Problem Solving and Research Methodology: Part-I- Risk Engineering - Excerpts of references:
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Problem Solving and Research Methodology: Part-I- Risk Engineering - Excerpts of references:

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These are excerpts of the references discussed in the lectures of an elective course Problem Solving and research Methodology offered to MTech (CSE) and BTech (CSE/IT) students at JIIT. Part -I ...

These are excerpts of the references discussed in the lectures of an elective course Problem Solving and research Methodology offered to MTech (CSE) and BTech (CSE/IT) students at JIIT. Part -I contains the references discussed in the class before first test, it mainly deals with the theme of Risk Engineering.

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Problem Solving and Research Methodology: Part-I- Risk Engineering - Excerpts of references: Problem Solving and Research Methodology: Part-I- Risk Engineering - Excerpts of references: Document Transcript

  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb Problem Solving and Research Methodology Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014 Lecture Notes: Excerpts and Summary of References- Part I: Risk Engineering 1. 13.01.14 People who don’t take risks generally make about two big mistakes a year. People who do take risks generally make about two big mistakes a year. —Peter Drucker Risk by Michelle Mckee There are no guarantees Life throws things at you You can catch or miss them But they will come, ready or not I always looked for the real thing Never trusting in the possibility Risk-taking not my forte Staying safe at all costs Even playing it safe is not certain Safe has hurt me Zero risk gets zero gain Sometimes playing it safe costs you more It has me, In not fighting the battle you may lose the war In not believing in a dream You may never sleep peacefully again So let go of the fear Reach out for the flame So what if you get burned Better that then numb for life Better to remember passion and joy Along with the pain and tears Then to have no memories worth Remembering So to hell with safe I am going to gamble and bet Until I win back everything I lost And my life is what it was meant to be
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb Take Risks by William Arthur Ward To laugh is to risk appearing the fool To weep is to risk being called sentimental To reach out to another is to risk involvement To expose feelings is to risk showing your true self To place your ideas and your dreams before the crowd is to risk being called naïve To love is to risk not being loved in return To live is to risk dying To hope is to risk despair and, To try is to risk failure But risks must be taken The greatest risk in life is to risk nothing The person who risks nothing... does nothing, has nothing, and becomes nothing He may avoid suffering and sorrow But he simply cannot learn and feel and change and grow and love and live Chained by his servitude, he is a slave He has forfeited his freedom Only the person who risks is truly free. Problem Solving: Some Selected Pearls of Wisdom 1. Problem is a situation for which there isn’t an evident solution.-- Pérez et al. 2. Leaders are problem solvers by talent and temperament, and by choice.-- Harlan Cleveland 3. Creating something is all about problem-solving.--Philip Seymour Hoffman 4. The problems of the world cannot possibly be solved by skeptics or cynics whose horizons are limited by obvious realities. We need men and women who can dream of things that never were. - John F. Kennedy 5. We only think when we are confronted with problems. - John Dewey 6. No problem can withstand the assault of sustained thinking. – Voltaire 7. The problem is not that there are problems. The problem is expecting otherwise and thinking that having problems is a problem. — Theodore Rubin 8. The most serious mistakes are not being made as a result of wrong answers. The truly dangerous thing is asking the wrong questions. — Peter Drucker 9. If you only have a hammer, you tend to see every problem as a nail.---Abraham Maslow 10. The biggest problem in the world could have been solved when it was small. - Witter Bynner 11. Erroneous assumptions can be disastrous. — Peter Drucker 12. Drowning problems in an ocean of information is not the same as solving them. - Ray E. Brown 13. The significant problems we face cannot be solved at the same level of thinking we were at when we created them –Einstein 14. It's not that I'm so smart; it's just that I stay with problems longer. –Einstein 15. If I had an hour to solve a problem I'd spend 55 minutes thinking about the problem and 5 minutes thinking about solutions.― Einstein 16. The formulation of the problem is often more essential than its solution, which may be merely a matter of mathematical or experimental skill.― Einstein 17. Every problem has in it the seeds of its own solution. If you don't have any problems, you don't get any seeds. - Norman Vincent Peale 18. Few can really understand the problem, the answer will come out of it, because the answer is not separate from the problem.--Krishnamurti
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb 19. The only difference between a problem and a solution is that people understand the solution. - Dorothea Brande 20. When a problem comes along, study it until you are completely knowledgeable. Then find that weak spot, break the problem apart, and the rest will be easy. - Norman Vincent Peale 21. A problem clearly stated is a problem half solved. - Dorothea Brande 22. To solve any problem, here are three questions to ask yourself: First, what could I do? Second, what could I read? And third, who could I ask? - Jim Rohn 23. If you do not ask the right questions, you do not get the right answers. A question asked in the right way often points to its own answer. Asking questions is the A-B-C of diagnosis. Only the inquiring mind solves problems. - Edward Hodnett 24. No problem can be solved until it is reduced to some simple form. The changing of a vague difficulty into a specific, concrete form is a very essential element in thinking. - J. P. Morgan 25. When I'm working on a problem, I never think about beauty. I think only how to solve the problem. But when I have finished, if the solution is not beautiful, I know it is wrong." - R. Buckminster Fuller 26. When the solution is simple, God is answering.--Albert Einstein 27. Science is always wrong, it never solves a problem without creating ten more. - George Bernard Shaw 28. The solution to a problem changes the nature of the problem.--John Peers 29. If you get stuck, get away from your desk. Take a walk, take a bath, go to sleep, make a pie, draw, listen to music, meditate, exercise; whatever you do, don't just stick there scowling at the problem. But don't make telephone calls or go to a party; if you do, other people's words will pour in where your lost words should be. Open a gap for them, create a space. Be patient.― Hilary Mantel 30. It is well known that "problem avoidance" is an important part of problem solving. Instead of solving the problem you go upstream and alter the system so that the problem does not occur in the first place.--Edward de Bono 31. Our tendency to create heroes rarely jibes with the reality that most nontrivial problems require collective solutions.--Warren Bennis 32. Recognizing a problem is the first step to solving it... Some problems cannot be solved but you can make peace with them.--Sanya Friedman
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb 2,3. 14.01.14 Ref#1: Jonassen, David, Johannes Strobel, and Chwee Beng Lee. "Everyday problem solving in engineering: Lessons for engineering educators." JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION-WASHINGTON- 95, no. 2 (2006): 139. Everyday problem solving in engineering workplace 1. Workplace problems are ill structured 2. Ill structured problems include aggregates of well structured problems. 3. Ill structured problems have multiple, often conflicting goals 4. Ill structured problems are solved in many different ways 5. Success is rarely measured by engineering standards: Time budget, legal, regulatory, environmental etc. 6. Most constraints are non-engineering: budget, schedule, functionality, brand, jobs, tasks, tools, , acceptability to citizens, political constraints, regulations, environmental, permits, cultural, communication etc. 7. Problem solving knowledge is distributed among team members (and also institutional knowledge found in several organisations, regulatory bodies, and support systems) 8. Most problems require extensive collaboration 9. Engineers primarily rely on experiential knowledge 10. Engineering problems often encounter unanticipated problems 11. Engineers use multiple forms of problem representation 12. Engineers recommend more communication skills in engineering curricula: more instruction on client interaction, collaboration, making oral presentations, and writing, as well as the ability to deal with ambiguity and complexity.
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb Ref#2: David H. Jonassen, Toward a design theory of problem solving, Educational Technology Research and Development, Volume 48, Number 4, Springer Boston, pp 63-85, December, 2000. Ref#3: Linda S. Gottfredson, Dissecting practical intelligence theory: Its claims and evidence Intelligence Volume 31, Issue 4, Elsevier, July-August 2003 , 2003. Academic Problems Real life practical problems 1. Tend to be formulated by other people 2. Well-defined or well-structured 3. Tend to be complete. Presented with all the parameters and constraints. Usually consist of a well-defined initial state, a known goal state, and a constrained set of logical operators. 4. Typically posses only a single answer 5. Tend to encourage single method of obtaining a correct answer 6. Require application of a finite number of concepts, rules, and principles 7. Divorced from ordinary experience 8. Tend to be of little or no intrinsic interest 1 Require (re)formulation. 2 Ill-defined or ill-structured 3 Require information seeking. One or more elements of the ill-defined problem are unknown or not known with certainty. The goals of real- life practical problems are usually vaguely defined with unstated constraints. 4 Usually possess multiple acceptable solutions. 5 Allow multiple paths to solution. 6 Present uncertainty about useful and usable concepts, rules, and principles as well. Further, in case of ill-defined problems, the relationships between concepts, rules, and principles may be inconsistent between cases. 7 Embedded in and require prior experience. This requires the problem solver of ill-structured problem to distinguish important from irrelevant, and construct a problem space for generating solutions. 8 Require motivation and personal involvement
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb Ref#4: David H. Jonassen, Toward a design theory of problem solving, Educational Technology Research and Development, Volume 48, Number 4, Springer Boston, pp 63-85, December, 2000  Finding the unknown is the process of problem solving.  any goal-directed sequence of cognitive operations o Requires the mental representation of the situation- multimodal problem space comprises of:  Structural knowledge (all the essential parts, states, or actions encountered in the problem and the relationship between them at an appropriate level of detail),  Procedural knowledge (how to perform procedures and test activities), reflective knowledge, images and metaphors of the system, and executive/ strategic knowledge (e.g. search and replace, serial elimination, and space splitting)  May be externalized through a variety of Knowledge representation and modeling tools. o Requires some activity-based manipulation of the problem space.  Problem type variations o Structured-ness: well structured  ill structured o Complexity  how many, how clearly, and how reliably components (issues, functions, variables, connections, and relations) are represented implicitly or explicitly  Most complex problems are dynamic – task environment and factors change over time. o Domain specificity: Abstract  Situated  Representation variation – fidelity of representation o Use of artificial symbol systems o Is the problem represented in its natural complexity and modality, or is it filtered when simulated? Should social pressures and time constraints be represented faithfully? i.e., does the problem have to be solved in real time, or can it be solved in leisure time? What levels of cooperation or competition are represented in the problem? 4. 20.01.14: Examples of non-engineering constraints: budget, schedule, functionality, brand, jobs, tasks, tools, , acceptability to citizens, political constraints, regulations, environmental, permits, cultural, communication etc. Examples of unanticipated problems
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb 5,6. 21.01.14: *Understanding failures is critical to engineering success*, *Engineering – A profession for managing technical risks*, *Engineering is Risk Engineering* Ref#5: Gluch, David, "A Construct for Describing Software Development Risks" (1994). Software Engineering Institute. Paper 118. • A problem involves a value judgment made upon the merits of the current condition. It is a condition that exists and is undesirable. • A risk involves a value judgment made upon the potential implications of the current condition. It suggests a possible, future undesirable condition (consequence). Many problems are risks themselves in that they may lead to more serious symptoms or other problems and diminished success (loss) for the program. A difference between a problem and a risk is a matter of degree – the extent to which the program is being adversely affected -- and time. The conditions of a problem are more noticeably affecting the program now. A risk, which is also a problem, involves a condition that has a noticeable adverse effect on the program now, but also is perceived to portend additional or more serious problems in the future. I. Impact Analysis (Ref#6: Mindtools.com): explore possible positive and negative consequences of a change on different parts of a system or organization. II.All Hazard Risk Assessment Methodology, (Ref#7: Canada Govt., http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/prg/em/emp/2012- ahra/index-eng.aspx) a. Adaptive/Malicious Threats: Intentional Threats; Criminal: Terrorist Act, Extremist Act, Individual Criminal Act, Organised Crime, Corporate/Insider Sabotage, Corporate Espionage. Foreign State: State-Sponsored Terrorism, Espionage, Act of War. b. Non-Malicious Threats/Hazards: Social: Migration, Social Unrest/Civil Disobedience. Technical/Accidental: Spill, Fire, Explosion, Structural Collapse, System Error(s) Yielding Failure. Health Threats/Hazards: Pandemics/Epidemics:, Human Health Related, Animal Health Related Large-Scale Contamination: Drugs and Health Products Contaminant, Food/Water/Air Contaminant, Environment Contaminant.
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb Emerging Phenomena & Technologies: Biological Science & Technology, Health Sciences, (Re) emerging Health Hazards, Chemical Compounds, Emerging Natural Hazard(s), Material Science & Engineering, Information Technologies c. Natural Threats/Hazards: Meteorological: Hurricane, Tornado/Wind Storm, Hail/Snow/ Ice Storm, Flood/Storm Surge, Avalanche, Forest Fire, Drought, Extreme Temperatures. Geological: Tsunami, Earthquake, Volcanic Eruption, Land/Mudslide, Land Subsidence, Glacier/Iceberg Effects, Space Weather. Ecological/Global Phenomena: Infestations, Effects of Over-Exploitation, Effects of Excessive Urbanisation, Global Warming, Extreme Climate Change Conditions. III. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) (Ref#8: Mindtools.com): ―What could go wrong‖ - reviewing existing processes or systems, so that problems with these can be identified and eliminated. a. Start by looking in detail at the proposed solution b. Identify systematically all of the points where it could fail. c. Rate the potential consequences of each according to: a. Severity – how critical is the failure? b. Occurrence – how likely is the failure to happen? c. Detection – how easy will it be to detect the failure? d. Using these rankings, identify the most serious threats e. Alter the design to eliminate or minimize the likelihood of identified failure. f. Repeat the process IV. Risk Analysis Process (Ref#9: Mindtools.com): identify and manage potential problems 1st line of defense- Avoid or eliminate failure causes 2nd line of defense – Detect and control failure early 3rd line of defense – reduce impact/consequence of the failure a. Identify Threats: identify the existing and possible threats: (understanding the limitations of design)  Human - from illness, death, injury, or other loss of a key individual.  Operational - from disruption to supplies and operations, loss of access to essential assets, or failures in distribution.  Reputational - from loss of customer or employee confidence, or damage to market reputation.  Procedural - from failures of accountability, internal systems and controls; or from fraud.  Project - from going over budget, taking too long on key tasks, or experiencing issues with product or service quality.  Financial - from business failure, stock market fluctuations, interest rate changes, or non- availability of funding.  Technical - from advances in technology, or from technical failure.  Natural - from weather, natural disasters, or disease.  Political - from changes in tax, public opinion, government policy, or foreign influence.  Structural - from dangerous chemicals, poor lighting, falling boxes, or any situation where staff/ products/ technology can be harmed.
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb b. Estimate Risk  Risk Value = Probability of Event x Cost of Event c. Manage Risk  Using existing assets - reusing or redeploying existing equipment, improving existing methods and systems, changing people's responsibilities, improving accountability and internal controls, choosing different materials, by improving safety procedures or safety gear, or by adding a layer of security.  Developing a contingency plan - you accept a risk, but develop a plan to minimize its effects if it happens. A good contingency plan will allow you to take action immediately, and with the minimum of project control, if you find yourself in a crisis.  Investing in new resources - include insuring the risk  Procedural prevention plan - activities that need to take place every day, week, month, or year to monitor or mitigate the risks you've identified. For example, daily backup of computer files, yearly testing of your building's sprinkler system, or a monthly check on your organization's security system. (Ref#10: Williams, Ray C., George J. Pandelios, and Sandra G. Behrens. Software Risk Evaluation (SRE) Method Description: Version 2.0. Carnegie Mellon University, Software Engineering Institute, 1999 Ref#11: arr, Marvin J., Suresh L. Konda, Ira Monarch, F. Carol Ulrich, and Clay F. Walker. Taxonomy-based risk identification. No. CMU/SEI-93-TR-06. Carnegie-Mellon Univ Pittsburgh Pa Software Engineering Inst, 1993) SEI Risk Management Paradigm) - Balance the possible negative consequences of risk against the potential benefits of its associated opportunity. - Project risks change over time in both characteristics (probability, impact, time frame) and content — i.e., the risk of yesterday could be the problem of today or cease to be a risk altogether, and new risks could arise. Element Purpose Identify Make all known project risks explicit before they become problems Analyze Transform risk data into decision-making information Plan Translate risk information into decisions and mitigating actions (both present and future) and implement those actions Track Monitor risk indicators and mitigation actions Control Correct for deviations from the risk mitigation plans Communicate Enable the sharing of all information throughout the project and is the cornerstone of effective risk management A 2.5 hour session generates 15-40 risk statements. The risk statement is the product of the risk interview step and consists of • A condition: something that is true or accepted as true • A separator: a semicolon, arrow, or linking phrase • A consequence: something that may occur as a result of the condition
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb SEI Software Development Risk Taxonomy (Ref#12: CMU/SEI-93-TR-6, 1993) A. Product Engineering B. Development Environment C. Program Constraints 1. Requirements Are there risks that may arise from requirements being placed on the product? a. Stability b. Completeness c. Clarity d. Validity e. Feasibility f. Precedent g. Scale 1. Development Process a. Formality b. Suitability c. Process Control d. Familiarity e. Product Control 1. Resources a. Schedule b. Staff c. Budget d. Facilities 2. Design a. Functionality b. Difficulty c. Interfaces d. Performance e. Testability f. Hardware Constraints g. Non-Developmental Software 2. Development System a. Capacity b. Suitability c. Usability d. Familiarity e. Reliability f. System Support g. Deliverability 2. Contract a. Type of Contract b. Restrictions c. Dependencies 3. Code and Unit Test a. Feasibility b. Testing c. Coding/Implementation 3. Management Process a. Planning b. Project Organization c. Management Experience d. Program Interfaces 3. Program Interfaces a. Customer b. Associate Contractors c. Subcontractors d. Prime Contractor e. Corporate Management f. Vendors g. Politics 4. Integration and Test a. Environment b. Product c. System 4. Management Methods a. Monitoring b. Personnel Management c. Quality Assurance d. Configuration Management 5. Engineering Specialties a. Maintainability b. Reliability c. Safety d. Security e. Human Factors f. Specifications 5. Work Environment a. Quality Attitude b. Cooperation c. Communication d. Morale Ref#13: Lawrence, Brian, Karl Wiegers, and Christof Ebert. "The top risk of requirements engineering." Software, IEEE 18, no. 6 (2001): 62-63. a. Overlooking a crucial requirement- functional or attribute (quality or performance) b. Inadequate customer representation c. Modelling only functional requirements – ignoring quality attributes (reliability, performance, security, robustness, ease of use; scalability, innovation, coolness, or fun). d. Not inspecting requirements e. Attempting to perfect requirements before beginning construction f. Representing requirements in the form of designs.
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb Taxonomy Based Questions (TBQ) wrt Requirements: Quality of req. specs & implementation difficulty (Ref#12: CMU/SEI-93-TR-6, 1993) a. Stability: Are requirements changing during product development? [1] Are the requirements stable? (No) (1.a) What is the effect on the system - Quality/ Functionality/ Schedule/ Integration/ Design/ Testing? [2] Are the external interfaces changing? b. Completeness: Are requirements missing or incompletely specified? [3] Are there any TBDs in the specifications? [4] Are there reqs. you know should be in the specification but aren‘t? (Yes) (4.a) Will you be able to get these requirements into the system? [5] Does the customer have unwritten requirements/expectations? (Yes) (5.a) Is there a way to capture these requirements? [6] Are the external interfaces completely defined? c. Clarity: Are requirements unclear or in need of interpretation? [7] Are you able to understand the requirements as written? (No) (7.a) Are the ambiguities being resolved satisfactorily? (Yes) (7.b) There are no ambiguities or problems of interpretation? d. Validity: Will the reqs. lead to the product the customer has in mind? [8] Are there any requirements that may not specify what the customer really wants? (Yes) (8.a) How are you resolving this? [9] Do you and the customer understand the same thing by the requirements? (Yes) (9.a) Is there a process by which to determine this? [10] How do you validate the requirements? Prototyping/Analysis/ Simulations e. Feasibility: Are requirements infeasible from an analytical point of view? [11] Are there any requirements that are technically difficult to implement? (Yes) (11.a) What are they? (Yes) (11.b) Why are they difficult to implement? (No) (11.c) Were feasibility studies done for these requirements? (Yes) (11.c.1) How confident are you of the assumptions made in the studies? f. Precedent: Do requirements specify something never done before, or that your company has not done before? [12] Are there any state-of-the-art requirements - Technologies/ Methods/ Languages/ Hardware (No) (12.a) Are any of these new to you? (Yes) (12.b) Does the program have sufficient knowledge in these areas? (No) (12.b.1) Is there a plan for acquiring knowledge in these areas? g. Scale: Do requirements specify a product larger, more complex, or requiring a larger organization than in the experience of the company? [13] Is the system size and complexity a concern? (No) (13.a) Have you done something of this size and complexity before? [14] Does the size require a larger organization than usual for your company?
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb Taxonomy Based Questions (TBQ) wrt Design: Design & feasibility of algorithms/functions, performance requirements, and internal and external product interfaces. Difficulty in testing begins here. (Ref#12: CMU/SEI-93-TR-6, 1993) a. Functionality: Are there any potential problems in meeting functionality requirements? [15] Are there any specified algorithms that may not satisfy the requirements? (No) (15.a) Are any of the algorithms or designs marginal with respect to meeting requirements? [16] How do you determine the feasibility of algorithms and designs? - Prototyping/ Modeling/ Analysis/ Simulation b. Difficulty: Will the design and/or implementation be difficult to achieve? [17] Does any of the design depend on unrealistic or optimistic assumptions? [18] Are there any requirements or functions that are difficult to design? (No) (18.a) Do you have solutions for all the requirements? (Yes) (18.b) What are the requirements? • Why are they difficult? c. Interfaces: Are the internal interfaces (hardware and software) well defined and controlled? [19] Are the internal interfaces well defined? - Software-to-software & Software-to-hardware [20] Is there a process for defining internal interfaces? (Yes) (20.a) Is there a change control process for internal interfaces? [21] Is hardware being developed in parallel with software? (Yes) (21.a) Are the hardware specifications changing? (Yes) (21.b) Have all the interfaces to software been defined? (Yes) (21.c) Will there be engineering design models that can be used to test the software? d. Performance: Are there stringent response time or throughput requirements? [22] Are there any problems with performance? - Throughput, Scheduling asynchronous real-time events, Real-time response, Recovery timelines, Response time, Database response, contention, or access [23] Has a performance analysis been done? (Yes) (23.a) What is your level of confidence in the performance analysis? (Yes) (23.b) Do you have a model to track performance through design and implementation? e. Testability: Is the product difficult or impossible to test? [24] Is the software going to be easy to test? [25] Does the design include features to aid testing? [26] Do the testers get involved in analyzing requirements? f. Hardware Constraints: Are there tight constraints on the target hardware? [27] Does the hardware limit your ability to meet any requirements? - Architecture, Memory capacity, Throughput, Real-time response, Response time, Recovery timelines, Database performance, Functionality, Reliability, Availability g. Non-Developmental Software: Are there problems with software used in the program but not developed by the program? If re-used or re-engineered software exists [28] Are you reusing or re-engineering software not developed on the program? (Yes) (28.a) Do you foresee any problems? - Documentation, Performance, Functionality, Timely delivery, Customization If COTS software is being used [29] Are there any problems with using COTS (commercial off-the-shelf) software? • Insufficient documentation to determine interfaces, size, or performance; Poor performance; Requires a large share of memory or database storage; Difficult to interface with application software; Not thoroughly tested; Not bug free; Not maintained adequately; Slow vendor response [30] Do you foresee any problem with integrating COTS software updates or revisions?
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb 7. 27.01.14: Ref#14: Karl E Wiegers; Joy Beatty, Ch 32: Software Requirements and Risk Management, Software Requirements, 3rd Edition, Microsoft Press, 2013 Risk Item tracking template
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb Sample Risk item from the chemical tracking system 8,9. 28.01.14: Ref#15: Westfall, Linda. "Software Risk Management." In Annual Quality Congress Proceedings-American Society For Quality Control, pp. 32-39. ASQ; 1999, 2000. Project Management Risk Management Designed to address general or generic risks Designed to focus on risks unique to each project Looks at the big picture and plans for details Looks at potential problems and plans for contingencies Plans what should happen and looks for ways to make it happen Evaluates what could happen and looks for ways to minimize the damage Plans for success Plans to manage and mitigate potential causes of failure Types of risks for software projects: Technical risks problems with languages, project size, project functionality, platforms, methods, standards, or processes. May result from excessive constraints, lack of experience, poorly defined parameters, or dependencies on organizations outside the direct control of the project team.
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb Management risks: lack of planning, lack of management experience and training, communications problems, organizational issues, lack of authority, and control problems. Financial risks include cash flow, capital and budgetary issues, and return on investment constraints. Contractual and legal risks include changing requirements, market-driven schedules, health & safety issues, government regulation, and product warranty issues. Personnel risks staffing lags, experience/training problems, ethical and moral issues, staff conflicts, productivity issues. Other resource risks include unavailability or late delivery of equipment & supplies, inadequate tools, inadequate facilities, distributed locations, unavailability of comp uter resources, and slow response times. Techniques for identifying risks:  Interviewing/Brainstorming: interviewing or brainstorming with project personnel, customers, and vendors. Open-ended questions, e.g., What new or improved technologies does this project implement? What interfaces issues still need to be defined? What requirements exist that we aren‘t sure how to implement? What concerns do we have about our ability to meet the required quality and performance levels?  Voluntary Reporting: any individual who identifies a risk is encouraged and rewarded for bringing that risk to management‘s attention. This requires the complete elimination of the ―shoot the messenger‖ syndrome. It avoids the temptation to assign risk reduction actions to the person who identified the risk. Risks can also be identified through required reporting mechanisms such as status reports or project reviews.  Decomposition: As the product is being decomposed during the requirements and design phases, another opportunity exists for risk identifications. Every TBD ("To Be Done/Determined") is a potential risk. ―The most important thing about planning is writing down what you don’t know, because what you don‘t know is what you must find out‖ [Ould-90]. Decomposition in the form of work breakdown structures during project planning can also help identify areas of uncertainty that may need to be recorded as risks.  Assumption Analysis: Process and product assumptions must be analyzed. For example, we might assume the hardware would be available by the system test date or three additional experienced C++ programmers will be hired by the time coding starts. If these assumptions prove to be false, we could have major problems.  Critical Path Analysis: As we perform critical path analysis for our project plan, we must remain on the alert to identify risks. Any possibility of schedule slippage on the critical path must be considered a risk because it directly impacts our ability to meet schedule.  Risk Taxonomies: Risk taxonomies are lists of problems that have occurred on other projects and can be used as checklists to help ensure all potential risks have been considered, e.g., Software Engineering Institute‘s Taxonomy -Based Risk Identification report that covers 13 major risk areas with about 200 questions.
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb Risk Analysis: each risk is assessed to determine:  Likelihood: the probability that the risk will result in a loss  Impact: the size or cost of that loss if the risk turns into a problem  Timeframe: when the risk needs to be addressed, i.e., risk associated with activities in the near future would have a higher priority than similar risks in later activities.  Risk Exposure (RE) = Probability(of UO) * Loss (because UO), where UO = Unexpected outcome Avoiding: Avoiding risk may mean avoiding opportunities; Not all risks can be avoided; Avoiding risk in one part of the project may create risks in other parts. Getting more information: prototyping, modeling, simulation, research Transfer: pay someone to take care of all the risks, subcontracting, outsourcing, build penalties for contractors, pass extra charges/late deliveries for customers, insurance, partnership, joint venture, Risk reduction actions: actions to reduce the probability/impact, e.g., performance simulation, liaison with customer, test bed to duplicate the operational environment, alpha testing at contractor‘s site, periodic defect reports, reschedule some task, adjust the budget. Take risk reduction action n, if RRL (Risk Reduction Leverage) = (REbefore – REafter) > Risk Reduction cost Contingency plan: implemented if risk actually turn into a problem, e.g., disaster recovery plans, backup staff. Risk must be assigned triggers - Early trigger, contingency plan trigger
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb Ref#16: Fuller, Anne, Peter Croll, and Limei Di. "A new approach to teaching software risk management with case studies." In Software Engineering Education and Training, 2002.(CSEE&T 2002). Proceedings. 15th Conference on, pp. 215-222. IEEE, 2002.
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb Ref#17: Odzaly, Edzreena Edza, Des Greer, and Paul Sage. "Software risk management barriers: An empirical study." In Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement, 2009. ESEM 2009. 3rd International Symposium on, pp. 418-421. IEEE, 2009.
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb Ref#18: Risk Management Guidelines Companion to AS/NZS 4360:2004, Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb 10. 03.02.14: Ref#19: Risk Management Guidelines Companion to AS/NZS 4360:2004, Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand 1. Consequence- outcome or impact of an event. (>=1, +ve/-ve, expressed as quantitative/qualitative, considered in relation to achievement of objectives) 2. Control- an existing process, policy, device, practice or other action that acts to minimize - ve risk or enhance positive opportunities. 3. Control assessment- systematic review of processes to ensure that controls are still effective and appropriate 4. Event- occurrence of a particular set of circumstances, (certain/uncertain; single occurrence/series of occurrence.) 5. Frequency- measure of the number of occurrences per unit of time. 6. Hazard- a source of potential harm 7. Likelihood- general description of probability or frequency, expressed qualitatively or quantitatively. 8. Loss- any -ve consequence or adverse effect, financial or otherwise 9. Monitor- to check, supervise, observe critically or measure the progress of an activity, action or system on a regular basis in order to identify change from the performance level required or expected 10. Residual risk- risk remaining after implementation of risk treatment 11. Risk - chance of something happening that will have a -ve/+ve impact on objectives. {events/ circumstances consequences} Components of a risk a. A source of risk or hazard – the thing which has the intrinsic potential to harm or assist e.g. a dangerous chemical, competitors, government. b. An event or incident – something that occurs such that the source of risk has the impact concerned e.g. a leak, competitor expands into or leaves your market area, new or revised regulations, or some measure or observation reaching a particular trigger level. c. A consequence, outcome or impact on a range of stakeholders and assets e.g. environmental damage, loss or increase of market/profits, regulations increase or decrease competitiveness. d. A cause (what and why) (usually a string of direct and underlying causes) for the presence of the hazard or the event occurring e.g. design, human intervention, funding, prediction or failure to predict competitor activity, failure to or expansion of market presence. e. Controls and their level of effectiveness e.g. detection systems, clean up systems, policies, security, training, market research and surveillance of market. f. When could the risk occur and where could it occur. 12. Risk analysis- systematic process to understand the nature of and to deduce the level of risk 13. Risk assessment- risk identification+ risk analysis, + risk evaluation 14. Risk avoidance- a decision not to become involved in, or to withdraw from, a risk situation 15. Risk criteria- terms of reference by which the significance of risk is assessed, can include associated cost and benefits, legal and statutory requirements, socioeconomic and environmental aspects, the concerns of stakeholders, priorities and other inputs to the assessment 16. Risk evaluation- process of comparing the level of risk against risk criteria, assists in decisions about risk treatment. 17. Risk identification- process of determining what, where, when, why and how something could happen
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb 18. Risk management framework- set of elements of an organization‘s management system concerned with managing risk 19. Risk management process - the systematic application of management policies, procedures and practices to the tasks of communicating, establishing the context, identifying, and analysing, evaluating, treating, monitoring and reviewing risk 20. Risk management- the culture, processes and structures that are directed towards realizing potential opportunities whilst managing adverse effects to identify change from the performance level required or expected 21. Risk reduction- actions taken to lessen the likelihood, negative consequences, or both, associated with a risk 22. Risk retention- acceptance of the burden of loss, or benefit of gain, from a particular Risk, includes the acceptance of risks that have not been identified, level of risk retained may depend on risk criteria 23. Risk sharing- sharing with another party the burden of loss, or benefit of gain from a particular risk. Legal or statutory requirements can limit, prohibit or mandate the sharing of some risks. Risk sharing can be carried out through insurance or other agreements. Risk sharing can create new risks or modify an existing risk. 24. Risk treatment- process of selection and implementation of measures to modify risk, sometimes used for the measures themselves, can include avoiding, modifying, sharing or retaining risk. 25. Stakeholders- those people and organizations who may affect, be affected by, or perceive themselves to be affected by a decision, activity or risk, may also include ‗interested parties‘.
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb Decision making issues for selecting options for Risk treatment Acceptability- Is the option likely to be accepted by relevant stakeholders? Administrative efficiency- Is this option easy to implement or will it be neglected because of difficulty of administration or lack of expertise? Compatibility- How compatible is the treatment with others that may be adopted? Continuity of effects- Will the effects be continuous or only short term? Will the effects of this option be sustainable? At what cost? Cost effectiveness- Is it cost-effective; could the same results be achieved at lower cost by other means? Economic and social effects- What will be the economic and social impacts of this option? Effects on the environment- What will be the environmental impacts of this option? Equity- Are risks and benefits distributed fairly e.g. do those responsible for creating the risk pay for its reduction? Individual freedom- Does the option deny any basic rights? Jurisdictional authority- Does this level of organization or government have the authority to apply this option? If not, can higher levels be encouraged to do so? Leverage- Will the treatment options lead to additional benefits in other areas? Objectives- Are organizational objectives advanced by this option? Regulatory- Does the treatment (or lack of treatment) breach any regulatory requirements? Political acceptability- Is it likely to be endorsed by the relevant government authority? Will it be acceptable to communities? Risk creation- Will this treatment introduce new risks? Timing- Will the beneficial effects be realized quickly? Contingency planning
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb Key Questions for Risk identification (a) What is the source of each risk? (b) What might happen that could: - increase or decrease the effective achievement of objectives; - make the achievement of the objectives more/ less efficient (financial, people, time); - cause stakeholders to take action that may influence the achievement of objectives. - produce additional benefits? (c) What would the effect on objectives be? (d) When, where, why, how are these risks (both +ve and -ve) likely to occur? (e) Who might be involved or impacted? (f) What controls presently exist to treat this risk? (g) What could cause the control not to have the desired affect on the risk? After reviewing each element, the following general questions should be considered: • What is the reliability of the information? • How confident are we that the list of risks is comprehensive? • Is there a need for additional research into specific risks? • Are the objectives and scope covered adequately? • Have the right people been involved in the risk identification process?
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb Key Questions for Risk Analysis a. What current systems may prevent, detect or lower the consequences or likelihoods of undesirable risks or events? b. What current systems may enhance or increase the consequences or likelihoods of opportunities or beneficial events? c. What are the consequences or range of consequences of the risks if they do occur? d. What is the likelihood or range of likelihoods of the risks happening? e. What factors might increase or decrease the likelihoods or the consequences? f. What additional factors may need to be considered and modelled? g. Are there limits of likelihood and consequence beyond which the analysis does not hold true? h. What are the limitations of the analysis and assumptions made? i. How confident are you in your judgement or research specifically in relation to high consequence and low likelihood risks? j. What drives variability, volatility or uncertainty? k. Is the logic behind the analysis methods sound? l. For quantitative analysis, what if any statistical methods may be used to understand the effect of uncertainty and variability?
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb 11,12. 04.02.14: Ref#20: Kajko-Mattsson, Mira, and Jaana Nyfjord. "State of software risk management practice." LAENG International Journal of Computer Science 35, no. 4 (2008): 1-12. & Ref#19: Risk Management Guidelines Companion to AS/NZS 4360:2004, Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand A. Risk Identification 1 Study relevant historical risk information 1.1 Study the organizational taxonomy of risk types 1.2 Study lessons learnt 1.3 Study other relevant information, if needed 2 Study the domain that is subject to the risk exposure 3 Elicit Risks- personal & past organizational experience, expert judgement, brainstorming, focus group, interview, business/strategic plans, historical records, post event reports, insurance claim/audit reports, what- if and scenario analysis, system design review, flow charting, prototyping, systems analysis (decomposition), critical path analysis, assumption analysis, checklists, system engg. Tech‘s, SWOT, survey/questionnaire, ... 3.1 Identify potential risks For each risk 3.2 Identify risk consequences and effects 3.3 Identify risk sources 3.4 Analyse root cause of risk 3.5 Define risk categories/classes 3.6 Describe and record each identified risk 4 Create risk list 5 Circulate risk list 6 Update risks accordingly 7 Confirm risk list B. Risk Analysis 1 Analyze risks 1.1 Analyse each risk independently For each risk 1.1.1 Study the risk 1.1.2 Assess risk probability 1.1.3 Assess risk impact 1.1.4 Calculate risk exposure 1.1.5 Specify risk severity 1.1.6 Analyse risk – past records, literature, experience, market research, public consultation, experiments, prototype, experts, modelling & simulation, qualitative, quantitative, semi-quantitative techniques, sensitivity analysis// matrices, decision/fault/event tree, influence diagram, life cycle cost analysis, network analysis, modelling/simulation, scenario analysis, test marketing probability/statistical analysis,.. 1.1.7 Specify preliminary risk threshold value 1.1.8 Assign priority to the risk 1.1.9 Record any assumptions made 1.2 Analyse risks in groups 1.2.1 Group risks according to chosen group criteria 1.2.1 Analyze risks in groups 1.3 Consolidate risk prioritization 2 Create top priority risk list 3 Create a list of risks requiring further attention 4 Suggest a preliminary plan for managing the risks 5 Circulate prioritized risk list & prelim. plan among stakeholders 6 Update the prioritized risk list & the prelim. plan, if needed C. Risk Management Planning 1 Study the risk list, the analysis results, and the preliminary plan 2 Determine strategies for managing risks For each risk group 2.1 Determine strategic procedure for managing the risk 2.2 Determine tolerance strategy (threshold value) 2.3 Determine values or events that may trigger contingency actions 3 Create a risk management plan implementing the risk strategies selected For each risk or risk group 3.1 Create control and monitoring plan 3.1.1 Define relevant measures/metrics for monitoring and controlling the risk 3.1.2 Determine performance indicators for measuring action effectiveness 3.1.3 Document the control and monitoring plan 3.2 Create action plan 3.2.1 Define relevant measures for treating the risk 3.2.2 Develop a fallback action plan if preliminary plan does not prove adequate 3.2.3 Document the action plan D. Risk Monitoring and Control 1 Ensure there are procedures to monitor risks 2 Monitor continuously all risks following the plan 2.1 Monitor risk status 2.2 Control the changes in risk status 2.3 Record the risk status 2.4 Take appropriate measures wrt the changed status 2.4.1 Implement the planned risk action, if needed 2.4.2 Implement the contingency plan, if need arises 2.4.3 Implement other actions, if needed 3 Monitor results to determine the
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb 3.3 Create contingency plan, if needed 3.3.1 Define relevant contingency actions 3.3.2 Document the contingency plan 3.4 Make schedule for implementing the plans 3.5 Identify constraints 3.6 Estimate efforts 3.7 Estimate resources 3.8 Assign budget 3.9 Assign roles/responsibilities for managing it 4 Combine all plans and put them into the risk management plan 5 Analyze the risk management plan (combined plan) 5.1 Conduct cross-plan analysis with regard to strategies chosen 5.2 Change to the plan according to the results of cross-plan analysis, if needed 6 Prepare risk related contractual agreements 7 Circulate the risk management plan to the stakeholders concerned 8 Update the risk management plan, if needed 9 Confirm risk management plan 10 Update and reconcile the documentation of the risk management plan effectiveness of planned action 4 Seek out to identify new or residual risks 4.1 Report the new risks accordingly 4.2 Start a new instance of the process, if needed 5 Update the risk status and risk list 6 Record and update trends by predefined performance indicators E. Risk Sign –off 1 Approve by formal sign-off 2 Update risk management progress status 3 Eliminate risk from risk list 4 Update risk list F. Risk Post-mortem Analysis 1 Evaluate the risk management process 2 Create/update an organizational risk taxonomy 3 Identify deficiencies and failures of the process 4 Identify positive effects of the process 5 Identify lessons learnt 6 Record the results
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb Ref#21: Boehm, Barry W. "Software risk management: principles and practices." Software, IEEE 8, no. 1 (1991): 32-41. Top 10 Risk items Risk Management technique Personnel shortfalls: skill and knowledge levels, staff turnover, team dynamics… Staffing with top talent, job matching, team building, key personnel agreements, cross training Unrealistic schedules and budgets: requirements demand more time/ money... Detailed multisource cost and schedule estimation, design to cost, incremental development, software reuse, requirement scrubbing Developing the wrong functions and properties: complexity, imperfect understanding… Organisational analysis, mission analysis, operations- concept formulation, user survey, user participation, prototyping, early user manual, off nominal performance analysis Developing the wrong user interface: not user-friendly, misleading… Prototyping, scenarios, task analysis, user participation Gold plating: adding unnecessary ―nice‖ features Requirements scrubbing, prototyping, cost benefit analysis, designing to cost Continuing stream of requirements changes: requirement volatility forces rework High change threshold, information hiding, incremental development (deferring changes to later developments) Shortfalls in externally furnished components: hardware or supporting software is inadequate Benchmarking, inspection, reference checking, compatibility analysis Shortfalls in externally performed tasks: subcontractors or users don‘t do what‘s needed Reference checking, pre-award audit, award-fee contracts, competitive design or prototyping, team building Real-time performance shortfalls: some or all of the system causes bottlenecks… Simulation, benchmarking, modelling, prototyping, instrumentation, tuning Straining computer-science capabilities: unstable or unfamiliar technology Technical analysis, cost benefit analysis, prototyping, reference checking
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb Ref#22: KEIL, MARK, and PAUL CULE. "Identifying Software Project Risks: An International Delphi Study." Journal of Management 17, no. 4 (2001): 5-36.
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb Ref#23: David Johnson; Alexei White; Andre Charland, Chapter 10, Risks and best practices, Enterprise AJAX: Strategies for Building High Performance Web Applications, Prentice Hall, 2007, Technical Risks Relate to the design, development, and maintenance of software, including security, browser capabilities, timeline, cost of development and hardware, skills of the developers, and other things of that nature.  Varied client browsers and operating systems o Richness Vs Reach o Varied browser capabilities – performance differences o Unexpected & costly maintenance because of changes in the browser, which can be exacerbated by hard-to-maintain spaghetti code (code with disorganized and tangled control structures). o Forward-compatibility with new browsers  Third-Party Tools Support and Obsolescence Cultural/Political Risks Focus around the experience of end users, their attitudes and expectations, and how all this relates to software.  Perceived insufficiency of conventional visual cues (or affordances) can actually inhibit usability for less-technologically expert users.  In a consumer-targeted application, switching costs are generally low, and users are poorly motivated to acclimate to a new interface/ workflow  Legal- there have been efforts to sue private corporations with inaccessible web sites under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), Marketing Risks Relate to successful execution of the business model resulting in sales, donations, brand recognition, new account registrations, and so on.  Search Engine Accessibility  Reach- because of disabled javascript on client browser  Monetization- if hyperlinks trigger an XHR instead of a full page load, the ad does not register an impression, revenue loss for website.
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb Ref#24: Luke Welling; Laura Thomson, PHP and MySQL® Web Development, Fourth Edition, Addison-Wesley Professional, 2008, Some important Risks faced by E-commerce companies:  Crackers- malicious computer users  Failure to attract sufficient business  Computer hardware failure  Power, communication, or network failures  Reliance on shipping services  Extensive competition  Software errors  Evolving governmental policies and taxes  System-capacity limits Ref#25: Tom DeMarco and Tim Lister, Waltzing with Bears: Managing Risk on Software Projects, Addison Wesley, 2013  Intrinsic Schedule Flaw (undoable estimates)  Specification Breakdown (stakeholder don‘t agree on what to build)  Scope Creep (additional requirements inflate the initially accepted set)  Personnel Loss  Productivity Variation (assumed <>actual performance)
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb Ref#26: Robertson, Suzanne, and James Robertson, Mastering the Requirements Process: Getting Requirements Right. 3rd Edition, Addison-Wesley, 2012. Stakeholders Truths of Requirements 1. Requirements are not really about requirements. 2. If we must build s/w, then it must be optimally valuable for its owner. 3. If your s/w does not have to satisfy a need, then you can build anything. However, if it is meant to satisfy a need, then you have to know what that need is to build the right s/w. 4. There is an important difference between building a piece of s/w and solving a business problem. The former does not necessarily accomplish the latter. 5. The requirements do not have to be written, but they have to become known to the builders. 6. Your customer won‘t always give you the right answer. Sometimes it is impossible for the customer to know what is right, and sometimes he just doesn‘t know what he needs. 7. Requirements do not come about by chance. There needs to be some kind of orderly process for developing them. 8. You can be as iterative as you want, but you still need to understand what the business needs. 9. There is no silver bullet. Methods and tools will not compensate for poor thought and poor workmanship.
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb 10. Requirements, if they are to be implemented successfully, must be measurable and testable. 11. You, the business analyst, will change the way the user thinks about his problem, either now or later. Ref#27: Karl E Wiegers; Joy Beatty, Ch 32: Software Requirements and Risk Management, Software Requirements, 3rd Edition, Microsoft Press, 2013 Requirements Elicitation related risks: 1. Product vision and project scope- write a vision and scope document and use it to guide decisions about requirements. 2. Time spent on requirements development -Tight proj. schedules often pressure managers and customers into glossing over the reqs. 3. Customer engagement- Identify stakeholders, customers, and user classes early in the project. Determine who will serve as the literal voice of the user for each user class. Engage key stakeholders as product champions. Make sure product champions fulfill their commitments to help you elicit the correct needs. 4. Completeness and correctness of requirements specifications-Elicit user requirements that map to business requirements to ensure that the solution will deliver what the customers really need. Devise usage scenarios, write tests from the requirements, and have customers define their acceptance criteria. Create prototypes to make the requirements more meaningful for users and to elicit specific feedback from them. Enlist customer representatives to review the requirements and analysis models. 5. Requirements for innovative products -Emphasize market research, build prototypes, and use focus groups to obtain early and frequent customer feedback. 6. Defining nonfunctional requirements- Precisely document nonfunctional requirements, e.g., performance, usability, security, & reliability and their acceptance criteria. 7. Customer agreement on requirements-Determine who the primary customers are. Make sure you‘re relying on the right people for making decisions about requirements. Have appropriate stakeholder representatives review the requirements. 8. Unstated requirements- Use open-ended questions to encourage customers to share more of their thoughts, assumptions, wishes, ideas, information, and concerns than you might otherwise hear. Asking customers what would make them reject the product might reveal some topics that have not yet been explored. 9. Existing product used as the requirements- Reference requirements development might not be deemed important on next-generation or replacement projects. 10. Solutions presented as needs- User-proposed solutions can mask the users‘ actual needs, lead to automating ineffective business processes, and over-constrain the developers‘ design options. 11. Distrust between the business and the development team-effective requirements engineering demands close collaboration among various stakeholders, particularly customer communities and developers.
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb Requirements Analysis related risks: 12. Requirements prioritization Ensure that every functional requirement, feature, or user requirement is prioritized and allocated to a specific system release or iteration. 13. Technically difficult features- identify those reqs that might take longer than anticipated to implement. Use status tracking to watch for requirements that are falling behind their implementation schedule. Take corrective action as early as possible. Prototype the novel or risky requirements to select effective approaches. 14. Unfamiliar technologies, methods, languages, tools, or hardware- Don‘t underestimate the learning curve. Identify those high-risk requirements early on, and work with the development team to allow sufficient time for false starts, learning, and experimentation. Requirements specification related risks: 15. Requirements understanding- Different interpretations of the requirements by developers and customers lead to expectation gaps, in which the delivered product fails to satisfy customer needs. Peer review of requirements by developers, testers, and customers can mitigate this risk. Creating models and prototypes that represent the requirements from multiple perspectives can reveal fuzzy, ambiguous requirements. 16. Time pressure to proceed despite open issues It is a good idea to mark areas of the requirements that need further work with TBD (to be determined) or as issues, but it‘s risky to proceed with construction if these haven‘t been resolved. Record who is responsible for closing each open issue and the target date for resolution. 17. Ambiguous terminology Create a glossary to define business and technical terms that might be interpreted differently by different readers. Requirements reviews can help participants reach a common understanding of terms and concepts. 18. Design included in requirements Design elements that are included in the requirements place constraints on the options available to developers. Unnecessary constraints inhibit the creation of optimal designs. Review the requirements to make sure they emphasize what needs to be done to solve the business problem, rather than dictating the solution. Requirements validation related risks: 19. Un-validated requirements- confirm the correctness and quality of each set of requirements before their implementation, Include time and resources for these quality activities in the project plan. Gain commitment from your customer representatives to participate in requirements reviews. Perform incremental, informal reviews to find problems as early and cheaply as possible. 20. Inspection proficiency- Train all team members who will participate in inspections of requirements documents. Invite an experienced consultant to observe your early inspections to coach the participants. Requirements management related risks: 21. Changing requirements documented business requirements and scope definitions as the benchmark for approving changes. Use collaborative elicitation process with extensive user involvement. Design the system for easy modifiability, particularly when you are following an iterative life cycle. 22. Requirements change process Risks related to how requirements changes are handled include not having a defined change process, using ineffective change mechanisms, failing to incorporate valuable changes efficiently, and incorporating
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb changes that bypass the process. A requirements change process that includes impact analysis, a change control board, and a tool to support the process is an important starting point. Clear communication of changes to the affected stakeholders is essential. 23. Unimplemented requirements- Requirements tracing helps you avoid overlooking any requirements during design, construction, or testing. 24. Expanding project scope- plan on a phased or incremental delivery life cycle. Implement the top priority functionality in the early releases, and elaborate the system‘s capabilities in later iterations. Ref#28: Karl E Wiegers; Joy Beatty, Ch 15: Risk reduction through prototyping, Software Requirements, 3rd Edition, Microsoft Press, 2013 Prototyping related Risks: 1. Pressure to release the prototype- Stakeholder will see a running throwaway prototype and conclude that the product is nearly completed. 2. Distraction by details - With real-looking prototypes, users become fixated on details about how the user interface will look and operate, it‘s easy for users to forget that they should be primarily concerned with conceptual issues at the requirements stage. Limit the prototype to the displays, functions, and navigation options that will let you clear up uncertain requirements 3. Unrealistic performance expectations- users will infer the expected performance of the final product from the prototype‘s performance 4. Investing excessive effort in prototypes- This can happen when you are prototyping the whole solution rather than only the most uncertain, high-risk, or complex portions. Treat a prototype as an experiment. You‘re testing the hypothesis that the requirements are sufficiently defined and the key human-computer interface and architectural issues are resolved so that design and construction can proceed. Do just enough prototyping to test the hypothesis, answer the questions, and refine the requirements.
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb 13. 10.02.14: Taxonomy Based Questions (TBQ) wrt Code and Unit Test (Ref#12: CMU/SEI-93- TR-6, 1993) a. Feasibility: Is the implementation of the design difficult or impossible?] [31] Are any parts of the product implementation not completely defined by the design specification? [32] Are the selected algorithms and designs easy to implement? b. Testing: Are the specified level and time for unit testing adequate? [33] Do you begin unit testing before you verify code with respect to the design? [34] Has sufficient unit testing been specified? [35] Is there sufficient time to perform all the unit testing you think should be done? [36] Will compromises be made regarding unit testing if there are schedule problems? c. Coding/Implementation: Are there any problems with coding and implementation? [37] Are the design specifications in sufficient detail to write the code? [38] Is the design changing while coding is being done? [39] Are there system constraints that make the code difficult to write? -- Timing, Memory, External storage [40] Is the language suitable for producing the software on this program? [41] Are there multiple languages used on the program? (Yes) (41.a) Is there interface compatibility between the code produced by the different compilers? [42] Is the development computer the same as the target computer? (No) (42.a) Are there compiler differences between the two? If developmental hardware is being used [43] Are the hardware specifications adequate to code the software? [44] Are the hardware specifications changing while the code is being written?
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb Taxonomy Based Questions (TBQ) (Ref#12: CMU/SEI-93-TR-6, 1993) Integration and Test Engineering Specialties a. Environment: Is the integration and test environment adequate? [45] Will there be sufficient hardware to do adequate integration and testing? [46] Is there any problem with developing realistic scenarios and test data to demonstrate any requirements? - Specified data traffic, Real-time response, Asynchronous event handling, Multi-user interaction [47] Are you able to verify performance in your facility? [48] Does hardware and software instrumentation facilitate testing? (Yes) (48.a) Is it sufficient for all testing? b. Product: Is the interface definition inadequate, facilities inadequate, time insufficient? [49] Will the target hardware be available when needed? [50] Have acceptance criteria been agreed to for all requirements? (Yes) (50.a) Is there a formal agreement? [51] Are the external interfaces defined, documented, and base-lined? [52] Are there any requirements that will be difficult to test? [53] Has sufficient product integration been specified? [54] Has adequate time been allocated for product integration and test? [55] Will vendor data be accepted in verification of requirements allocated to COTS products? (Yes) (55.a) Is the contract clear on that? c. System: System integration uncoordinated, poor interface definition, or inadequate facilities?] [56] Has sufficient system integration been specified? [57] Has adequate time been allocated a. Maintainability: Will the implementation be difficult to understand or maintain? [61] Does the architecture, design, or code create any maintenance difficulties? [62] Are the maintenance people involved early in the design? [63] Is the product documentation adequate for maintenance by an outside organization? b. Reliability: Are the reliability or availability requirements difficult to meet? [64] Are reliability requirements allocated to the software? [65] Are availability requirements allocated to the software? (Yes) (65.a) Are recovery timelines any problem? c. Safety: Are the safety requirements infeasible and not demonstrable? [66] Are safety requirements allocated to the software? (Yes) (66.a) Do you see any difficulty in meeting the safety requirements? [67] Will it be difficult to verify satisfaction of safety requirements? d. Security: Are the security requirements more stringent than the current state of the practice or program experience? [68] Are there unprecedented or state-of-the-art security requirements? [69] Is it an Orange Book system? [70] Have you implemented this level of security before? e. Human Factors: Will the system will be difficult to use because of poor human interface definition? [71] Do you see any difficulty in meeting the Human Factors requirements? (No) (71.a) How are you ensuring that you will meet the human interface requirements? If prototyping (Yes) (71.a.1) Is it a throw-away prototype? (No) (71.a.1a) Are you doing evolutionary development? (Yes) (71.a.1a.1) Are you experienced in this
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb for system integration and test? [58] Are all contractors part of the integration team? [59] Will the product be integrated into an existing system? (Yes) (59.a) Is there a parallel cutover period with the existing system? (No) (59.a.1) How will you guarantee the product will work correctly when integrated? [60] Will system integration occur on customer site? type of development? (Yes) (71.a.1a.2) Are interim versions deliverable? (Yes) (71.a.1a.3) Does this complicate change control? f. Specifications: Is the documentation adequate to design, implement, and test the system? [72] Is the software requirements specification adequate to design the system? [73] Are the hardware specifications adequate to design and implement the software? [74] Are the external interface requirements well specified? [75] Are the test specifications adequate to fully test the system? If in or past implementation phase [76] Are the design specifications adequate to implement the system?
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb 14,15. 10.02.14: Ref#29: Cebula, James L., and Lisa R. Young. A Taxonomy of Operational Cyber Security Risks. No. CMU/SEI-2010-TN-028. Carnegie-Mellon Univ Pittsburgh Pa Software Engineering Inst, 2010. Sources of Operational Cyber Security Risk to information and technology assets that have consequences affecting the confidentiality, availability, or integrity of information or information systems. 1. Actions of People 1.1 Inadvertent mistake—individual with knowledge of the correct procedure accidentally taking incorrect action error—individual without knowledge of the correct procedure taking incorrect action omission—individual not taking a known correct action often due to hasty performance of a procedure 1.2 Deliberate fraud—a deliberate action taken to benefit oneself or a collaborator at the expense of the organization sabotage—a deliberate action taken to cause a failure in an organizational asset/process, generally carried out by someone possessing or with access to inside knowledge theft—the intentional, unauthorized taking of organizational assets, in particular information assets vandalism—the deliberate damaging of organizational assets, often at random 1.3 Inaction skills—an individual‘s lack of ability to undertake the necessary action knowledge—an individual‘s ignorance of the need for action guidance—a knowledgeable individual lacking the proper guidance or direction to act availability—the unavailability or nonexistence of the appropriate resource needed to carry out the action 2. Systems and Technology Failures 2.1 Hardware capacity—inability to handle a given load or volume of information performance—inability to complete instructions or process information within acceptable parameters (speed, power consumption, heat load, etc.) maintenance—failure to perform required upkeep of the equipment obsolescence—operation of the equipment beyond its supported service life 2.2 Software compatibility—inability of >=2 pieces of s/w to work together as expected configuration management—improper application and management of the appropriate settings and parameters for the intended use change control—changes made to the application or its configuration by a process lacking appropriate authorization, review, and rigor security settings—improper application of security settings, either too relaxed or too restrictive, within the program or application coding practices—failures due to programming errors, including syntax and logic problems and failure to follow secure coding practices testing—inadequate testing of the software application/configuration 2.3 Systems design—improper fitness of the system for the intended application/use specifications—improper/inadequate definition of requirements; failure to adhere to the requirements during system construction integration—failure of various components of
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb the system to function together or interface correctly; inadequate testing of the system complexity—large number or interrelationships between components 3. Failed Internal Processes 3.1 Process design or execution process flow—poor design of the movement of process outputs to their intended consumers process documentation—inadequate documentation of the process inputs, outputs, flow, and stakeholders roles and responsibilities—insufficient definition and understanding of process stakeholder roles and responsibilities notifications and alerts—inadequate notification regarding a potential process problem or issue information flow—poor design of the movement of process information to interested parties and stakeholders escalation of issues—the inadequate or nonexistent ability to escalate abnormal or unexpected conditions for action by appropriate personnel service level agreements—the lack of agreement among process stakeholders on service expectations that causes a failure to complete expected actions task hand-off—―dropping the ball‖ due to the inefficient handing off of a task in progress from one responsible party to another 3.2 Process controls status monitoring—failure to review and respond to routine information about the operation of a process metrics—failure to review process measurements over time for the purpose of determining performance trends periodic review—failure to review the end-to- end operation of the process on a periodic basis and make any needed changes process ownership—failure of a process to deliver the expected outcome because of poor definition of its ownership or poor governance practices 4. External Events 4.1 Disasters weather event—adverse weather situations such as rain, snow, tornado, or hurricane fire—disruption caused by a fire within or external to a facility flood—disruption caused by a flood within or external to a facility earthquake—disruption of organizational operations due to an earthquake unrest—disruption of operations due to civil-disorder/riot/terrorism pandemic—widespread medical conditions that disrupt organizational operations 4.2 Legal issues regulatory compliance—new governmental regulation or failure to comply with existing regulation legislation—new legislation that impacts the organization litigation—legal action taken against the organization by any stakeholder, including employees and customers 4.3 Business issues supplier failure—the temporary or permanent inability of a supplier to deliver needed products or services to the organization market conditions—the diminished ability of the organization to sell its products and services in the market economic conditions—the inability of the organization to obtain needed funding for its operations 4.4 Service dependencies utilities—failure of the organization‘s electric power supply, water supply, or telecommunications services emergency services—dependencies on public response services e.g., fire,
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb 3.3 Supporting processes staffing—failure to provide appropriate human resources to support its operations funding—failure to provide appropriate financial resources to support its operations training and development—Failure to maintain the appropriate skills within the workforce procurement—failure to provide the proper purchased service and goods necessary to support operations police, and emergency medical services fuel—failure of external fuel supplies, e.g., for a backup generator transportation—failures in external transportation systems, e.g.,, inability of employees to report to work and inability to make and receive deliveries
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb Ref#30: Stoneburner, Gary, Alice Goguen, and Alexis Feringa. "Risk Management Guide for Information Technology Systems: Recommendations of the National Institute of Standards and Technology" Computer Security Division, NIST Special Publication 800, no. 30 (2002): 800-30. Integration of Risk Management into the SDLC SDLC Phases Phase Characteristics Support from Risk Management Activities Initiation The need for an IT system is expressed and the purpose and scope of the IT system is documented Identified risks are used to support the development of the system requirements, including security requirements, and a security concept of operations (strategy) Development or Acquisition The IT system is designed, purchased, programmed, developed, or otherwise constructed The risks identified during this phase can be used to support the security analyses of the IT system that may lead to architecture and design tradeoffs during system Development. Implementation The system security features should be configured, enabled, tested, and verified The risk management process supports the assessment of the system implementation against its requirements and within its modelled operational environment. Decisions regarding risks identified must be made prior to system operation Operation or Maintenance The system performs its functions. Typically the system is being modified on an ongoing basis through the addition of hardware and software and by changes to organizational processes, policies, and procedures Risk management activities are performed for periodic system reauthorization (or reaccreditation) or whenever major changes are made to an IT system in its operational, production environment (e.g., new system interfaces) Disposal This phase may involve the disposition of information, hardware, and software. Activities may include moving, archiving, discarding, or destroying information and sanitizing the hardware and software Risk management activities are performed for system components that will be disposed of or replaced to ensure that the hardware and software are properly disposed of, that residual data is appropriately handled, and that system migration is conducted in a secure and systematic manner Sample Interview Questions to be asked during interviews with site personnel to gain an understanding of the operational characteristics of an organization 1. Who are valid users? 2. What is the mission of the user organization? 3. What is the purpose of the system in relation to the mission? 4. How important is the system to the user organization‘s mission? 5. What is the system-availability requirement? 6. What information (both incoming and outgoing) is required by the organization? 7. What information is generated by, consumed by, processed on, stored in, and retrieved by the system? 8. How important is the information to the user organization‘s mission? 9. What are the paths of information flow? 10. What types of information are processed by and stored on the system (e.g., financial, personnel, research and development, medical, command and control)? 11. What is the sensitivity (or classification) level of the information? 12. What information handled by or about the system should not be disclosed and to whom? 13. Where specifically is the information processed and stored?
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb 14. What are the types of information storage? 15. What is the potential impact on the organization if the information is disclosed to unauthorized personnel? 16. What are the requirements for information availability and integrity? 17. What is the effect on the organization‘s mission if the system or information is not reliable? 18. How much system downtime can the organization tolerate? How does this downtime compare with the mean repair/recovery time? What other processing or communications options can the user access? 19. Could a system or security malfunction or unavailability result in injury or death? Ref#31: Dey, Prasanta Kumar, Jason Kinch, and Stephen O. Ogunlana. "Managing risk in software development projects: a case study." Industrial Management & Data Systems 107, no. 2 (2007): 284-303. Some questions for risk identification 1. Whether the developed software fulfils the customers‘ demand/requirement? 2. How much competition it is likely to face? 3. Whether benefits from the software surpass the cost of development? 4. Is the project technically feasible? 5. Will hardware, software, and networks function properly? 6. Will the technology be available in time to meet project objectives? 7. Is there any chance of the technology becoming obsolete before use? 8. Will security system work throughout its life?
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb Ref#32: Iacovou, Charalambos L., and Robbie Nakatsu. "A risk profile of offshore- outsourced development projects." Communications of the ACM 51, no. 6 (2008): 89- 94. Most important Risk Factor in Offshore-outsourced projects 1. Lack of top management commitment 2. Original set of requirements is mis-communicated 3. Language barriers in project communications 4. Inadequate user involvement 5. Lack of offshore project management know-how by client 6. Failure to manage end user expectations 7. Poor change controls 8. Lack of business know-how by offshore team 9. Lack of required technical know-how by offshore team 10. Failure to consider all costs 11. Telecommunications and infrastructure issues 12. Vendor viability 13. Difficulties in ongoing support and maintenance 14. Low visibility of project process 15. Cross-cultural differences 16. High turnover of vendor employees 17. Constraints due to time-zone differences 18. Lack of continuous, face-to-face interactions across team members 19. Threats to the security of information resources 20. Negative impact on employee morale 21. Unfamiliarity with international and foreign contract law 22. Differences in development methodology/processes 23. Political instability in offshore destinations 24. Negative impact on image of client organization 25.Currency fluctuations Ref#33: Persson, John Stouby, and Lars Mathiassen. "A process for managing risks in distributed teams." Software, IEEE 27, no. 1 (2010): 20-29. Identifying and analyzing distributed-team risks Area Risk factor and risk question Low risk Medium risk High risk Task distri- bution Task uncertainty. Do team members posses the knowledge and capabilities needed? Team members know the task, and it fits well with their capabilities. Team members have reasonable task knowledge, and their capabilities cover most challenges. There are serious gaps in team members‘ task knowledge and required capabili- ties. Task equivocality. Do team members understand the specification of the task? The task is well specified and understood by team members. Most aspects of the specifica- tion are clear, and key team members understand the task. The specification lacks clarity on major points, and many team members have limited task understanding. Task coupling. Is the task divided into distinct subtasks across sites? There is minor need to coor- dinate development work across sites. There is some need to coordi- nate development work across sites. There is major need to coordinate development work across sites. Know- ledge manage- ment Knowledge creation. How is task knowledge created across sites? All sites contribute well to the creation of required task knowledge. Most sites contribute reason- ably well to the creation of required task knowledge. There are major problems related to the creation of required task knowledge. Knowledge capture. How is task knowledge captured across sites? Task knowledge is captured effectively across sites. Task knowledge is, with some exceptions, captured effectively across sites. There are major problems related to capturing task knowledge across sites. Knowledge integration. How is task knowledge integrated and shared across sites? Task knowledge is integrated and shared well across sites. Task knowledge is, with some exceptions, well integrated and shared across sites. There is limited task knowledge integration and sharing across sites. Geog- raphical Spatial distribution. How many sites are involved, and There are few sites collabo- rating over limited distance. There are several sites collaborating over some There are many sites collaborating
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb distri- bution what‘s the distance between them? distance. over considerable distance. Temporal distribution. How do time zone differences impact development work? Time zone differences cause no or only minor problems. Time zone differences require some ad hoc coordination across sites. Time zone differences cause major problems and require constant attention across sites. Goal distribution. How diverse are goals across sites? Team members share major goals across sites. There is some variation in goals across sites. There are major goal conflicts across sites. Colla- boration structure Collaboration capability. Can team members collaborate across sites? Team members collaborate across sites as needed. In most cases, team members collaborate across sites as needed. Breakdowns in collaboration across sites are common. Coordination mechanisms. Are coordination mechanisms appropriate across sites? Coordination mechanisms are shared across sites and well adapted to the distributed context. Coordination mechanisms are shared by most team members and reasonably well adapted to the distributed context. Coordination mechanisms are not shared across sites and poorly adapted to the distributed context. Process alignment. Are processes aligned across sites? Processes (including methods, templates, and guidelines) are shared across sites. Processes (incl. methods, templates & guidelines) vary but are reasonably well aligned across sites. Processes (including methods, templates, and guidelines) are different across sites. Cultural distri- bution Language barriers. Do language and communication norms vary across sites? Team members share lan- guage and communication norms across sites. Team members use a common language with minor differences in comm‘ norms. Team members don‘t share a common language and have different comm‘ norms. Work culture. Does work culture differ between sites? Team members share work culture (including authority and team behavior) across sites. Team members understand variations in work culture (including authority and team behavior) across sites. Team members don‘t understand variations in work culture (including authority and team behavior) across sites. Cultural bias. Does cultural bias impact communication and cooperation across sites? There are no major variations in cultural values across sites. Team members communicate and collaborate based on appreciation of cultural variations across sites. Team members lack knowledge of variations in cultural values across sites. Stake- holder relations Stakeholder commitment. Are stakeholders committed to the project? Key stakeholders are com- mitted and share a common project identity across sites. Most stakeholders are com- mitted to the project and know about its distributed organization. Stakeholder commitment varies, and there is no shared project identity. Mutual trust. Is there trust between stakeholders across sites? There is appropriate mutual trust across sites. There are instances of insuf- ficient trust across sites. Stakeholders don‘t trust each other across sites. Relationship building. Can the project integrate stakeholders across sites? Existing and new stake- holders are well integrated across sites. Existing and new stakehold- ers are mostly integrated well across sites. There are several cases of stakeholders not being well integrated. Comm- unication infra- structure Personal communication. What‘s the level of personal communication and social interaction across sites? The level of personal com- munication and social interaction across sites is appropriate. There is some personal communication and social interaction across sites. There is limited personal communication and social interaction across sites.
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb Interaction media. How well is communication across sites supported by media? Communication needs across sites are well supported by media. Communication across sites is for many purposes well supported by media. There are severe shortcomings in media support of communication across sites. Teleconference management. How well is teleconferencing managed across sites? Teleconferencing is used appropriately and managed effectively across sites. Teleconferencing is used to some extent across sites and reasonably well managed. There is limited use of teleconferencing across sites and they aren‘t managed well. Techno- logy setup Network capability. Are communication networks reliable? Networks aren‘t causing delays in development work and communication. Networks are causing some delays in development work and communication. Networks are causing serious delays in development work and communication. Tool compatibility. Are tools compatible across sites? There are no compatibility issues between tools across sites. Compatibility issues between tools create some collaboration barriers across sites. Compatibility issues between tools create serious collaboration barriers across sites. Configuration management. How are configurations managed across sites? There‘s appropriate configu- ration management across sites. Configuration management is, with some exceptions, appropriate across sites. There is limited configuration management across sites. Resolution techniques for mitigating distributed team software development risks SWOT analysis (Ref#34: Mindtools.com): Identify the key internal and external factors that are important to achieving the objective Strengths: characteristics of the business or project that give it an advantage over others- What advantages does your organization have? What do you do better than anyone else? What unique or lowest-cost resources can you draw upon that others can't? What do people in your market see as your strengths? What is your organization‘s USP? What factors mean that you "get the sale"? -We are able to respond very quickly as we have no red tape, and no need for higher management approval. -We are able to give really good customer care, as the current small amount of work means we have plenty of time to devote to customers. -Our lead consultant has strong reputation in the market. -We can change direction quickly if we find that our marketing is not working. -We have low overheads, so we can offer good value to Planning 1.Acquire complementary skills 2.Adjust meetings to distributed context 3.Divide tasks systematically between sites 4.Reduce coupling between sites 5.Create shared collaboration platform 6.Establish shared goals 7.Establish communication norms 8.Define roles and responsibilities Control 9. Focus on deliverables 10. Establish task coordination between sites 11. Maintain site autonomy 12. Establish shared control mechanisms 13. Establish temporal coordination mechanisms 14. Maintain project organization overview 15. Maintain task overview within and across sites 16. Monitor and improve communication 17. Maintain a supportive environment 18. Analyze and manage errors Social integration 19. Improve capability to manage cultural differences 20. Improve distributed collaboration skills 21. Improve language skills 22. Emphasize early teambuilding activities 23. Promote humor and openness 24. Use mentors to integrate new members 25. Use face-to-face meetings appropriately 26. Develop liaisons between sites 27. Adopt shared reward systems Technical integration 28. Increase technical compatibility between sites 29. Standardize and train in methods across sites 30. Adopt appropriate communication technologies 31. Improve collaboration and communication technology skills 32. Improve development technology skills 33. Handle differences in methods between sites 34. Combine waterfall model and prototyping
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb customers. Weaknesses: characteristics that place the team at a disadvantage relative to others- What could you improve? What should you avoid? What are people in your market likely to see as weaknesses? What factors lose you sales? -Our company has little market presence or reputation. -We have a small staff, with a shallow skills base in many areas. -We are vulnerable to vital staff being sick, and leaving. -Our cash flow will be unreliable in the early stages. Opportunities: elements that the project could exploit to its advantage- What good opportunities can you spot? What interesting trends are you aware of? Useful opportunities can come from such things as:-- Changes in - technology/markets on broad/narrow scale; government policy related to your field; social patterns, population profiles, lifestyle changes; Local events. -Our business sector is expanding, with many future opportunities for success. -Local government wants to encourage local businesses. -Our competitors may be slow to adopt new technologies. Threats: elements in the environment that could cause trouble for the business or project- What obstacles do you face? What are your competitors doing? Are quality standards or specifications for your job, products or services changing? Is changing technology threatening your position? Do you have bad debt or cash-flow problems? Could any of your weaknesses seriously threaten your business? -Developments in technology may change this market beyond our ability to adapt. -A small change in the focus of a large competitor might wipe out any market position we achieve. Ref#35: Manual of Accreditation, National Board of Accreditation, India, 2013, Graduate Attributes UG Engineering 1. Engineering knowledge: Apply the knowledge of mathematics, science, engineering fundamentals, and an engineering specialisation to the solution of complex engineering problems. 2. Problem analysis: Identify, formulate, research literature, and analyse complex engineering problems reaching substantiated conclusions using first principles of mathematics, natural sciences, and engineering sciences. 3. Design/development of solutions: Design solutions for complex engineering problems and design system components or processes that meet the specified needs with appropriate consideration for the public health and safety, and the cultural, societal, and environmental considerations. 4. Conduct investigations of complex problems: Use research-based knowledge and research methods including design of experiments, analysis and interpretation of data, and synthesis of the information to provide valid conclusions. 5. Modern tool usage: Create, select, and apply appropriate techniques, resources, and modern engineering and IT tools including prediction and modelling to complex engineering activities with an understanding of the limitations. 6. The engineer and society: Apply reasoning informed by the contextual knowledge to assess societal, health, safety, legal, and cultural issues and the consequent responsibilities relevant to the professional engineering practice. 7. Environment and sustainability: Understand the impact of the professional engineering solutions in societal and environmental contexts, and demonstrate the knowledge of, and need for sustainable development. 8. Ethics: Apply ethical principles and commit to professional ethics and responsibilities and norms of the engineering practice. 9. Individual and Team work: Function effectively as an individual, and as a member or leader in diverse teams, and in multidisciplinary settings. 10. Communication: Communicate effectively on complex engineering activities with the engineering community and with society at large, such as, being able to comprehend and write effective reports and design documentation, make effective presentations, and give and receive clear instructions.
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb 11. Project management and finance: Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the engineering and management principles and apply these to one's own work, as a member and leader in a team, to manage projects and in multidisciplinary environments. 12. Life-long learning: Recognise the need for, and have the preparation and ability to engage in independent and life-long learning in the broadest context of technological change. Graduate Attributes PG Engineering 1. Scholarship of Knowledge: Acquire in-depth knowledge of specific discipline or professional area, including wider and global perspective, with an ability to discriminate, evaluate, analyse and synthesise existing and new knowledge, and integration of the same for enhancement of knowledge. 2. Critical Thinking: Analyse complex engineering problems critically, apply independent judgement for synthesising information to make intellectual and/or creative advances for conducting research in a wider theoretical, practical and policy context. 3. Problem Solving: Think laterally and originally, conceptualise and solve engineering problems, evaluate a wide range of potential solutions for those problems and arrive at feasible, optimal solutions after considering public health and safety, cultural, societal and environmental factors in the core areas of expertise. 4. Research Skill: Extract information pertinent to unfamiliar problems through literature survey and experiments, apply appropriate research methodologies, techniques and tools, design, conduct experiments, analyse and interpret data, demonstrate higher order skill and view things in a broader perspective, contribute individually/in group(s) to the development of scientific/technological knowledge in one or more domains of engineering. 5. Usage of modern tools: Create, select, learn and apply appropriate techniques, resources, and modern engineering and IT tools, including prediction and modelling, to complex engineering activities with an understanding of the limitations. 6. Collaborative and Multidisciplinary work: Possess knowledge and understanding of group dynamics, recognise opportunities and contribute positively to collaborative- multidisciplinary scientific research, demonstrate a capacity for self-management and teamwork, decision-making based on open-mindedness, objectivity and rational analysis in order to achieve common goals and further the learning of themselves as well as others. 7. Project Management and Finance: Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of engineering and management principles and apply the same to one‘s own work, as a member and leader in a team, manage projects efficiently in respective disciplines and multidisciplinary environments after consideration of economical and financial factors. 8. Communication: Communicate with the engineering community, and with society at large, regarding complex engineering activities confidently and effectively, such as, being able to comprehend and write effective reports and design documentation by adhering to appropriate standards, make effective presentations, and give and receive clear instructions. 9. Life-long Learning: Recognise the need for, and have the preparation and ability to engage in life-long learning independently, with a high level of enthusiasm and commitment to improve knowledge and competence continuously.
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb 10. Ethical Practices and Social Responsibility: Acquire professional and intellectual integrity, professional code of conduct, ethics of research and scholarship, consideration of the impact of research outcomes on professional practices and an understanding of responsibility to contribute to the community for sustainable development of society. 11. Independent and Reflective Learning: Observe and examine critically the outcomes of one‘s actions and make corrective measures subsequently, and learn from mistakes without depending on external feedback.
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb Graduate Attributes for UG Engineering Graduate Attributes for PG Engineering Engineering knowledge: Apply the knowledge of mathematics, science, engineering fundamentals, and an engineering specialisation to the solution of complex engineering problems. Scholarship of Knowledge: Acquire in-depth knowledge of specific discipline or professional area, including wider and global perspective, with an ability to discriminate, evaluate, analyse and synthesise existing and new knowledge, and integration of the same for enhancement of knowledge. Problem analysis: Identify, formulate, research literature, and analyse complex engineering problems reaching substantiated conclusions using first principles of mathematics, natural sciences, and engineering sciences. Critical Thinking: Analyse complex engineering problems critically, apply independent judgement for synthesising information to make intellectual and/or creative advances for conducting research in a wider theoretical, practical and policy context. Design/development of solutions: Design solutions for complex engineering problems and design system components or processes that meet the specified needs with appropriate consideration for the public health and safety, and the cultural, societal, and environmental considerations. Problem Solving: Think laterally and originally, conceptualise and solve engineering problems, evaluate a wide range of potential solutions for those problems and arrive at feasible, optimal solutions after considering public health and safety, cultural, societal and environmental factors in the core areas of expertise. Conduct investigations of complex problems: Use research-based knowledge and research methods including design of experiments, analysis and interpretation of data, and synthesis of the information to provide valid conclusions. Research Skill: Extract information pertinent to unfamiliar problems through literature survey and experiments, apply appropriate research methodologies, techniques and tools, design, conduct experiments, analyse and interpret data, demonstrate higher order skill and view things in a broader perspective, contribute individually/in group(s) to the development of scientific/ technological knowledge in one or more domains of engineering. Modern tool usage: Create, select, and apply appropriate techniques, resources, and modern engineering and IT tools including prediction and modelling to complex engineering activities with an understanding of the limitations. Usage of modern tools: Create, select, learn and apply appropriate techniques, resources, and modern engineering and IT tools, including prediction and modelling, to complex engineering activities with an understanding of the limitations. The engineer and society: Apply reasoning informed by the contextual knowledge to assess societal, health, safety, legal, and cultural issues and the consequent responsibilities relevant to the professional engineering practice. Ethical Practices and Social Responsibility: Acquire professional and intellectual integrity, professional code of conduct, ethics of research and scholarship, consideration of the impact of research outcomes on professional practices and an understanding of responsibility to contribute to the community for sustainable development of society.Environment and sustainability: Understand the impact of the professional engineering solutions in societal and environmental contexts, and demonstrate the knowledge of, and need for sustainable development. Ethics: Apply ethical principles and commit to professional ethics and responsibilities and norms of the engineering practice. Individual and Team work: Function effectively as an individual, and as a member or leader in diverse teams, and in multidisciplinary settings. Collaborative and Multidisciplinary work: Possess knowledge and understanding of group dynamics, recognise opportunities and contribute positively to collaborative-multidisciplinary scientific research, demonstrate a capacity for self-management and teamwork, decision-making based on open-mindedness, objectivity and rational analysis in order to achieve common goals and further the learning of themselves as well as others. Communication: Communicate effectively on complex engineering activities with the engineering community and with society at large, such as, being able to comprehend and write effective reports and design documentation, make effective presentations, and give and receive clear instructions. Communication: Communicate with the engineering community, and with society at large, regarding complex engineering activities confidently and effectively, such as, being able to comprehend and write effective reports and design documentation by adhering to appropriate standards, make effective presentations, and give and receive clear instructions. Project management and finance: Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the engineering and management principles and apply these to one's own work, as a member and leader in a team, to manage projects and in multidisciplinary Project Management and Finance: Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of engineering and management principles and apply the same to one‘s own work, as a member and leader in a team, manage projects efficiently in respective disciplines and multidisciplinary environments after consideration of economical
  • Lecture Notes, PSRM-I: Risk Engg. Sanjay Goel, JIIT, 2014, Jan-Feb environments. and financial factors. Life-long learning: Recognise the need for, and have the preparation and ability to engage in independent and life-long learning in the broadest context of technological change. Life-long Learning: Recognise the need for, and have the preparation and ability to engage in life-long learning independently, with a high level of enthusiasm and commitment to improve knowledge and competence continuously. Independent and Reflective Learning: Observe and examine critically the outcomes of one‘s actions and make corrective measures subsequently, and learn from mistakes without depending on external feedback. Ref#36: Software Engineering Code of Ethics and Professional Practice for Ver 5.2, IEEE and ACM, 1999 Software engineers shall commit themselves to making the analysis, specification, design, development, testing and maintenance of software a beneficial and respected profession. In accordance with their commitment to the health, safety and welfare of the public, software engineers shall adhere to the following Eight Principles: 1. PUBLIC - Software engineers shall with act consistently the public interest. 2. CLIENT AND EMPLOYER - Software engineers shall act in a manner that is in the best interests of their client and employer consistent with the public interest. 3. PRODUCT - Software engineers shall ensure that their products and related modifications meet the highest professional standards possible. 4. JUDGMENT - Software engineers shall maintain integrity and independence in their professional judgment. 5. MANAGEMENT - Software engineering managers and leaders shall subscribe to and promote an ethical approach to the management of software development and maintenance. 6. PROFESSION - Software engineers shall advance the integrity and reputation of the profession consistent with the public interest. 7. COLLEAGUES - Software engineers shall be fair to and supportive of their colleagues. 8. SELF - Software engineers shall participate in lifelong learning regarding the practice of their profession and shall promote an ethical approach to the practice of the profession. ##################################### First Test #############################