Virtual Communities as Narrative Processes
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Virtual Communities as Narrative Processes

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Presented at the "Between Ontologies and Floksonomies" (BOF) workshop at CCT2007

Presented at the "Between Ontologies and Floksonomies" (BOF) workshop at CCT2007

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Virtual Communities as Narrative Processes Virtual Communities as Narrative Processes Presentation Transcript

  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Virtual Communities as Narrative Processes Marco Benini and Federico Gobbo {marco.benini, federico.gobbo}@uninsubria.it Universit` degli Studi dell’Insubria a (cc) Some rights reserved. 1/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Introduction 1 E-mail exchange Shared repositories Interactive content update technologies New Texts 2 New what? Communities as the result of narratives Anatomy of Blogs Anatomy of Wikis From narratives to OWL 3 Natural language parsing for narratives The model in OWL terms How to use reflection in our model Behind the Curtain Concluding Remarks 4 2/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks The Main Question we started from 3/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks The Main Question we started from What is the main limit of current network-based collaboration models? 3/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks What are the current collaboration models, anyway? According to Leuf and Cunningham (2002), there are three models, historically determined: 4/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks What are the current collaboration models, anyway? According to Leuf and Cunningham (2002), there are three models, historically determined: e-mail exchange (including mailing lists); 1 4/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks What are the current collaboration models, anyway? According to Leuf and Cunningham (2002), there are three models, historically determined: e-mail exchange (including mailing lists); 1 shared repositories; 2 4/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks What are the current collaboration models, anyway? According to Leuf and Cunningham (2002), there are three models, historically determined: e-mail exchange (including mailing lists); 1 shared repositories; 2 interactive content update technologies. 3 4/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks E-mail exchange Perhaps the most used mailing list software ever used... MAJORDOMO LICENSE AGREEMENT Version 1.1 18 May 96 Great Circle Associates (GCA) is the original developer of Majordomo, a package for managing Internet mailing lists. Since its initial release, many organizations and individuals have contributed enhancements and fixes, but the original copyright has been retained by Great Circle Associates. Majordomo is distributed in source code form, with almost all modules written in Perl (there is one small C program), and runs on many UNIX platforms. Majordomo is not a supported product of Great Circle Associates, but is made available for use on the following basis. GCA grants you a license as follows to the Majordomo package: 5/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks E-mail exchange Their main service is to provide conferences Discussion lists are organized in conferences, i.e. threads of messages about a common topic. Cross-posting is possible but discouraged as it is perceived as unfair and unpolite. 6/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks E-mail exchange Their main service is to provide conferences Discussion lists are organized in conferences, i.e. threads of messages about a common topic. Cross-posting is possible but discouraged as it is perceived as unfair and unpolite. Their paradigm is: “write once, read many”. 6/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Shared repositories From messaging to shared repositories Along with the spread of the network and users as well, people start to need file-sharing across posting. Shared repositories were the first service to be developed, and thereafter the aim was to give a complete support, so that the community members were invited to use the Internet almost exclusively through the community support. 7/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Shared repositories Mostly LMS are still used as shared repositories Other features soon came: personal web pages, email address... 8/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Interactive content update technologies Interactive content update technologies, all-inclusive Virtual communities, encouraging participation and active learning among remote users, naturally prefer this third model, since their members aim to establish social relations, and this goal is easier to achieve if users are allowed to update content interactively. 9/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Interactive content update technologies Interactive content update technologies, all-inclusive Virtual communities, encouraging participation and active learning among remote users, naturally prefer this third model, since their members aim to establish social relations, and this goal is easier to achieve if users are allowed to update content interactively. The aim behind these systems was to offer an all-inclusive environment, in order to give a complete support to each participant’s need, so that the community members were invited to use the Internet almost exclusively through the community support. 9/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Interactive content update technologies The nightmare of adding unplanned features... How can you forsee every participant’s need or desire in advance, i.e. before the virtual community establishes itself? 10/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Interactive content update technologies The nightmare of adding unplanned features... How can you forsee every participant’s need or desire in advance, i.e. before the virtual community establishes itself? It’s impossible! People expectations are usually very different and unpredictable. 10/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Interactive content update technologies A first answer to our Main Question Recall: 11/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Interactive content update technologies A first answer to our Main Question Recall: what is the main limit of current network-based collaboration models? 11/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Interactive content update technologies A first answer to our Main Question Recall: what is the main limit of current network-based collaboration models? Our claim: 11/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Interactive content update technologies A first answer to our Main Question Recall: what is the main limit of current network-based collaboration models? Our claim: community members’ wishes cannot be foreseen since they arise after the community uses the software for enough time to evolve itself, while the design of the software takes place before the community starts to operate. 11/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks New what? ‘New Texts’ overcomes some limits In the 21th century, users’ awareness increased enough to a new kind of community-oriented services, broadly called new texts. 12/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks New what? ‘New Texts’ overcomes some limits In the 21th century, users’ awareness increased enough to a new kind of community-oriented services, broadly called new texts. Wikis allow the collaborative development of knowledge. 12/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks New what? ‘New Texts’ overcomes some limits In the 21th century, users’ awareness increased enough to a new kind of community-oriented services, broadly called new texts. Wikis allow the collaborative development of knowledge. while 12/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks New what? ‘New Texts’ overcomes some limits In the 21th century, users’ awareness increased enough to a new kind of community-oriented services, broadly called new texts. Wikis allow the collaborative development of knowledge. while Blogs acts as discussion vehicles. 12/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks New what? Why so popular? Aneddoctical evidences 13/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks New what? Why so popular? Aneddoctical evidences It is very, very easy to add content by means of their markup languages. 13/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks New what? Why so popular? Aneddoctical evidences It is very, very easy to add content by means of their markup languages. The underlying hypertext is unstructured or semi-structured, so that people can decide collectively how to organize their content. 13/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks New what? Why so popular? Aneddoctical evidences It is very, very easy to add content by means of their markup languages. The underlying hypertext is unstructured or semi-structured, so that people can decide collectively how to organize their content. Last, not least, blogs and wikis allow and favour active collaboration. 13/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks New what? The design and development of new texts is still traditional Our point: 14/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks New what? The design and development of new texts is still traditional Our point: the purpose of the software is just to support a living community. 14/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks New what? The design and development of new texts is still traditional Our point: the purpose of the software is just to support a living community. Therefore: 14/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks New what? The design and development of new texts is still traditional Our point: the purpose of the software is just to support a living community. Therefore: a communityware should support a virtual community from its start permitting its evolution with the social rules that participants arbitrarily decide to adopt, according to the community life. The social rules belong to the community, which can modify them over time to reflect new needs and wishes. 14/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Communities as the result of narratives Virtual communities as narratives We start by designing and constructing a language allowing the writing of the community history. 15/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Communities as the result of narratives Virtual communities as narratives We start by designing and constructing a language allowing the writing of the community history. Virtual communities are considered as narratives, i.e. the community state(s) depicts the information owned by the community in a language specifically constructed for this purpose. 15/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Communities as the result of narratives Virtual communities as narratives We start by designing and constructing a language allowing the writing of the community history. Virtual communities are considered as narratives, i.e. the community state(s) depicts the information owned by the community in a language specifically constructed for this purpose. The language itself is part of the state; since the state varies over time, and the language is part of it, the language may evolve as well. 15/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Communities as the result of narratives Narrative central notions We had found three semantic atoms for our formalisation: 16/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Communities as the result of narratives Narrative central notions We had found three semantic atoms for our formalisation: User. 1 16/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Communities as the result of narratives Narrative central notions We had found three semantic atoms for our formalisation: User. 1 Message. 2 16/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Communities as the result of narratives Narrative central notions We had found three semantic atoms for our formalisation: User. 1 Message. 2 Conference. 3 16/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Communities as the result of narratives Users are actors and perform actions in the community send 2 1 John a message John is a User and he sends a Message... 17/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Communities as the result of narratives Messages are organised to form conferences a conference another conference a message a third message a second a fourth message message John ...John’s Messages form conferences... 18/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Communities as the result of narratives Conferences and their history form the community tracking community a conference language another rules conference ...finally, conferences and their rules depict the community state, 19/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Communities as the result of narratives Conferences and their history form the community tracking community a conference language another rules conference ...finally, conferences and their rules depict the community state, in the language defined insofar. 19/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Anatomy of Blogs The annotation model as a variant of the thread model 's blog 's blog John Mario post A post C Monday a comment Tuesday post B Wednesday a comment post D annotates B Pietro Jack The post is more important than the threaded answers. 20/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Anatomy of Blogs The annotation model as a variant of the thread model 's blog 's blog John Mario post A post C Monday a comment Tuesday post B Wednesday a comment post D annotates B Pietro Jack The post is more important than the threaded answers. Blog’s paradigm: “write yours, read and comment the others”. 20/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Anatomy of Wikis Messages are organised to form conferences a wiki Monday edit E edit G edit H Tuesday Wednesday edit F John Jack Pietro Mario Unlike blogs, wiki conference history becomes a sequence of patches of differences between subsequent messages. 21/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Anatomy of Wikis Messages are organised to form conferences a wiki Monday edit E edit G edit H Tuesday Wednesday edit F John Jack Pietro Mario Unlike blogs, wiki conference history becomes a sequence of patches of differences between subsequent messages. Wiki’s paradigm: “write anonymously and freely after careful reading”. 21/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Natural language parsing for narratives The example before described in terms of a narrative ‘‘John is an user. John’s blog is a set of conferences, owned by John. A comment is a message. Only users may post messages.’’ The rules above describe the social actions possible within John’s blog. 22/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Natural language parsing for narratives The example before described in terms of a narrative ‘‘John is an user. John’s blog is a set of conferences, owned by John. A comment is a message. Only users may post messages.’’ The rules above describe the social actions possible within John’s blog. Actions are composed by events that can be described in a controlled subset of English. The parser will extract the information for the formalisation in OWL (see below). 22/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Natural language parsing for narratives We follow Tesni`re’s structural grammars for parsing e send 2 1 John a message The root is the verb. to send is a divalent verb. John is the first actant (argument), a message the second actant. 23/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Natural language parsing for narratives The rules are stored in two OWL knowledge bases The parser’s output is translated in OWL rules. Each community is described in terms of a OWL ontology pair: 24/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Natural language parsing for narratives The rules are stored in two OWL knowledge bases The parser’s output is translated in OWL rules. Each community is described in terms of a OWL ontology pair: history of the community; 1 24/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Natural language parsing for narratives The rules are stored in two OWL knowledge bases The parser’s output is translated in OWL rules. Each community is described in terms of a OWL ontology pair: history of the community; 1 state of the community. 2 24/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Natural language parsing for narratives The rules are stored in two OWL knowledge bases The parser’s output is translated in OWL rules. Each community is described in terms of a OWL ontology pair: history of the community; 1 state of the community. 2 Let’s see a minimal community in terms of pure OWL. 24/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks The model in OWL terms Our semantic atoms in the verbose OWL <owl:Class rdf:ID=”Noun” /> <owl:Class rdf:ID=”User”> <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource=”#Noun” /> </owl:Class> <owl:Class rdf:ID=”Message” /> <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource=”#Noun” /> </owl:Class> <owl:Class rdf:ID=”Conference” /> <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource=”#Noun” /> </owl:Class> 25/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks The model in OWL terms The verb ‘read’ as an OWL property <owl:Class rdf:ID=”Verb”> <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource=”&owl:ObjectProperty” /> </owl:Class> <Verb rdf:ID=”read”> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource=”#User” /> <rdfs:range> <owl:unionOf rdf:parseType=”Collection”> <owl:Class rdf:about=”#Message” /> <owl:Class rdf:about=”#Conference” /> </owl:unionOf> </rdfs:range> <vcs:action> ... </vcs:action> </Verb> 26/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks The model in OWL terms Very briefly... The verb domain is always a “User” and the range is either a “Message” or a “Conference”. The virtual community structure links the effect of the verb on the state of the community by means of a program written in XML/XQuery (in the <vcs:action tag). Messages always belong to Conferences. 27/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks The model in OWL terms Attributes as OWL datatype properties They are useful to enrich the language <owl:DatatypeProperty rdf:ID=”title”> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource=”#Message” /> <rdfs:range rdf:resource=”&xsd:string” /> </owl:DatatypeProperty> <owl:DatatypeProperty rdf:ID=”content”> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource=”#Message” /> </owl:DatatypeProperty> <owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID=”inConference”> <rdfs:domain rdf:resource=”#Message” /> <rdfs:range rdf:resource=”#Conference” /> </owl:ObjectProperty> 28/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks The model in OWL terms ‘Johns sends a message’ in OWL <User rdf:ID=”John” /> <Conference rdf:ID=”JohnBlog” /> <Message rdf:ID=”msg1”> <title> Post A </title> <content rdf:resource=”http://www.dicom.uninsubria.it” /> <inConference rdf:resource=”#JohnBlog”/> </Message> <User rdf:about=”#John”> <own rdf:resource=”#msg1” /> </User> 29/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks The model in OWL terms Evaluation The narrative approach allows both to write the history of the community, and to operate the core actions on the community state. Moreover, the language used to tale the events is defined as part of the narration, like in mathematical textbooks, where the concepts are first defined, and then used to derive results and to define new notions. 30/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks How to use reflection in our model Reflection in action: Users become a Conference! <Conference rdf:ID=”Users” /> <owl:Class rdf:about=”#User”> <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource=”#Message” /> <owl:equivalentClass> <owl:Restriction> <owl:onProperty rdf:resource=”#inConference” /> <owl:allValuesFrom rdf:resource=”#Users” /> <owl:Restriction> </owl:equivalentClass> </owl:Class> User management does not require new verbs or special actions: this evolution was incrementally derived adding a new conference 31/36 to an existing community.
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks How to use reflection in our model An important remark about reflection The reflective use of concepts is an example of evolution: in fact, since the language may be modified at any time, potentially every event involving a change in the language can be regarded as a step toward the evolution of the community. Through the definition of social rules in the controlled natural language (English, by the moment, but maybe Italian or whatever) users can decide the evolution of the community, as the rules are coded directly in OWL! 32/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Behind the Curtain Behind the Curtain: the Engine How the ideal communityware engine works? 33/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Behind the Curtain Behind the Curtain: the Engine How the ideal communityware engine works? the engine takes the event as an input form the web; 1 33/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Behind the Curtain Behind the Curtain: the Engine How the ideal communityware engine works? the engine takes the event as an input form the web; 1 the event plus the state becomes and OWL document; 2 33/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Behind the Curtain Behind the Curtain: the Engine How the ideal communityware engine works? the engine takes the event as an input form the web; 1 the event plus the state becomes and OWL document; 2 if such a doment is valid and sound, the action is performed 3 over the state; 33/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Behind the Curtain Behind the Curtain: the Engine How the ideal communityware engine works? the engine takes the event as an input form the web; 1 the event plus the state becomes and OWL document; 2 if such a doment is valid and sound, the action is performed 3 over the state; the output becomes a (part of) the updated state. 4 33/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Behind the Curtain Behind the Curtain: the Engine How the ideal communityware engine works? the engine takes the event as an input form the web; 1 the event plus the state becomes and OWL document; 2 if such a doment is valid and sound, the action is performed 3 over the state; the output becomes a (part of) the updated state. 4 Actions must be performed on the ontology state: each action is defined by means of a function written in XML/XQuery. 33/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks In practice, a more significant starting point is needed The initial language should be non-empty and should represent a well recognised language to describe a community model. The narration of an example of community life requires a language that can be usefully represented in the form of an OWL ontology. This ontology becomes the foundational event of the community, enabling its usage by means of the illustrated engine. Therefore, the narrative description of communities becomes the enabling metaphor that allows their representation in a semantic web system. 34/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks In this paper What we presented: 35/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks In this paper What we presented: a formalisation of narratives as a new possible design 1 approach of the communitywares; 35/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks In this paper What we presented: a formalisation of narratives as a new possible design 1 approach of the communitywares; the fact that semantic web technology is mature to permit a 2 significant encoding of virtual communities in OWL. 35/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks In this paper What we presented: a formalisation of narratives as a new possible design 1 approach of the communitywares; the fact that semantic web technology is mature to permit a 2 significant encoding of virtual communities in OWL. What we still have to do: 35/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks In this paper What we presented: a formalisation of narratives as a new possible design 1 approach of the communitywares; the fact that semantic web technology is mature to permit a 2 significant encoding of virtual communities in OWL. What we still have to do: the implementation of the engine; 1 35/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks In this paper What we presented: a formalisation of narratives as a new possible design 1 approach of the communitywares; the fact that semantic web technology is mature to permit a 2 significant encoding of virtual communities in OWL. What we still have to do: the implementation of the engine; 1 the consequent collection of experimental data; 2 35/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks In this paper What we presented: a formalisation of narratives as a new possible design 1 approach of the communitywares; the fact that semantic web technology is mature to permit a 2 significant encoding of virtual communities in OWL. What we still have to do: the implementation of the engine; 1 the consequent collection of experimental data; 2 to what extent reflection can be used to simplify the 3 management of complex communities? 35/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks In this paper What we presented: a formalisation of narratives as a new possible design 1 approach of the communitywares; the fact that semantic web technology is mature to permit a 2 significant encoding of virtual communities in OWL. What we still have to do: the implementation of the engine; 1 the consequent collection of experimental data; 2 to what extent reflection can be used to simplify the 3 management of complex communities? the study of the application of Creative Commons licenses as 4 specific social rules. 35/36
  • Index Introduction New Texts From narratives to OWL Concluding Remarks Thank you. Any questions? Download these slides at the following permalink: http://purl.org/net/fgobbo (cc) M. Benini & F. Gobbo 2007. Attribuzione – Non commerciale – Condividi allo stesso modo 2.5 36/36