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  • Nation State
  • Culture of art - Renaissance - Cost
  • Reformation

    1. 1. <ul><li>Reformations </li></ul><ul><li>Unruly Growth or Intimate Control? </li></ul>
    2. 2. Giotti 14th century?
    3. 3. Guttenberg? Bible
    4. 5. Secularization? <ul><li>Time -- Calendar </li></ul><ul><li>Space -- Aesthetics </li></ul><ul><li>Governance </li></ul><ul><li>Juridical </li></ul><ul><li>Self </li></ul><ul><li>Community </li></ul>
    5. 6. Story of Western (Religious) Exceptionalism? Capitalism Democracy Individualism Technology
    6. 7. Other Stories? Reciprocity/Co-constitution Yuck/Critique Bottoms Up Appropriate
    7. 8. <ul><li>One World Religion </li></ul><ul><li>The collapse of the world of Unum Sanctum and the ideal of a single Corpus Christianum and the rise of confessionalism, i.e. the process of imposing one homogenous faith corresponding with a political unit </li></ul>
    8. 9. <ul><li>Two? More? </li></ul><ul><li>The individual and religion: a history of interpretations of Luther’s “Here I stand, I can do no other” </li></ul><ul><li>Where are we in time: When Columbus “discovered” Hispaniola Luther was 8; Erasmus was 25, Copernicus was 18, Ignatius Loyola was 1, Calvin would not born for another 17 years </li></ul>
    9. 10. <ul><li>The World of Western Christianity on the Eve of the Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>Nation Sates Consolidating </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance Humanism </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Others - Islam, Colonization </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Clericism </li></ul><ul><li>Apocalypse </li></ul>
    10. 11. Nation State
    11. 12. Altar Piece: Last Judgment, Hôtel-Dieu, Beaune <ul><li>Roger van der Weyden (1443) </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance/ Culture of Art-Icon </li></ul>
    12. 13. Schrein der Heilige Elisabeth <ul><li>Marburg (1235-1250) </li></ul>
    13. 14. Colonialism Baptise Eunich
    14. 15. <ul><li>The Internal World of Western Christianity on the Eve of the Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>- Mobilizing holiness for salvation: masses and care of the dead and dying </li></ul><ul><li>- Social divisions reflect access to holiness: sharp lay/priestly divide </li></ul><ul><li>- A powerful political, economic, physical, and social presence </li></ul><ul><li>- A relatively under-developed parish life </li></ul>
    15. 16. Cathédrale Notre-Dame-de-Strasbourg <ul><li>(Built 1176–1439) </li></ul>
    16. 17. Cathédrale Notre-Dame-de-Strasbourg <ul><li>(Built 1176–1439) </li></ul>
    17. 18. German Reliquary of the Cross Relics <ul><li>(15th Century) </li></ul>
    18. 19. Cult of Mary: Our Lady of Seven Sorrows <ul><li>Brugge (before 1530) </li></ul>
    19. 20. <ul><li>The Crisis of Martin Luther and its Resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Orthodoxy - Belief </li></ul><ul><li>Amazing Grace </li></ul><ul><li>Eucharist </li></ul><ul><li>Indulgences </li></ul><ul><li>Mystical Church, Secular State </li></ul>
    20. 21. Door Where Luther Posted his 95 Theses
    21. 22. <ul><li>The Crisis of Martin Luther and its Resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Resolutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sola fides (by faith alone) and attack on indulgences, on masses for the dead, on the cult of Mary and of the saints; iconoclasm </li></ul></ul>
    22. 23. Sola Fides: Difference Between the True and False Religions <ul><li>Lucas Cranach (1545) </li></ul>
    23. 24. Aerial View of St. Peter’s
    24. 25. Indulgences: Johann Tetzel <ul><li>(c. 1465-1519) </li></ul>
    25. 26. Sale of Indulgences <ul><li>(1517) </li></ul>
    26. 27. Iconoclasm: Interior of St. Jan’s Church <ul><li>Utrecht, Netherlands </li></ul>
    27. 28. <ul><li>The Crisis of Martin Luther and its Resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Resolutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sola scripture (by scripture alone) and its implication for authority; a culture of Bible reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“the priesthood of all believers” implies changes in the ritual of the mass and in he comparative valuations of lay and religious life </li></ul></ul>
    28. 29. Anti-Luther Propaganda: Luther Falling Into Toilet
    29. 30. Ulrich Zwingli - Zurich
    30. 31. <ul><li>Zwingli </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Commune which is the political body of the citizens is the best protector and guardian of the church and the church is the best educator of citizens. There is an intimate connection between political liberty and the freedom of the spirit” </li></ul>
    31. 32. <ul><li>Zwingli </li></ul><ul><li>Swiss Free People, farmers, not much nobility </li></ul><ul><li>Lord’s Supper - Luther is a Magician </li></ul><ul><li>Iconoclasm </li></ul><ul><li>Not as Radical as Anabaptists </li></ul>
    32. 33. <ul><li>Calvin </li></ul><ul><li>Absolute Sovereignty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predestination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety - self-discipline </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capitalism? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Politics? </li></ul></ul>
    33. 34. <ul><li>Anabaptists </li></ul>
    34. 35. <ul><li>Anabaptists </li></ul><ul><li>Baptism as Choice </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntarism - Oaths, weapons, state, pastor </li></ul><ul><li>Small communities </li></ul><ul><li>Discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Mennonites, Quakers </li></ul>
    35. 36. <ul><li>Peasants Rebellion 1524-6 </li></ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-clerical, apocalyptic, common man </li></ul><ul><li>Munster - communal goods, polygamy </li></ul><ul><li>100,000 died </li></ul>
    36. 38. Massacre during revolt
    37. 39. <ul><li>Compare Luther, Calvin, Anabaptist Theological-Economic Politics </li></ul>- Luther - split state and church secularism emerges - Calvin - Absolutism - side by side - anxious individuals, scary - basis for resistance theories too - Zwingli - one community - local control - independent farmer - Anabaptists - local control, pacifism?, communal goods/ education
    38. 40. <ul><li>How did Luther’s Personal Crisis Become a Revolution? </li></ul><ul><li>Print and printing </li></ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul><ul><li>Resonance with Social tensions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Swiss Cantons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peasants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lords/ Kings - Henry VIII </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety over Economic & Social Change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religion as a revolutionary ideology: Calvin, the doctrine of the elect, and the rights of resistance </li></ul></ul>
    39. 42. Printing press
    40. 43. Martin Luther: “A Mighty Fortress is our God”
    41. 44. Anti-Papal Propaganda: Wolf Devouring Innocent Sheep
    42. 45. Anti-Papal Propaganda: Pope Leo X and Cardinals as Animals
    43. 46. Anti-Papal Propaganda: Monk Calf at Freiberg and Papal Ass at Rome
    44. 47. Anti-Papal Propaganda: Devouring Indulgences
    45. 48. Anti-Papal Propaganda: Satirical World Map of Papalism
    46. 49. Anti-Luther Propaganda: Martin Luther Exposing Himself
    47. 52. <ul><li>Trajectory </li></ul><ul><li>Priesthood of all believers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>discipline </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New form of Religiosity - private </li></ul>
    48. 53. Conclusions <ul><li>The religious unity of Europe is fractured </li></ul><ul><li>Religion now maps on to political units. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peace of Augsberg 1555 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The boundary between religion as public and religion as private opens </li></ul>
    49. 54. Next <ul><li>2 distinct cultures in Europe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Baroque - spare </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assassinations, Inquisition, Slaughter, Witch Craze </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Age of Mobilizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Missions, organizing (human made) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>100 years War </li></ul>
    50. 55. <ul><li>Religious Rebel Movements that Followed: </li></ul><ul><li>Hutterites, Diggers, Levellers, Millenarians </li></ul>
    51. 56. <ul><li>In 1649 To St George's Hill A ragged band they called the Diggers Came to show the people' s will They defied the landlords They defied the laws They were the dispossessed Reclaiming what was theirs We come in peace, they said To dig and sow We come to work the land in common And to make the waste land grow This earth divided We will make whole So it can be A common treasury for all. </li></ul>
    52. 57. The sin of property We do disdain No one has any right to buy and sell The earth for private gain By theft and murder They took the land Now everywhere the walls Rise up at their command. They make the laws To chain us well The clergy dazzle us with heaven Or they damn us into hell We will not worship The God they serve The God of greed who feeds the rich While poor men starve You poor take courage You rich take care The earth was made a common treasury For everyone to share All things in common All people one We come in peace The order came to cut them down