Cluster research final


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Cluster research final

  1. 1. Industrial Cluster
  2. 2. Table of contents 1. What is cluster and history 2. Merit and demerit of cluster 3. Current issues and solutions 4. Case model A 5. Case model B
  3. 3. What is cluster and history  Cluster is a geographic concentration of interconnected businesses, suppliers, and associated institutions in a particular field.(Michael E. Porter)  A cluster is different from the classic definition of industry sectors because it represents the entire value chain of a broadly defined industry from suppliers to end products, including supporting services and specialized infrastructure.
  4. 4. What is cluster and history  Two most impressive industry clusters in the history of the United States are the semiconductor industry in Silicon Valley and the automobile industry in Detroit.  An industry cluster can start in a number of ways. Development Example Geographical cluster Silicon Valley and Hollywood Sectoral clusters Marine (south east England) Photonics (Aston Science Park, Birmingham) Horizontal cluster Knowledge management Vertical cluster Supply chain cluster
  5. 5. 2. Merit of cluster Enhance productivity ① Access to resource (Investment and employee) ② Access to dedicated information ③ Access to Institutions and Public Goods ④ Access to customer need and technology ⑤ Low transaction cost
  6. 6. 2. Demerit of cluster Homogeneousness Because of long and fixed relationship among cluster, innovation is getting to be restrained Monopolization Less completion makes inefficiency of technology  High business cost Area centralization causes the bottle neck of establishing plant and high logistic cost
  7. 7. 3. Current issues and solutions Knowledge Univer sities A lack of good cycle good liquidity Because of Gover nment Inno vation Capacity Company closure Government support shortage Compa nies Institu tions Support Startups Incubation
  8. 8. 3. Current issues and solutions Solutions  Strong leadership of government and companies Startups Government support Governme nt Open Innovation Institu tions Invitation Companies Univer sities
  9. 9. 4.Case1 Tsukuba science city 1963: The cabinet approved construction of the national project,“ Tsukuba Science City” 1980; The 43 research and educational institutes were relocated or newly built. Population in Tsukuba Science City; 213,135 (As of February, 2010) This includes 7,517 foreign residents (approximately 3.5%) Research institute; approximately 300 This means approximately 30% (31 institutes) of Japan‟s public research and education institutes are concentrated in Tsukuba.
  10. 10. Tsukuba International strategy zone ‘SOGO TOKKU’ Tsukuba is one of seven „International strategy zones‟. 4 Projects are on going. They are trying to achieve the visible goal within 5 years. Life Innovation Green Innovation Algal Bio Mass industrygovernmen t-academia MATCHING Personal Care Robot Tsukuba Innovation area for nano-technology
  11. 11. Residents Life and Environment of area in Tsukuba research city Main characteristics of this area; Research city → high intelligence researchers and their families are living in Over 7000 Foreigners → cross cultural environment Most „Cutting edge‟ research institutes → needs of specific safety management Around 1980 Re-born to Neon-lighted city 2005-
  12. 12. 5. Case 2 Silicon Valley
  13. 13. It grew up around Stanford University – Stanford’s dean of engineering and provost Frederick Terman • During 1940s-50s: encouraged faculty and graduates to start their own companies. • after WW2: proposed leasing of Stanford’s lands for use as an office park. -> now it is called Stanford Research Park • Found venture capital for civilian technology start-ups
  14. 14. Human resource, money, technology and legal solutions are all there University Law Firm Venture Capital Internet/Soft ware Industry Silicon Valley Programming/ Service Industry Semiconduct or Industry Computer Industry
  15. 15. Thank you