendeveloping at this stage. The facts and figures on the nextslides is the comparison of what each country hasachieved in the past year.
In 2007, real GDP grew by 6.3%, an increase of 0.4% fromthe year 2006. The main cause of this growth was mainlydue to domestic demand, where private consumptiongrew by 11.7% due to pay increases for governmentofficials, stable interest rates and favourable commodityprices. Public consumption also grew by 1.4%, to 6.4% in2007. FDI rose by 54%, to almost $10 billion. The annualinflation rate for the year was at 2.7%, a decrease of 0.9%from 2006. The banking sector remained stagnant as therewere no reports of Malaysian commercial banks affectedby the US sub-prime mortgage crisis.
Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day, and the proportion of people who suffer from hunger.Malaysia’s poverty has been a mainly rural problem. The graphbelow gives details of the number of poor households expressed asa percentage. It also shows the contribution to this total of urbanand rural households; for example, in 1970, 49.3 per cent ofMalaysian households were below the poverty line. The number ofpoor rural households as a percentage of the total number ofhouseholds was 44 per cent, the remaining 5.3 per cent being urban.
Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling.By 2000, less than 3 in every 100 were illiterate as compared to1970 where about one-quarter of those aged 15–24.The big gap inliteracy levels that existed between young females and males hasbeen progressively narrowed, such that by 2000 there were nogender differentials. Literacy levels among persons aged 10 andover reached 92 per cent in 2000, with illiteracy confined mainly toolder persons. Improvements in literacy levels are occurring in allstates and differentials are narrowing.
Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and to all levels of education no later than 2015.Since the beginning of the 1990s, enrolment rates of girls havebeen equal to, or have exceeded, those of boys at all levels ofeducation. At the primary level, where enrolments are universal forboys and girls there is gender parity. At the lower and uppersecondary level, enrolment rates of girls were higher than those ofboys throughout the period 1991–2003. At the tertiary level, therehas been an increasing trend in enrolment rates of girls, reflectingin part the much greater number of girls than boys seeking tertiaryqualifications. This in turn is attributable to girls performing betterthan boys in public examinations. Gender gaps prevail in terms ofthe selection of courses. Girls tend to dominate in the arts,economics, and business courses but are in a minority intechnical and science-based courses such as engineering.
Reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under- five mortality rate There has been a huge reduction in child mortality over the past three and a half decades. Malaysia’s under-5 mortality rate declined from 57 to 17 per 1,000 live births between 1970 and 1990 and to 9 in 2000. This represents a reduction of 85 per cent in three decades. The reduction in infant mortality over the corresponding period was of much the same magnitude. The MDG target for child mortality is to reduce the level by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. In Malaysia, the fell by just under one half between 1990 and 2000. Malaysia has thus achieved the low levels of most highly developed countries, and is highly likely to achieve the MDG targets well before 2015.
The Malaysian economy is expected to expand faster in2009, with real GDP growth projected at between 6.2%and 6.5%. Inflation is projected to remain low, as outputgrowth is below potential level. Furthermore, globalinflation is also seen relaxed by a weaker US dollar,higher productivity growth and proactive measures takenby major economies to stop inflation pressures. This year,GDP growth is projected at 6.4% with inflation at 2%.However, the effect the global recession that could haveon Malaysia is unknown.
In 2007, real GDP growth was 7.1%, and increase of 0.4%from the year 2006. This is mainly due to the agriculturalsector, as good weather conditions and improvedperformance in manufacturing and trade. Most of theother economic activities recorded higher growth ratesthan initially predicted. However, these increases ingrowth are no where close to the physical amount theMalaysia are growing, even though Tanzania has a higherpercentage, due to, for one, inflation rates being too high,as the figure on the following slide shows
Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day, and the proportion of people who suffer from hunger. The challenge of translating growth into poverty reduction remains, pointing to the fact that, it is not only growth that matters, but also the quality of growth. In the Mainland, the latest figures indicate a small fall in income poverty during the 1990s from 38.6% to 35.7% in 2001. However, the actual number of poor people has increased as a result of population growth. During the same period, food poverty decreased from 22% to 19% . Inequality increased slightly, mainly in urban areas. While the availability of food as measured by the proportion of people with access to basic calorie intake is high, malnutrition in children under five years old has remained the same. The proportion has been falling over time, though the speed of the decline has been slow.
Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling.Most indicators in education have registered improvement overtime. By 2006, the total had risen to 94.8%. There is near genderparity with regard to enrolment of girls and boys at the primaryschool level. Primary School continuation rates have improvedfrom 71% in 1997 to 79 % in 2004 in the mainland. The continuation of girls is slightly better than that of boys. Adult illiteracy remainshigh. According to the 2002 Population census data, literacy rateamong age 15+ is 70% (78% for men and 62% for women). Overall,about 28.6%of Tanzanians cannot read and write in any language.There is more illiteracy among women (36%) than men (20.4%).The target of eliminating illiteracy by 2015 remains challengingparticularly for rural women.
Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and to all levels of education no later than 2015.There are still gender disparities in enrolment at upper secondaryand tertiary levels. Moreover, early pregnancies and marriagescontinue to contribute significantly to school drop out among girlsin both rural and urban areas. The target year for this goal was2005 for primary and secondary level enrolment and 2015 for otherlevels of education. For other levels, especially tertiary, the targetwill be reached in Tanzania where special programmes have beendesigned to increase enrolment of girls and especially in sciencesubjects. The goal of improving representation by women inpolitical arena will most likely be achieved. It is encouraging tonote in Tanzania that in addition to representation in Parliamentand the House of Representatives women have been increasinglyselected to high decision-making posts such as Ministers andPermanent Secretaries. For example, the number of womenMinisters increased from 11% to 15%between 1995 and 2005, whilewomen Permanent Secretaries increased in number from one in1995 to seven in 2005.
Reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under- five mortality rate Most child deaths are due to malaria, pneumonia, diarrhoea, malnutrition and complications of low birth weight as well as HIV and AIDS. Malnutrition is the underlying factor in more than 50% of child deaths. Neonatal deaths account for 48% of infant mortality. Census data and those from surveillance sites suggest a decline in both infant and under-five mortality rate. Under-five mortality decreased from 191 per a thousand live births in 1990 to 133 in 2005. Infant mortality also declined from 115 (1990) to 68 (2005). The most significant contribution to the reduction of under-five mortality is improved control measures of malaria,, diarrhoea; improved personal hygiene, environmental sanitation, as well as curative health services. With regard to malaria a more effective drug treatment regime has been introduced. More children (under 5 years of age) increasingly sleep under nets, from 21% in 1999 to 36% in 2004. The proportion of children with fever declined from 35% in 1999 to 23% in 2004.
Due to the current global economics situation, there hasbeen changes made to the forecast of Tanzania’s GDP. Itwas initially predicted to grow by 8%, but economistshave decreased that figure to 7.3%. It has also postponedplans to sell its first sovereign bond as the global financialcrisis cuts demand for its exports and pushes upborrowing costs. Tanzania had planned to issue aEurobond worth at least $500 million by the end of theyear to help improve the country’s transportinfrastructure. Also due to the inflation rates thatoccurred in 2008, the economic year for Tanzania in 2009,looks very bleak.