"HUMAN BIOLOGY - Darwin or Design?" - An Intelligent Investigation

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In today's rapidly advancing scientific culture, what is answer to the ultimate question of where we come from? Where does the scientific evidence point to? …

In today's rapidly advancing scientific culture, what is answer to the ultimate question of where we come from? Where does the scientific evidence point to?

Is it more reasonable to believe in Darwinism (that all life arose spontaneously from non-living chemicals and has progressively mutated and evolved into highly complex biological structures today) or in Design (that biological life bears the hallmarks of intelligence: specificity, improbability, and information)?

Examine the scientific evidence and decide for yourself...

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  • 1. “HUMAN BIOLOGY: Darwin or Design?” “The unexamined life is not worth living.”
  • 2. WHAT ARE THE CENTRAL QUESTIONS OF LIFE? • What is the purpose of life? -The Question of MEANING. • Is there really a “Right” and “Wrong”? - The Question of MORALITY. • What happens at the point of death? - The Question of DESTINY. • Where did all biological life come from? - The Question of ORIGIN.
  • 3. THE QUESTION OF ORIGINS HAS 2 MAJOR POSSIBILITIES: Option #1 - DARWIN or Option #2 - DESIGN • Option #1 - A Blind Process of Natural Selection & Random Mutation • Option #2 - An Intelligent Agent who is the source of the information and biological complexity that we see on the earth today.
  • 4. THE QUESTION OF ORIGINS HAS 2 MAJOR POSSIBILITIES: 1. EVOLUTIONARY FORMULA: Matter + Energy + Time + Chance Chemistry = LIFE. ! ! 2. INTELLIGENT DESIGN: Matter + Energy + Information = LIFE.
  • 5. THE DARWINIST & ATHEIST ARE WILLING TO BELIEVE: • Non-existence produced Existence. • Nothingness produced Everything. • Non-life produced Biological Life. • Chaos produced Complex Design. • Randomness produced Encoded Information.
  • 6. WE WILL EXAMINE “INTELLIGENT DESIGN”: I. The “Founding Fathers” of Modern Science. II. The Evidence of PHYSICS. III. The Evidence of the CELL. IV. The Evidence of MOLECULAR MACHINES. V. The Evidence of INFORMATION.
  • 7. Intelligent design refers to a scientific research program as well as a community of scientists, philosophers and other scholars who seek evidence of design in nature. The theory of intelligent design holds that certain features of the universe and of living things are best explained by an intelligent cause, not an undirected process such as natural selection. ! Through the study and analysis of a system's components, a design theorist is able to determine whether various natural structures are the product of chance, natural law, intelligent design, or some combination thereof. Such research is conducted by observing the types of information produced when intelligent agents act. Scientists then seek to find objects which have those same types of informational properties which we commonly know come from intelligence. What Is “Intelligent Design”?
  • 8. ! Yes.The scientific method is commonly described as a four-step process involving observations, hypothesis, experiments, and conclusion. Intelligent design begins with the observation that intelligent agents produce complex and specified information (CSI). Design theorists hypothesize that if a natural object was designed, it will contain high levels of CSI. ! Scientists then perform experimental tests upon natural objects to determine if they contain complex and specified information. One easily testable form of CSI is “irreducible complexity”, which can be discovered by experimentally reverse-engineering biological structures to see if they require all of their parts to function. When ID researchers find irreducible complexity in biology, they conclude that such structures were designed. Is “Intelligent Design” a Scientific Theory?
  • 9. WE WILL EXAMINE “INTELLIGENT DESIGN”: I. The “Founding Fathers” of Modern Science. II. The Evidence of PHYSICS. III. The Evidence of the CELL. IV. The Evidence of MOLECULAR MACHINES. V. The Evidence of INFORMATION.
  • 10. PLATO & ARISTOTLE Two of the most influential thinkers in all of human history, and pioneers of ancient science, both believed strongly in the existence of GOD. ! ! “God is not the Author of all things, but of good only.” - Plato ! “Beauty is the gift from God.” - Aristotle
  • 11. LEONARDO DAVINCI This prolific artist, inventor, and scientist mentioned in his journals his personal belief in GOD. ! “Disgrace should be represented upside down, because all her deeds are contrary to God and tend to hell. If the Lord, who is the light of all things will enlighten me, I will speak of Light....I obey Thee Lord, first for the love I ought, in all reason to bear Thee; secondly for that Thou canst shorten or prolong the lives of men.” ! - Leonardo Da Vinci
  • 12. NICOLAUS COPERNICUS (1473-1543) This Prussian astronomer, responsible for the discovery of Heliocentricity, was a devout follower of Christ. ! “I am aware that a philosopher's ideas are not subject to the judgment of ordinary persons, because it is his endeavour to seek the truth in all things, to the extent permitted to human reason by God.” - Nicolaus Copernicus
  • 13. GALILEO GALILEI (1564-1642) An Italian scientist and Christian, Galileo is responsible for vast improvements in the telescope, pioneering observational astronomy, and is called by many “the father of science and astronomy”. ! ! ! “The Bible shows the way to go to heaven, not the way the heavens go....I do not feel obliged to believe that the same God who has endowed us with sense, reason, and intellect has intended us to forgo their use...Mathematics is the language with which God has written the universe.” - Galileo
  • 14. ISAAC NEWTON (1642-1727) Perhaps the greatest scientist to ever live, besides being a dedicated Christian, in his scientific work Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion; he showed that the motions Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws; built the first practical reflecting telescope; developed a theory of color based on the observation of a prism; he also formulated an empirical law of cooling, studied the speed of sound. In mathematics, Newton shares the credit for the development of differential and integral calculus. ! “Whence arises all that Order and Beauty which we see in the World? ... does it not appear from phenomena that there is a incorporeal, living, intelligent, omnipresent Being...?” ! - Isaac Newton
  • 15. LOUIS PASTEUR (1822-1895) This French scientist is credited as being the “Father of Modern Medicine” as well as the “Father of Bacteriology”, as well as having discovering the pasteurization process, and developing germ theory. ! ”When one works and imagines and dreams of nothing else than the search for answers that God has posed, it is difficult to be so still. Science brings men nearer to God.” - Louis Pasteur
  • 16. FRANCIS BACON (1561-1626) This Christian man was an English philosopher, statesman, jurist and author, and scientist. He is credited for developing what is today known as the “Scientific Method” of empirical investigation. ! “Science is only an image of the truth. Atheism is rather in the lip than in the heart of man. Small amounts of philosophy lead to atheism, but larger amounts bring us back to God.” ! - Francis Bacon
  • 17. JOHANNES KEPLER (1571-1630) In addition to being a Christian, he was a German mathematician and astronomer. He was a key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution and is best known for his laws of planetary motion, work in the field of optics, and inventing an improved version of the refracting telescope. ! ! ! "The goal of all investigations of the external world should be to discover the rational order and harmony which has been imposed on it by God 
 and which He revealed to us in the language of mathematics. Geometry is unique and eternal, a reflection from the mind of God. The diversity of the phenomena of nature is so great, and the treasures hidden in the heavens so rich, precisely in order, that the human mind shall never be lacking in fresh nourishment." - Johannes Kepler
  • 18. ROBERT BOYLE (1627-1691) He was a 17th century natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor, also noted for his writings in Christian theology. Boyle is regarded today as the first modern chemist, and one of the founders of modern chemistry. ! Neither the fundamental doctrine of Christianity nor that of the powers and effects of matter and motion seems to be more than an epicycle ... of the great and universal system of God's contrivances, and makes but a part of the more general theory of things, knowable by the light of nature, improved by the information of the scriptures: so that both these doctrines... seem to be but members of the universal hypothesis, whose objects I conceive to be the natural counsels, and works of God, so far as they are discoverable by us in this life.” - Robert Boyle
  • 19. JAMES CLERK MAXWELL (1831-1879) He was a Scottish physicist and mathematician. His most prominent achievement was formulating classical electromagnetic theory. His theory united all previously observations, experiments and equations of electricity, magnetism and optics into one consistent theory. His achievement has been called the greatest achievement in physics since Isaac Newton’s discoveries”. ! “I believe that Man’s Chief End is to glorify God and to enjoy him for ever.Almighty God, who hast created man in Thine own image, and made him a living soul that he might seek after Thee and have dominion over Thy creatures, teach us to study the works of Thy hands that we may subdue the earth to our use, and strengthen our reason for Thy service..” - J.C. Maxwell
  • 20. MICHAEL FARADAY (1791-1867) He was a scientist, chemist, physicist and philosopher who greatly contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.Although he received little formal education, he was one of the most influential scientists in history.Albert Einstein kept a picture of Faraday on his study wall, alongside the picture of Isaac Newton. ! Biographers have noted that "a strong sense of the unity of God and nature pervaded Faraday's life and work."
  • 21. BARON KELVIN (1824-1907) Kelvin was a mathematical physicist and engineer. As a Christian, he did important work in the mathematical analysis of electricity and formulation of the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and helped develop physics in its modern form. He is known for realizing that there was a lower limit to temperature, absolute zero. “The more thoroughly I conduct scientific research, the more I believe that science excludes atheism.”      “The atheistic idea is so nonsensical that I cannot put it into words....Creative Power is the only feasible answer to the origin of life from a scientific perspective.The more I conduct scientific research, the more I believe that science excludes atheism. Do not be afraid of being free thinkers! If you think strongly enough you will be forced by science to the belief in God, which is the foundation of all religion. You will find science not antagonistic but helpful to religion.” - Lord Kelvin
  • 22. ALBERT EINSTEIN (1879-1955) Author of the world’s most famous equation, he was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of general relativity, effecting a revolution in physics. For this achievement, Einstein is often regarded as the father of modern physics. ! ! ! “Science without religion is lame. Religion without science is blind. My religion consists of a humble admiration of the illimitable superior spirit who reveals himself in the slight details we are able to perceive with our frail and feeble mind. Every one who is seriously involved in the pursuit of science becomes convinced that a spirit is manifest in the laws of the Universe-a spirit vastly superior to that of man, and one in the face of which we with our modest powers must feel humble. The scientists’ religious feeling takes the form of a rapturous amazement at the harmony of natural law, which reveals an intelligence of such superiority that, compared with it, all the systematic thinking and acting of human beings is an utterly insignificant reflection. I want to know how God created this world. I am not interested in this or that phenomenon, in the spectrum of this or that element. I want to know His thoughts; the rest are details.” - Albert Einstein
  • 23. THE “DESIGN INFERENCE”: We make the “design inference” everyday in our lives based upon two primary, but often overlooked factors: ! 1. HIGH SPECIFICITY When an object possesses specific resemblance to a known pattern or form. ! 2. HIGH IMPROBABILITY When the chances of an object accidentally/randomly acquiring this pattern/form are incredibly high, and therefore, very unlikely.
  • 24. THE “DESIGN ARGUMENT”: I. Genuine design (CSI) is the result of an Intelligent Designer. II. “X” contains genuine design (CSI). III. “X” is the result of an Intelligent Designer. ** Note: This argument applies at all levels of the physical cosmos - Universal,Terrestrial, and Biological. **
  • 25. WE WILL EXAMINE “INTELLIGENT DESIGN”: I. The “Founding Fathers” of Modern Science. II. The Evidence of PHYSICS. III. The Evidence of the CELL. IV. The Evidence of MOLECULAR MACHINES. V. The Evidence of INFORMATION.
  • 26. THE “DESIGN ARGUMENT”: Roger Penrose (Ph.D Mathematician and Author): "I would say the universe has a purpose. It's not there just somehow by chance."
  • 27. THE “DESIGN ARGUMENT”: Paul Davies (British astrophysicist): "There is for me powerful evidence that there is something going on behind it all....It seems as though somebody has fine-tuned nature’s numbers to make the Universe....The impression of design is overwhelming".
  • 28. THE “DESIGN ARGUMENT”: George Ellis (British cosmologist): "Amazing fine tuning occurs in the laws that make this [complexity] possible. Realization of the complexity of what is accomplished makes it very difficult not to use the word 'miraculous'...
  • 29. THE “DESIGN ARGUMENT”: Arthur Eddington (astrophysicist): "The idea of a universal Mind or Logos would be, I think, a fairly plausible inference from the present state of scientific theory."
  • 30. THE “DESIGN ARGUMENT”: Vera Kistiakowsky (MIT physicist): "The exquisite order displayed by our scientific understanding of the physical world calls for the Divine."
  • 31. THE “DESIGN ARGUMENT”: Arno Penzias (Nobel prize in physics): "Astronomy leads us to a unique event, a universe which was created out of nothing, one with the very delicate balance needed to provide exactly the conditions required to permit life, and one which has an underlying (one might say 'supernatural') plan."
  • 32. THE “DESIGN ARGUMENT”: FrankTipler (Professor of Mathematical Physics): "From the perspective of the latest physical theories, Christian Theism is not a mere religion, but an experimentally testable science."
  • 33. THE “DESIGN ARGUMENT”: I. Genuine design (CSI) is the result of an Intelligent Designer. II. “X” contains genuine design (CSI). III. “X” is the result of an Intelligent Designer. ** Note: This argument applies at all levels of the physical cosmos - Universal,Terrestrial, and Biological. **
  • 34. I. The “Founding Fathers” of Modern Science. II. The Evidence of Physics. III.The Evidence of the CELL. IV. The Evidence of Molecular Machines. V. The Evidence of INFORMATION. WE WILL EXAMINE “INTELLIGENT DESIGN”:
  • 35. THE COMPLEXITY OF THE CELL: Dr. Michael Denton describes the cell, in his book "Evolution:ATheory in Crisis": ! "To grasp the reality of life as it has been revealed by molecular biology, we must magnify a cell a thousand million times until it is twenty kilometers in diameter and resembles a giant airship large enough to cover a great city like London or NewYork. ! What we would then see would be an object of unparalleled complexity and adaptive design. On the surface of the cell we would see millions of openings, like the port holes of a vast space ship, opening and closing to allow a continual stream of materials to flow in and out. If we were to enter one of these openings we would find ourselves in a world of supreme technology and bewildering complexity..."
  • 36. THE COMPLEXITY OF THE CELL: Dr. Michael Denton concludes his description of the cell with these impacting words: ! "The complexity of the simplest known type of cell is so great that it is impossible to accept that such an object could have been thrown together suddenly by some kind of freakish, vastly improbable, event. Such an occurrence would be indistinguishable from a miracle."
  • 37. THE “DESIGN ARGUMENT”: I. Genuine design (CSI) is the result of an Intelligent Designer. II. “X” contains genuine design (CSI). III. “X” is the result of an Intelligent Designer. ** Note: This argument applies at all levels of the physical cosmos - Universal,Terrestrial, and Biological. **
  • 38. I. The “Founding Fathers” of Modern Science. II. The Evidence of Physics. III. The Evidence of the Cell. IV. The Evidence of MOLECULAR MACHINES. V. The Evidence of INFORMATION. WE WILL EXAMINE “INTELLIGENT DESIGN”:
  • 39. How is it possible to get Protein molecules - long chain of hundreds or even thousands of 100% pure levorotary amino acids - out of a random mixture that is 50% dextrorotary and 50% levorotary…by blind chance or randomness??? HOW DO WE EXPLAIN “MOLECULAR CHIRALITY”?
  • 40. THE “DESIGN ARGUMENT”: I. Genuine design (CSI) is the result of an Intelligent Designer. II. “X” contains genuine design (CSI). III. “X” is the result of an Intelligent Designer. ** Note: This argument applies at all levels of the physical cosmos - Universal,Terrestrial, and Biological. **
  • 41. I. The “Founding Fathers” of Modern Science. II. The Evidence of Physics. III. The Evidence of the Cell. IV. The Evidence of MOLECULAR MACHINES. V. The Evidence of INFORMATION. WE WILL EXAMINE “INTELLIGENT DESIGN”:
  • 42. THE DNA MOLECULE: We can detect intelligent communication very easily.
  • 43. THE DNA MOLECULE: We can detect intelligent communication very easily.
  • 44. THE DNA MOLECULE: • Chemical “Alphabet”: • Adenosine • Cytosine • Thymine • Guanine • 3 billion pairs of Nucleotides • Enough information to fill a book of 200 pages… …25,000 times over!
  • 45. THE DNA MOLECULE: • Information Storage… • Information Retrieval… • Redundancy of Coding… • Overlapping Segments… • Digital/Mathematical… • 3 Dimensional… • Multiple Languages…
  • 46. THE DNA LANGUAGE:
  • 47. THE DNA LANGUAGE:
  • 48. THE COMPLEXITY OF DNA: “DNA implies the need for an intelligent designer because ... it possesses an identical feature (namely, information content) that intelligently designed human texts and computer languages possess.” ! "Our experience-based knowledge of information-flow confirms that systems with large amounts of specified complexity (especially codes and languages) invariably originate from an intelligent source.” ― Dr. Stephen C. Meyer
  • 49. “The causal powers that natural selection lacks-almost by definition-are associated with the attributes of consciousness and rationality--with purposive intelligence.Thus, by invoking design to explain the origin of new biological information, contemporary design theorists …are positing an entity possessing precisely the attributes and causal powers that the phenomenon in question requires as a condition of its production and explanation." ! "Our experience-based knowledge of information-flow confirms that systems with large amounts of specified complexity (especially codes and languages) invariably originate from an intelligent source.” ― Dr. Stephen C. Meyer
  • 50. THE COMPLEXITY OF DNA: “The information contained in an English sentence or computer software does not derive from the chemistry of the ink or the physics of magnetism, but from a source extrinsic to physics and chemistry altogether. Indeed, in both cases, the message transcends the properties of the medium. The information in DNA also transcends the properties of its material medium.” ― Dr. Stephen C. Meyer
  • 51. THE “DESIGN ARGUMENT”: I. Genuine design (CSI) is the result of an Intelligent Designer. II. “X” contains genuine design (CSI). III. “X” is the result of an Intelligent Designer. ** Note: This argument applies at all levels of the physical cosmos - Universal,Terrestrial, and Biological. **
  • 52. “SCIENTISM”, THAT ONLY SCIENCE TELLS US TRUTH ABOUT REALITY, IS A SELF-DEFEATING IDEA: The idea that states: “Only those things which can be proven by the scientific method are true.”, ! contradicts it own standard, because it can’t be scientifically verified!! •“I can’t speak a word of English.” (You just did.) •“No sentence is longer that 3 words.” (That one is.) •“You can’t be sure of anything in life.” (Are you sure?) •“You shouldn’t judge people.” (Is that your judgement?)
  • 53. IS SCIENCE THE ONLY WAY WE LEARN TRUTH ABOUT REALITY? - Aesthetic truth? (beauty) - Conceptual truth? (ideas) - Moral truth? (right/wrong) - Memory truth? (past) - Minds exist? (soul/consciousness) - Mathematical & Logical truth? - Emotional truth? (LOVE!)