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OCJP Oracle certified programmer for java 6 exam 310-065 (2008)

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Dumps for ORACLE Certification - OCJP

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  • 1. Praise for the Sun Certified Programmer & Developer for Java 2 Study Guide "Kathy Sierra is one of the few people in the world who can make complicated things seem damn simple. And as if that isn't enough, she can make boring things seem interesting. I always look forward to reading whatever Kathy writes—she's one of my favorite authors." —Paul Wheaton, Trail Boss JavaRanch.com "Who better to write a Java study guide than Kathy Sierra, the reigning queen of Java instruction? Kathy Sierra has done it again—here is a study guide that almost guarantees you a certification!" —James Cubeta, Systems Engineer, SGI "The thing I appreciate most about Kathy is her quest to make us all remember that we are teaching people and not just lecturing about Java. Her passion and desire for the highest quality education that meets the needs of the individual student is positively unparalleled at SunEd. Undoubtedly there are hundreds of students who have benefited from taking Kathy's classes." —Victor Peters, founder Next Step Education & Software Sun Certified Java Instructor "I want to thank Kathy for the EXCELLENT Study Guide. The book is well written, every concept is clearly explained using a real life example, and the book states what you specifically need to know for the exam. The way it's written, you feel that you're in a classroom and someone is actually teaching you the difficult concepts, but not in a dry, formal manner. The questions at the end of the chapters are also REALLY good, and I am sure they will help candidates pass the test. Watch out for this Wickedly Smart book." —Alfred Raouf, Web Solution Developer "The Sun Certification exam was certainly no walk in the park, but Kathy's material allowed me to not only pass the exam, but Ace it!" —Mary Whetsel, Sr. Technology Specialist, Application Strategy and Integration, The St. Paul Companies "Bert has an uncanny and proven ability to synthesize complexity into simplicity offering a guided tour into learning what's needed for the certification exam." —Thomas Bender, President, Gold Hill Software Design, Inc.
  • 2. "With his skill for clearly expressing complex concepts to his training audience, every student can master what Bert has to teach." —David Ridge, CEO, Ridge Associates "I found this book to be extremely helpful in passing the exam. It was very well written with just enough light-hearted comments to make you forget that you were studying for a very difficult test. HIGHLY RECOMMENDED!!" — Nicole Y. McCullough "I have never enjoyed reading a technical book as much as I did this one…This morning I took the SCJP test and got 98% (60 out of 61) correct. Such success would not have been possible without this book!" — Yurie Nagorny "I gave SCJP 1.4 in July 2004 & scored 95% (58/61). Kathy & Bert have an awesome writing style & they literally burnt the core concepts into my head." — Bhushan P. Madan (Kansas, United States) "I just took my certification test last week and passed with a score of 95%. Had I not gone through this book, there would have been little chance of doing so well on the test. Thank you Kathy and Bert for a wonderful book!" — Jon W. Kinsting (Saratoga, California United States) "Don't hesitate to make this book your primary guide for SCJP 1.4 preparation. The authors have made a marvellous job about delivering the vital facts you need to know for the exam while leaving out tons of otherwise valuable data that fall beyond the scope. Both authors have participated in creating the real questions for the real exam thus providing an invaluable insight to discern the true nature of what you are up to doing. Unlike many other certification guides…this one makes perfect reading. The most boring Sun objectives in the book are nicely interwoven with the gems of refreshingly spicy humor." — Vad Fogel (Ontario, Canada)
  • 3. SCJP Sun® Certified Programmer for Java™ 6 Study Guide (Exam 310-065)
  • 4. SCJP Sun® Certified Programmer for Java™ 6 Study Guide Exam (310-065) Kathy Sierra Bert Bates New York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan New Delhi San Juan Seoul Singapore Sydney Toronto McGraw-Hill is an independent entity from Sun Microsystems, Inc. and is not affiliated with Sun Microsystems, Inc. in any manner.This publication and CD may be used in assisting students to prepare for the Sun Certified Java Programmer Exam. Neither Sun Microsystems nor McGraw-Hill warrants that use of this publication and CD will ensure passing the relevant exam. Sun, Sun Microsystems, and the Sun Logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the United States and other countries. Java and all Java-based marks are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the United States and other countries.
  • 5. Copyright © 2008 by The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. 0-07-159107-9 The material in this eBook also appears in the print version of this title: 0-07-159106-0. All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners. Rather than put a trademark symbol after every occurrence of a trademarked name, we use names in an editorial fashion only, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. Where such designations appear in this book, they have been printed with initial caps. McGraw-Hill eBooks are available at special quantity discounts to use as premiums and sales promotions, or for use in corporate training programs. For more information, please contact George Hoare, Special Sales, at george_hoare@mcgraw-hill.com or (212) 904-4069. TERMS OF USE This is a copyrighted work and The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (“McGraw-Hill”) and its licensors reserve all rights in and to the work. Use of this work is subject to these terms. Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976 and the right to store and retrieve one copy of the work, you may not decompile, disassemble, reverse engineer, reproduce, modify, create derivative works based upon, transmit, distribute, disseminate, sell, publish or sublicense the work or any part of it without McGraw-Hill’s prior consent. You may use the work for your own noncommercial and personal use; any other use of the work is strictly prohibited. Your right to use the work may be terminated if you fail to comply with these terms. THE WORK IS PROVIDED “AS IS.” McGRAW-HILL AND ITS LICENSORS MAKE NO GUARANTEES OR WARRANTIES AS TO THE ACCURACY, ADEQUACY OR COMPLETENESS OF OR RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED FROM USING THE WORK, INCLUDING ANY INFORMATION THAT CAN BE ACCESSED THROUGH THE WORK VIA HYPERLINK OR OTHERWISE, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. McGraw-Hill and its licensors do not warrant or guarantee that the functions contained in the work will meet your requirements or that its operation will be uninterrupted or error free. Neither McGraw-Hill nor its licensors shall be liable to you or anyone else for any inaccuracy, error or omission, regardless of cause, in the work or for any damages resulting therefrom. McGraw-Hill has no responsibility for the content of any information accessed through the work. Under no circumstances shall McGraw-Hill and/or its licensors be liable for any indirect, incidental, special, punitive, consequential or similar damages that result from the use of or inability to use the work, even if any of them has been advised of the possibility of such damages. This limitation of liability shall apply to any claim or cause whatsoever whether such claim or cause arises in contract, tort or otherwise. DOI: 10.1036/0071591060
  • 6. We hope you enjoy this McGraw-Hill eBook! If you’d like more information about this book, its author, or related books and websites, please click here. Professional Want to learn more?
  • 7. CONTRIBUTORS About the Authors Kathy Sierra was a lead developer for the SCJP exam for Java 5 and Java 6. Sierra worked as a Sun "master trainer," and in 1997, founded JavaRanch.com, the world's largest Java community website. Her bestselling Java books have won multiple Software Development Magazine awards, and she is a founding member of Sun's Java Champions program. Bert Bates was a lead developer for many of Sun's Java certification exams including the SCJP for Java 5 and Java 6. He is also a forum moderator on JavaRanch.com, and has been developing software for more than 20 years. Bert is the co-author of several bestselling Java books, and he's a founding member of Sun's Java Champions program. About theTechnical ReviewTeam Johannes de Jong has been the leader of our technical review teams for ever and ever. (He has more patience than any three people we know.) For this book, he led our biggest team ever. Our sincere thanks go out to the following volunteers who were knowledgeable, diligent, patient, and picky, picky, picky! Rob Ross, Nicholas Cheung, Jane Griscti, Ilja Preuss, Vincent Brabant, Kudret Serin, Bill Seipel, Jing Yi, Ginu Jacob George, Radiya, LuAnn Mazza, Anshu Mishra, Anandhi Navaneethakrishnan, Didier Varon, Mary McCartney, Harsha Pherwani, Abhishek Misra, and Suman Das. About LearnKey LearnKey provides self-paced learning content and multimedia delivery solutions to enhance personal skills and business productivity. LearnKey claims the largest library of rich streaming-media training content that engages learners in dynamic media-rich instruction complete with video clips, audio, full motion graphics, and animated illustrations. LearnKey can be found on the Web at www.LearnKey.com.
  • 8. Technical Review Superstars Andrew Bill M. Burk Devender Gian Jim JeroenJef Marilyn MarceloKristin Johannes ValentinSeemaMikalaiMark We don't know who burned the most midnight oil, but we can (and did) count everybody's edits— so in order of most edits made, we proudly present our Superstars. Our top honors go to Kristin Stromberg—every time you see a semicolon used correctly, tip your hat to Kristin. Next up is Burk Hufnagel who fixed more code than we care to admit. Bill Mietelski and Gian Franco Casula caught every kind of error we threw at them—awesome job, guys! Devender Thareja made sure we didn't use too much slang, and Mark Spritzler kept the humor coming. Mikalai Zaikin and Seema Manivannan made great catches every step of the way, and Marilyn de Queiroz and Valentin Crettaz both put in another stellar performance (saving our butts yet again). Marcelo Ortega, Jef Cumps (another veteran), Andrew Monkhouse, and Jeroen Sterken rounded out our crew of superstars—thanks to you all. Jim Yingst was a member of the Sun exam creation team, and he helped us write and review some of the twistier questions in the book (bwa-ha-ha-ha). As always, every time you read a clean page, thank our reviewers, and if you do catch an error, it's most certainly because your authors messed up. And oh, one last thanks to Johannes. You rule dude!
  • 9. The Java 6 Elite ReviewTeam Since the upgrade to the Java 6 exam was a like a small, surgical strike we decided that the technical review team for this update to the book needed to be similarly fashioned. To that end we hand- picked an elite crew of JavaRanch's top gurus to perform the review for the Java 6 exam. Marc Peabody gets special kudos for helping us out on a double header! In addition to helping us with Sun's new SCWCD exam, Marc pitched in with a great set of edits for this book—you saved our bacon this winter Marc! (BTW, we didn't learn until late in the game that Marc, Bryan Basham, and Bert all share a passion for ultimate Frisbee!) Like several of our reviewers, not only does Fred Rosenberger volunteer copious amounts of his time moderating at JavaRanch, he also found time to help us out with this book. Stacey and Olivia, you have our thanks for loaning us Fred for a while. Marc Weber moderates at some of JavaRanch's busiest forums. Marc knows his stuff, and uncovered some really sneaky problems that were buried in the book. While we really appreciate Marc's help, we need to warn you all to watch out—he's got a Phaser! Finally, we send our thanks to Christophe Verre—if we can find him. It appears that Christophe performs his JavaRanch moderation duties from various locations around the globe, including France, Wales, and most recently Tokyo. On more than one occasion Christophe protected us from our own lack of organization. Thanks for your patience, Christophe! It's important to know that these guys all donated their reviewer honorariums to JavaRanch! The JavaRanch community is in your debt. Marc W. Marc P. Fred Christophe Mikalai Our endless gratitude goes to Mikalai Zaikin. Mikalai played a huge role in the Java 5 book, and he returned to help us out again for this Java 6 edition. We need to thank Volha, Anastasia, and Daria for letting us borrow Mikalai. His comments and edits helped us make huge improvements to the book. Thanks, Mikalai!
  • 10. To the Java Community
  • 11. xi CONTENTS AT A GLANCE 1 Declarations and Access Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 Object Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 3 Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 4 Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 5 Flow Control, Exceptions, and Assertions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 6 Strings, I/O, Formatting, and Parsing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 7 Generics and Collections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541 8 Inner Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 661 9 Threads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 701 10 Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 789 A About the CD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 831 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 835
  • 12. xiii CONTENTS Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxi Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiii 1 Declarations and Access Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Java Refresher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Identifiers & JavaBeans (Objectives 1.3 and 1.4) . . . . . . . . 4 Legal Identifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Sun's Java Code Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 JavaBeans Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Declare Classes (Exam Objective 1.1) . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Source File Declaration Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Class Declarations and Modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Exercise 1-1: Creating an Abstract Superclass and Concrete Subclass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Declare Interfaces (Exam Objectives 1.1 and 1.2) . . . . . . . . 19 Declaring an Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Declaring Interface Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Declare Class Members (Objectives 1.3 and 1.4) . . . . . . . . 24 Access Modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Nonaccess Member Modifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Constructor Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Variable Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Declaring Enums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 ✓ Two-Minute Drill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Q&A Self Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Self Test Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
  • 13. xiv SCJP Sun Certified Programmer for Java 6 Study Guide 2 Object Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Encapsulation (Exam Objective 5.1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Inheritance, Is-A, Has-A (Exam Objective 5.5) . . . . . . . . . 90 IS-A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 HAS-A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Polymorphism (Exam Objective 5.2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Overriding / Overloading (Exam Objectives 1.5 and 5.4) . . . . . 103 Overridden Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Overloaded Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Reference Variable Casting (Objective 5.2) . . . . . . . . . . 116 Implementing an Interface (Exam Objective 1.2) . . . . . . . . 120 Legal Return Types (Exam Objective 1.5) . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Return Type Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Returning a Value . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Constructors and Instantiation (Exam Objectives 1.6, 5.3, and 5.4) . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Determine Whether a Default Constructor Will Be Created . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Overloaded Constructors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Statics (Exam Objective 1.3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Static Variables and Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Coupling and Cohesion (Exam Objective 5.1) . . . . . . . . . 151 ✓ Two-Minute Drill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Q&A Self Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 Self Test Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 3 Assignments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 Stack and Heap—Quick Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Literals, Assignments, and Variables (Exam Objectives 1.3 and 7.6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Literal Values for All Primitive Types . . . . . . . . . 186 Assignment Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Exercise 3-1: Casting Primitives . . . . . . . . . . 195 Using a Variable or Array Element That Is Uninitialized and Unassigned . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Local (Stack, Automatic) Primitives and Objects . . . . 207
  • 14. Contents xv Passing Variables into Methods (Objective 7.3) . . . . . . . . . 213 Passing Object Reference Variables . . . . . . . . . . 213 Does Java Use Pass-By-Value Semantics? . . . . . . . . 214 Passing Primitive Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 Array Declaration, Construction, and Initialization (Exam Objective 1.3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 Declaring an Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 Constructing an Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Initializing an Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Initialization Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 Using Wrapper Classes and Boxing (Exam Objective 3.1) . . . . . 237 An Overview of the Wrapper Classes . . . . . . . . . 238 Creating Wrapper Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 Using Wrapper Conversion Utilities . . . . . . . . . . 240 Autoboxing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 Overloading (Exam Objectives 1.5 and 5.4) . . . . . . . . . . 247 Garbage Collection (Exam Objective 7.4) . . . . . . . . . . . 254 Overview of Memory Management and Garbage Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 Overview of Java's Garbage Collector . . . . . . . . . 255 Writing Code That Explicitly Makes Objects Eligible for Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 Exercise 3-2: Garbage Collection Experiment . . . . . . 262 ✓ Two-Minute Drill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 Q&A Self Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 Self Test Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 4 Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 Java Operators (Exam Objective 7.6) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 Assignment Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 Relational Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 instanceof Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 Arithmetic Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298 Conditional Operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 Logical Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 ✓ Two-Minute Drill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311 Q&A Self Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313 Self Test Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
  • 15. xvi SCJP Sun Certified Programmer for Java 6 Study Guide 5 Flow Control, Exceptions, and Assertions . . . . . . . . . 327 if and switch Statements (Exam Objective 2.1) . . . . . . . . . 328 if-else Branching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 switch Statements . . . . . .