ByParisaFoadian<br />
1 in 110 births, a child will be Autistic<br />1 million to 1.5 million Americans have Autism <br />10-17% annual growth o...
Autism occurs in all racial, ethnic, and social groups<br />Boys are 3 to 4 times more likely to be affected by autism tha...
In many cases, no specific cause can be identified<br />A few factors are being investigated:<br />Infectious factors<br /...
A working group convened by the National Institute of Health in 1995 reached a consensus that autism probably results from...
Animal models<br />Difficulty to produce to date<br />Identification of genes will help<br />Immunizations and Autism<br /...
Criteria grouped in 3 areas <br />social/communication-play, & restricted interests/activities/behaviors<br />Must have a ...
delay/abnormal functioning in Social interaction
Language as used in social communication
Symbolic or imaginative play
Data show:
Good balance of Sensitivity and Specificity
Good coverage of entire IQ Range
Increased reliability for novice raters</li></li></ul><li>High peripheral levels of serotonin<br />High rates of seizure d...
People with autism can make progress if they receive appropriate, individual intervention<br />Pre-school children who rec...
Autism is a neurologically based developmental disorder<br />Requires a behavioral diagnosis<br />People with Autism live ...
Results in social interaction problems, communication difficulties, and restrictive or repetitive interests and behaviors....
Mild/More able                    Moderate/                     Severe/less able<br />                                    ...
High Functioning Autism (HFA)<br />Asperger’s Syndrome (AS)<br />Pervasive Developmental Delay (PDD)<br />PDD Not Otherwis...
Autistic behavior is like an iceberg: the outward behavior is only the “tip” of the problem<br />
The problem that most people have understanding AU is that the outward behavior doesn’t really match the cause of the beha...
Difficulty with everyday changes <br />(substitute teachers, moving furniture, meeting new people)<br />Difficulty with tr...
Autism causes a need for predictability and routine<br />Strong interests in particular toys, topics etc.<br />Difficulty ...
Uncomfortable and limited use of gestures<br />Doesn’t converse or chat; speech quality odd<br />Doesn’t laugh at jokes or...
Autism causes problems in understanding spoken language (possible auditory processing problems), the power of communicatio...
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Autism

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  • Point out the things the table talked about.
  • The term AU may be presented as AU Spectrum. That term is used because there is a continuum or levels of autism.
  • It would take far too much time to go into detail about every type of Autism, but we will be going over the classic type of Autism.
  • FOCUSED INTERESTSMay appear as “know it all” - not interested in your opinion – only want to talk about their life or their topicsi.e.,: Raymond very able to discuss certain information such as facts about cars, or batting averages;DIFFICULTY W/LANG and SOCIAL COMMUNICATIONEven though may have extensive vocabulary and can be quite communicative when taking about their interests or subject of expertise may not be able to respond to a simple questions – even a yes/no question. May misinterpret what you are saying and respond inappropriatelyWhen you are talking they may not look at you – they are using all their ability to try and understand the message you are sending and looking at you creates another mental process that confuses the language processing. They might be able to do one but not the other.May just give the same answer no matter what you ask – INTENSE ANXIETY- NOT SURE YOU SAYi.e.: Raymond answered “I don’t know” almost immediately Goes into the “who’s on first” monologueNEED FOR SAMENESS AND PREDICABILITY – BEST PORTRAYED IN THIS MOVIEHas to have routines and do things the same way – if not meltdown – can’t cope – yell/screami.e, Watch Wapner – buy underwear only at Kmart in Cincinnati – only bed by window – eat foods only on certain days – must follow rules such as lights out EXACTLY at 11:00 – Can’t go out when it rains – WALK DON’T WALK - eat with toothpicks – only tartar control toothpaste IF NOT DO MELTDOWNSOCIAL RELATEDNESS / SOCIAL CUESCan’t figure out what is going on by watching. May be blunt – say the facts – often set up to be the scapegoat and bullied – naive = FOCUS ON DETAIL = Who’s on first – didn’t get the joke
  • When frustrated can’t ask for help – scream instead or knock things over
  • Afterwards, the person is very embarrassed and find it hard to face the people they acted that way in front of.
  • Autism

    1. 1. ByParisaFoadian<br />
    2. 2. 1 in 110 births, a child will be Autistic<br />1 million to 1.5 million Americans have Autism <br />10-17% annual growth of the disability<br />
    3. 3. Autism occurs in all racial, ethnic, and social groups<br />Boys are 3 to 4 times more likely to be affected by autism than girls<br />
    4. 4. In many cases, no specific cause can be identified<br />A few factors are being investigated:<br />Infectious factors<br />Metabolic factors<br />Genetic factors<br />Environmental factors<br />
    5. 5. A working group convened by the National Institute of Health in 1995 reached a consensus that autism probably results from a genetic susceptibility that involves multiple genes<br />
    6. 6. Animal models<br />Difficulty to produce to date<br />Identification of genes will help<br />Immunizations and Autism<br />Environmental Toxins and Autism<br />Heavy metals<br />Drugs/other toxins<br />
    7. 7. Criteria grouped in 3 areas <br />social/communication-play, & restricted interests/activities/behaviors<br />Must have a total of at least 6<br /><ul><li>Onset before age 3 years based on:
    8. 8. delay/abnormal functioning in Social interaction
    9. 9. Language as used in social communication
    10. 10. Symbolic or imaginative play
    11. 11. Data show:
    12. 12. Good balance of Sensitivity and Specificity
    13. 13. Good coverage of entire IQ Range
    14. 14. Increased reliability for novice raters</li></li></ul><li>High peripheral levels of serotonin<br />High rates of seizure disorder<br />Persistent primitive reflexes<br />Increased head size (toddlers)<br />Morphological changes in CNS <br />Minicolumns, mirror neurons<br />Fusiform gyrus and faces<br />Placental abnormalities<br />
    15. 15.
    16. 16.
    17. 17. People with autism can make progress if they receive appropriate, individual intervention<br />Pre-school children who receive intensive individualized behavior interventions show remarkable progress<br />Limited pharmacological interventions are available to treat specific symptoms of autism<br />
    18. 18. Autism is a neurologically based developmental disorder<br />Requires a behavioral diagnosis<br />People with Autism live in a different “culture” that affects their behavior and learning<br />Can exist with co-occurring disorder like Mental Retardation<br />
    19. 19. Results in social interaction problems, communication difficulties, and restrictive or repetitive interests and behaviors. <br />Approximately 20 percent of children with autism reportedly experience a "regression"; that is, they have apparently normal development followed by a loss of communication and social skills.<br />
    20. 20. Mild/More able Moderate/ Severe/less able<br /> mod. severe<br />High functioning Low Functioning<br />IQ>70 IQ<70 <br />
    21. 21. High Functioning Autism (HFA)<br />Asperger’s Syndrome (AS)<br />Pervasive Developmental Delay (PDD)<br />PDD Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS)<br />Mixed Autism with Mental Retardation<br />Fragile X<br />Rett’s Syndrome<br />
    22. 22.
    23. 23. Autistic behavior is like an iceberg: the outward behavior is only the “tip” of the problem<br />
    24. 24. The problem that most people have understanding AU is that the outward behavior doesn’t really match the cause of the behavior. Many times persons with AU are misunderstood and mistreated by this lack of understanding.<br />
    25. 25.
    26. 26. Difficulty with everyday changes <br />(substitute teachers, moving furniture, meeting new people)<br />Difficulty with transitions<br />(between materials, activities, setting)<br />Scripted routine play patterns<br />Non functional rituals and routine ways to do things<br />Intense focus on and interest in certain topics, videos, characters<br />Stereotypic behaviors (rocking, flapping, toe-walking)<br />
    27. 27. Autism causes a need for predictability and routine<br />Strong interests in particular toys, topics etc.<br />Difficulty with abstract imaginative and creative thought<br />A high level of anxiety when things are unclear<br />Trouble modulating behaviors<br />
    28. 28. Uncomfortable and limited use of gestures<br />Doesn’t converse or chat; speech quality odd<br />Doesn’t laugh at jokes or pick up on subtle humor<br />Doesn’t respond or may over-react to something said<br />Trouble initiating/asking for help<br />Talks better than they understand<br />Trouble following group instructions<br />Talks about or asks the same questions over and over<br />
    29. 29. Autism causes problems in understanding spoken language (possible auditory processing problems), the power of communication, metaphors, slang, nicknames, abstract concepts, and the pragmatics of language<br />Autism causes problems in speech quality, focused interests and need to have things predictable<br />
    30. 30. <ul><li>Inappropriate laughing and giggling
    31. 31. Resists change to routine
    32. 32. Puzzled or confused
    33. 33. No eye contact
    34. 34. Yells or shrieks
    35. 35. Inappropriate attachment to objects
    36. 36. Responds differently to touch
    37. 37. Marked physical over activity or extreme passivity
    38. 38. Crying tantrum; extreme distress for no discernable reason</li></li></ul><li> Makes no eye <br />contact<br />Stares ahead<br />Picks at the lips or gums<br />Chews inappropriate objects<br />Makes noises<br />Chews fingernails<br />Flaps hands<br />Rocks body<br />Slaps foot<br />
    39. 39.
    40. 40. Varying responses to input from all 5 basic senses<br />Varying responses to vestibular and/or proprioceptive input<br />Responses may become cumulative and released at an unrelated time<br />
    41. 41. Spread the word! The first step is awareness<br />Visit www.autism-society.org for more information <br />By making people aware more resources can be organized towards the goal<br />ASA offers wristbands, bumper stickers and other merchandise<br />
    42. 42. http://autism.about.com/<br />Volkmar, Fred R., and Lisa A. Wiesner. A Practical Guide to Autism: What Every Parent, Family Member, and Teacher Needs to Know. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2009. Print.<br />www.autism-society.org<br />
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