Waste management


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Waste management

  1. 1. Waste Management: practical application of the new ethical concepts ofEco-Ethics International Union by Romeo D. Caturao, MSc in Marine Ecology 1
  2. 2. What are Wastes?Basel Convention Definition of Wastes “substances or objects which are disposed of or are intended to be disposed of or are required to be disposed of by the provisions of the law” Disposal means “any operation which may lead to resource recovery, recycling, reclamation, direct re-use or alternative uses (Annex IVB of the Basel convention)” 2
  3. 3. Kinds of WastesSolid wastes: domestic, commercial and industrial wastes especially common as co-disposal of wastes Examples: plastics, styrofoam containers, bottles, cans, papers, scrap iron, and other trashLiquid Wastes: wastes in liquid form Examples: domestic washings, chemicals, oils, waste water from ponds, manufacturing industries and other sources 3
  4. 4. Classification of Wastes according to their PropertiesBio-degradable can be degraded (paper, wood, fruits and others)Non-biodegradable cannot be degraded (plastics, bottles, old machines, cans, styrofoam containers and others) 4
  5. 5. Classification of Wastes according totheir Effects on Human Health and the EnvironmentHazardous wastesSubstances unsafe to use commercially, industrially,agriculturally, or economically that are shipped, transported toor brought from the country of origin for dumping or disposalin, or in transit through, any part of the territory of thePhilippinesNon-hazardousSubstances safe to use commercially, industrially,agriculturally, or economically that are shipped, transported toor brought from the country of origin for dumping or disposalin, or in transit through, any part of the territory of thePhilippines 5
  6. 6. Sources of Wastes Households Commerce and Industry 6
  7. 7. Sources of WastesAgricultureFisheries 7
  8. 8. Waste Generation by Country(Global Waste Survey Final Report Published by IMO 1995)* Countries Amount /year Japan 395 M tonnes/year Germany 104 M tonnes/year Netherlands 6.1 M tonnes/year Hungary 102 M tonnes/year Poland 130 M tonnes/year Romania 607 M tonnes/year Bahrain 92,000 tonnes/year China 6 B tonnes/year Philippines 1.3 M tonnes/year*from primary and secondary industry sectors 8
  9. 9. Waste Generation in the PhilippinesIn Metro Manila:• It is estimated that 25 million m3 of acid and alkaline liquid waste is disposed of annually from the electronics industry.• Almost 2,000 m3 of solvents and 22,000 tonnes of heavy metals, infectious wastes, biological sludges, lubricants and intractable wastes are disposed of on land or into water courses.• 4,000 tonnes of solid wastes are generated daily. Of these, only about 3,400 tonnes are collected and transported to existing sites. 9
  10. 10. Waste Generation in Iloilo Province Hundreds of tons of domestic wastes are generated daily by households contributing to the enormous environmental problems the world is facing.**Chua, TE (1996) Waste management in the coastal areas ofthe ASEAN region. ECLARM Proceedings No. 33 10
  11. 11. EFFECTS OF WASTE IF NOT MANAGED WISELY• Affects our health• Affects our socio-economic conditions• Affects our coastal and marine environment• Affects our climate 11
  12. 12. EFFECTS OF WASTE…According to NAS:• GHGs are accumulating in Earth’s atmosphere as a result of human activities, causing global mean surface air temperature and subsurface ocean temperature to rise.• Rising global temperatures are expected to raise sea levels and change precipitation and other local climate conditions.• Changing regional climates could alter forests, crop yields, and water supplies.• This could also affect human health, animals, and many types of ecosystems.• Deserts might expand into existing rangelands, and features of some of our national parks might be permanently altered. 12
  13. 13. EFFECTS OF WASTE…According to NAS: - Some countries are expected to become warmer, although sulfates might limit warming in some areas. - Scientists are unable to determine which parts of those countries will become wetter or drier, but there is likely to be an overall trend toward increased precipitation and evaporation, more intense rainstorms, and drier soils. - Whether rainfall increases or decreases cannot be reliably projected for specific areas. 13
  14. 14. Effects of waste….Activities that have altered the chemical composition of the atmosphere:-Buildup of GHGs primarily carbon dioxide (CO2) methane (CH4), andnitrous oxide (N20).-C02 is released to the atmosphere by the burning of fossil fuels, woodand wood products, and solid waste.-CH4 is emitted from the decomposition of organic wastes in landfills,the raising of livestock, and the production and transport of coal, naturalgas, and oil.-N02 is emitted during agricultural and industrial activities, as well asduring combustion of solid waste and fossil fuels. In 1977, the USemitted about one-fifth of total global GHGs. Inventory of US Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2000, US EPA, Office of Atmospheric Programs, April 2002 EPA 236-R-02-003. 14
  15. 15. WHAT SHOULD BE DONE• Reduce Waste - Reduce office paper waste by implementing a formal policy to duplex all draft reports and by making training manuals and personnel information available electronically. - Improve product design to use less materials. - Redesign packaging to eliminate excess material while maintaining strength. - Work with customers to design and implement a packaging return program. - Switch to reusable transport containers. - Purchase products in bulk. 15
  16. 16. WHAT SHOULD BE DONEReuse- Reuse corrugated moving boxes internally.- Reuse office furniture and supplies, such as interofficeenvelopes, file folders, and paper.- Use durable towels, tablecloths, napkins, dishes, cups, andglasses.- Use incoming packaging materials for outgoing shipments.- Encourage employees to reuse office materials rather thanpurchase new ones. 16
  17. 17. WHAT SHOULD BE DONEDonate/Exchange - old books - old clothes - old computers - excess building materials - old equipment to local organizations 17
  18. 18. WHAT SHOULD BE DONEEmployee Education- Develop an “office recycling procedures” packet.- Send out recycling reminders to all employees includingenvironmental articles.- Train employees on recycling practices prior toimplementing recycling programs.- Conduct an ongoing training process as new technologiesare introduced and new employees join the institution. 18
  19. 19. WHAT SHOULD BE DONEEmployee Education - education campaign on waste management that includes an extensive internal web site, quarterly newsletters, daily bulletins, promotional signs and helpful reference labels within the campus of an institution. 19
  20. 20. WHAT SHOULD BE DONEPreventing Waste- packaging waste reductions andchanges in the manufacturing process- use biodegradable materials 20
  21. 21. WHAT SHOULD BE DONEConduct outreach program adopting anecologically sound waste managementsystem which includes: • waste reduction • segregation at source • composting • recycling and re-use • more efficient collection • more environmentally sound disposal 21
  22. 22. Residents are organized into small groups tocarry out the following:1. construction of backyard compost pit2. construction of storage bins where recyclable and reusable materials are stored by each household3. construction of storage centers where recyclable and reusable materials collected by the street sweepers are stored prior to selling to junk dealers4. maintenance of cleanliness in yards and streets5. greening of their respective areas6. encouraging others to join 22
  23. 23. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS: EMSWhat is an EMS?An EMS is a formal set of policies and procedures that define how anorganization will evaluate, manage, and track its environmentalimpact. It follows the basic model: Plan > Do > Check > ActThis facilitates cost-effective environmental performance by definingand continuously improving the process and actions that anorganization undertakes to meet its environmental goals. 23
  24. 24. EMS Development• A Policy Statement that communicates an organization’s environmental priorities to employees.• Managerial endorsement of the policy statement demonstrates the organization’s commitment to the effort and willingness to allocate resources for implementation.• Once a policy statement is in place, the organization implements it following the model. 24
  25. 25. Stages in the Implementation of EMS1. Plan Identify all environmental aspects: any environmental or health and safety impacts resulting from activities and services. The organization then evaluates each aspect according to a variety of criteria: • understanding of eco-ethics • environmental and health effects • economic impacts • liabilities After establishing a complete list of significant aspects, the organization sets environmental goals and develops a plan to achieve those goals. 25
  26. 26. 2. Do The ‘do-phase’ of the model involves implementation of the environmental plan through employee training and establishment of operation controls.3. Check Evaluates progress toward meeting program goals through ongoing monitoring and measuring and periodic EMS audits.4. Act Involves taking corrective action to update and improve the environmental plan. For example, if an organization makes significant progress on one environmental aspect, another environmental aspect will replace it on the priority list. 26
  27. 27. Why Should an Organization Adopt an EMS? 1. Improve environmental performance It helps monitor energy and water conservation, resource efficiencies, and pollution prevention. 2. Better regulatory compliance Increase regulatory compliance which is especially important for organizations that spend time and resources with regulatory violations. 3. Certification and recognition EMS implementation can enhance an organization’s image and improve public community relations. 27
  28. 28. EMS Certification• EPA encourages organizations to use recognized EMS frameworks to improve compliance, pollution prevention, and other measures of environmental performance.• Third-party certification can also add credibility to an organization’s EMS. 28
  29. 29. Several organizations which offer certification programs:• American Chemistry Council• American Forest and Paper Association• International Chamber of Commerce• Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economies• International Organization for Standardization (ISO) developed the most widely recognized EMS standard 29
  30. 30. Principles of an Effective EMSFor better environmental and overall organizationalperformance, an EMS should:1. Focus on continual improvement2. Serve the organization and its mission3. Receive top management support4. Remain dynamic and flexible5. Fit the culture of the organization6. Represent employees and their actions7. Establish employees awareness and involvement 30
  31. 31. That ends my presentation. I hope this lecture about ECO-ETHICS willmake you aware of what is happening to our environment. Now I urge you to join Eco-Ethics International Union to help build a better house for humanity! Thank you for listening! 31