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PROJECT COMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENTÍNDICE 10.1 Identify Stakeholders 10.2 Plan Communications 10.3 Distribute Information 10.4 Manage Stakeholders Expectations 10.5 Report Performance Roberto A. Rodríguez Pérez
.1 STAKEHOLDER ANALYSIS1. Process of systematically gathering and analyzing quantitative and qualitative2. information to determine whose interests should be taken into account throughout the project.3. It identifies the interests, expectations, and influence of the stakeholders and relates them to the purpose of the project.4. It also helps identify stakeholder relationships that can be leveraged to build coalitions and potential partnerships to enhance the project’s 10.1.2 chance of success Identify Stakeholders: Tools and technics
STEPS Step 1: Identify all potential project stakeholders and relevant information, such as their roles, departments, interests, knowledge levels, expectations, and influence levels Identifying other stakeholders is usually done by interviewing identified stakeholders and expanding the list until all potential stakeholders are included. Step 2: Identify the potential impact or support each stakeholder could generate, and classify them so as to define an approach strategy Classification models: 1. Power/interest grid, grouping the stakeholders based on their level of authority Escala de Likert (“power”) and their level or concern (“interest”) regarding the project outcomes; 2. Power/influence grid, grouping the stakeholders based on their level of authority (“power”) and their active involvement (“influence”) in the project; 3. Influence/impact grid, grouping the stakeholders based on their active involvement (“influence”) in the project and their ability to effect changes to the project’s planning or execution (“impact”); and 4. Salience model, describing classes of stakeholders based on their power (ability to impose their will), urgency (need for immediate attention), and legitimacy (their involvement is appropriate). 10.1.2 Identify Stakeholders: Tools and technics
POWER/INTEREST GRID 10.1.2 Identify Stakeholders: Tools and technics
STEPS Step 3: Assess how key stakeholders are likely to react or respond in various situations, in order to plan how to influence them to enhance their support and mitigate potential negative impacts. 10.1.2 Identify Stakeholders: Tools and technics
.2 EXPERT JUDGMENT 1. Judgment and expertise should be sought from groups or individuals with specialized training or knowledge on the subject area such as: i. Senior management, ii. Other units within the organization, Identified key stakeholders, iii. Project managers who have worked on projects in the same area (directly or through lessons learned), iv. Subject matter experts (SMEs) in business or project area, v. Industry groups and consultants, and vi. Professional and technical associations. Expert judgment can be obtained through individual consultations (one-on- one meetings, interviews, etc.) or through a panel format (focus groups, surveys etc). 10.1.2 Identify Stakeholders: Tools and technics
.1 STAKEHOLDER REGISTERDetails related to the identified stakeholders including, but not limited to:1. Identification information: Name, organizational position, location, role in the project, contact information;2. Assessment information: Major requirements, main expectations, potential influence in the project, phase in the life cycle with the most interest; and3. Stakeholder classification: Internal/ external, supporter/neutral/resistor, etc. 10.1.3 Identify Stakeholders: Outputs
.2 STAKEHOLDER MANAGEMENT STRATEGY Increase the support and minimize negative impacts of stakeholders. It includes elements such as: 1. Key stakeholders who can significantly impact the project, 2. Level of participation in the project desired for each identified stakeholder, and 3. Stakeholder groups and their management (as groups). A common way of representing the stakeholder management strategy is a stakeholder analysis matrix.Back to Index 10.1.3 Identify Stakeholders: Outputs
.2 PLAN COMMUNICATIONS.1 Communications Requirements Analysis Information needs of the project stakeholders. These requirements are defined by combining the type and format of information needed with an analysis of the value of that information. Number of potential communication channels or paths as an indicator of the complexity of a project’s communications. n(n-1)/2 Where n represents the number of stakeholders. 10.2.2 Plan Communications: Tools and Techniques
.2 PLAN COMMUNICATIONSInformation typically used to determine project communication requirementsincludes: • Organization charts, • Project organization and stakeholder responsibility relationships, • Disciplines, departments, and specialties involved in the project, • Logistics of how many persons will be involved with the project and at which locations, • Internal information needs (e.g., communicating across organizations), • External information needs (e.g., communicating with the media, public, or contractors), and • Stakeholder information from the stakeholder register and the stakeholder management strategy. 10.2.2 Plan Communications: Tools and Techniques
.2 PLAN COMMUNICATIONS .2 Communication TechnologyFactors that can affect the project include: • Urgency of the need for information. Is project success dependent upon having frequently updated information available on a moment’s notice, or would regularly issued written reports suffice? • Availability of technology. Are appropriate systems already in place or do project needs warrant change? For example, do the intended stakeholder(s) have access to a selected communications technology? • Expected project staffing. Are the proposed communication systems compatible with the experience and expertise of the project participants, or is extensive training and learning required? • Duration of the project. Is the available technology likely to change before the project is over? • Project environment. Does the team meet and operate on a face-to-face basis or in a virtual environment? 10.2.2 Plan Communications: Tools and Techniques
.2 PLAN COMMUNICATIONS .3 Communication Models • Encode. • Medium. • Noise. • Decode. Notas: KM y Ciclo de satisfacción y que tan bien vamos 10.2.2 Plan Communications: Tools and Techniques
.2 PLAN COMMUNICATIONS .4 Communication Methods • Interactive communication. Between two or more parties performing a multidirectional exchange of information. It is the most efficient way to ensure a common understanding by all participants on specified topics, and includes meetings, phone calls, video conferencing, etc. • Push communication. Sent to specific recipients who need to know the information. This ensures that the information is distributed but does not certify that it actually reached or was understood by the intended audience. Push communication includes letters, memos, reports, emails, faxes, voice mails, press releases etc. • Pull communication. Used for very large volumes of information, or for very large audiences, that requires the recipients to access the communication content at their own discretion. These methods include intranet sites, e- learning, and knowledge repositories, etc. The project manager decides, based on communication requirements, what, how, and when communication methods are to be used in the project. 10.2.2 Plan Communications: Tools and Techniques
.1 Communications Management PlanThe communications management plan can be formal or informal, highly detailed or broadlyframed, and based on the needs of the project. The communications management planusually provides: • Stakeholder communication requirements; • Information to be communicated, including language, format, content, and level of detail; • Reason for the distribution of that information; • Time frame and frequency for the distribution of required information; • Person responsible for communicating the information; • Person responsible for authorizing release of confidential information; • Person or groups who will receive the information; • Methods or technologies used to convey the information, such as memos, e-mail, and/or press releases; • Resources allocated for communication activities, including time and budget; • Escalation process identifying time frames and the management chain (names) for escalation of issues that cannot be resolved at a lower staff level; • Method for updating and refining the communications management plan as the project progresses and develops; • Glossary of common terminology; • F low charts of the information flow in the project, workflows with possible sequence of authorization, list of reports, and meeting plans, etc.; and Communication constraints, usually derived from specific legislation or regulation, technology, and organizational policies, etc. The communications management plan can also include guidelines and templates for project status meetings, project team meetings, e-meetings, and e-mail. The use of a project website and project management software can also be included if they are used in the project. 10.2.2 Plan Communications: Outputs
.3 DISTRIBUTE INFORMATIONProcess of making relevant information available to project stakeholders.Effective information distribution includes a number of techniques including: • Sender-receiver models. Feedback loops and barriers to communication. • Choice of media. Situation specifics of when to communicate in writing versus orally, when to write an informal memo versus a formal report, and when to communicate face-to-face versus by e-mail. • Writing style. Active versus passive voice, sentence structure, and word choice. • Meeting management techniques. Preparing an agenda and dealing with conflicts. • Presentation techniques. Body language and design of visual aids. • Facilitation techniques. Building consensus and overcoming obstacles.
.3 DISTRIBUTE INFORMATION .1 Project Management Plan .2 Performance Reports .3 Organizational Process Assets The organizational process assets (see Section 2.4.3) that can influence the Distribute Information process include, but are not limited to: • Policies, procedures, and guidelines regarding information distribution, • Templates, and • Historical information and lessons learned. Note: KM 10.3.1 Distribute Information: Inputs
.3 DISTRIBUTE INFORMATION .1 Communication Methods Individual and group meetings, video and audio conferences, computer chats, and other remote communications methods are used to distribute information. .2 Information Distribution Tools Project information can be distributed using a variety of tools, including: • Hard-copy document distribution, manual filing systems, press releases, and shared-access electronic databases; • Electronic communication and conferencing tools, such as e-mail, fax, voice mail, telephone, video and web conferencing, websites and web publishing; and • Electronic tools for project management, such as web interfaces to scheduling and project management software, meeting and virtual office support software, portals, and collaborative work management tools. NOTE: Gmail and CRM 10.3.2 Distribute Information: Tools and Techniques
.3 DISTRIBUTE INFORMATION .1 Organizational Process Assets Updates • Stakeholder notifications. Information may be provided to stakeholders about resolved issues, approved changes, and general project status • Project reports • Project presentations • Project records • Feedback from stakeholders • Lessons learned documentation 10.3.3 Distribute Information: Outputs
.4 MANAGE STAKEHOLDERSEXPECTATIONS Process of communicating and working with stakeholders to meet their needs and addressing issues as they occur. Involves communication activities directed toward project stakeholders to influence their expectations, address concerns, and resolve issues, such as: • Actively managing to increase the likelihood of project acceptance by negotiating and influencing their desires to achieve and maintain the project goals, • Addressing concerns that have not become issues yet. • Clarifying and resolving issues.