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Index   Introduction   Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies




            Planning...
Index       Introduction   Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies




            Intr...
Index      Introduction   Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies




A taxonomy proble...
Index         Introduction   Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

What is Interling...
Index         Introduction   Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

What is Interling...
Index         Introduction   Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

What is Interling...
Index       Introduction     Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index       Introduction     Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index       Introduction     Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index       Introduction     Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

What is language ...
Index       Introduction     Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

What is language ...
Index       Introduction     Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index      Introduction   Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies




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Index      Introduction   Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies




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Index      Introduction   Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies




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Index        Introduction   Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

Some basic facts

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Index        Introduction      Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index        Introduction   Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index        Introduction     Planning languages        Before the I WW          After the I WW     Esperantic studies

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Index       Introduction   Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

Amateurs plan langu...
Index       Introduction   Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

Amateurs plan langu...
Index       Introduction   Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

Amateurs plan langu...
Index       Introduction   Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index       Introduction   Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index       Introduction   Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index       Introduction   Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index       Introduction   Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index       Introduction   Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index       Introduction   Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index       Introduction   Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index       Introduction   Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index       Introduction   Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index       Introduction   Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index       Introduction   Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index       Introduction   Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index       Introduction   Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index        Introduction           Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index        Introduction           Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index        Introduction           Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index        Introduction           Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index        Introduction           Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index        Introduction           Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index        Introduction           Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index        Introduction           Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index        Introduction           Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index        Introduction           Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index        Introduction           Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index        Introduction           Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index        Introduction           Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index        Introduction   Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index        Introduction   Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index        Introduction   Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index        Introduction         Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index        Introduction         Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index        Introduction         Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index        Introduction         Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Index        Introduction         Planning languages   Before the I WW   After the I WW   Esperantic studies

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Planning languages and language planning

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Transcript of "Planning languages and language planning"

  1. 1. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Planning languages and language planning The contribution of interlinguistics to cross-cultural communication Federico Gobbo federico.gobbo@uninsubria.it Insubria University
  2. 2. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Introduction 1 What is Interlinguistics? What is language planning? Planning languages 2 Some basic facts Before the I WW 3 Amateurs plan languages After the I WW 4 Planned languages and linguistics Esperantic studies 5 Evaluation of IALs Current trends in Esperantic studies
  3. 3. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies A taxonomy problem Interlinguistics, planned language, auxiliary language, language planning... What do these terms exactly mean? This Introduction will give a solution to this taxonomy problem.
  4. 4. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies What is Interlinguistics? Interlingua, a term with very different meanings ‘Interlingua’ has at least 5 meanings: as lingua franca, i.e. a language for communication between people with different native tongues; as a formal language in machine translation softwares; as a language of L2 learners, i.e. with influences from L1 or overregularization traits; as the original name of the planned language of Giuseppe Peano, better known as latino sine flexione; as the name of the planned language of IALA, as published under the direction of Alexander Gode.
  5. 5. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies What is Interlinguistics? Origins of Interlinguistics The term was coined in 1911 by Jules Meysmans (1976, reprint), but became known during the 2nd International Conference of Linguistics in Geneve, 1931. A new science is developing, Interlinguistics - that branch of the science of language which deals with the structure and basic ideas of all languages with the view to the establishing of a norm for interlanguages, i.e. auxiliary languages destined for oral and written use between people who cannot make themselves understood by means of their mother tongues. O. Jespersen, Interlinguistics (1931)
  6. 6. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies What is Interlinguistics? A definition of Interlinguistics In this context, Interlinguistics is the study of international linguistic communication in every aspect, including the roles, structures, ways of development and application of ethnic and planned languages, as international means of communication. Interlinguistics may well give a contribution to the science of language planning, exp. in language revitalization issues.
  7. 7. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies What is language planning? Language planning as language policy According to Phillipson (2003), language planning is a specialization in the sociology of language requiring input from economics, demography, education and linguistics. It is a toolset for language policy measures, and it has its major application at the time of post-colonial states. Furthermore, as demonstrated by Tsunoda (2005), language policy measures should be taken to reverse language endangerment situations, e.g. in eliminating socio-economic oppression, in raising the prestige and the language attitude of the speakers themselves and so promoting language loyalty.
  8. 8. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies What is language planning? Typical areas of language planning status planning; acquisition planning; corpus planning; lexicon planning; structure planning.
  9. 9. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies What is language planning? Status and acquisition planning According to Phillipson (2003), status planning is concerned with attributing a status to a given language, e.g. laws or measures specifying the rights of speakers to use their language. An important subarea is acquisition planning, i.e. the way the learning of languages is organizes in education, from preschool to university.
  10. 10. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies What is language planning? Corpus and lexicon planning Corpus planning refers to the codification of permissible words and forms of a language, i.e. the creation of a standard language register. The first institution created in the world for this is the Accademia della Crusca (1584) in Italy. An important subarea is the lexicon planning, e.g. the construction of specialized terminology in widening the use areas of a given language. A great help is given by language comparation – as in translation issues. The role of auxiliary planned languages in the work of Eugen W¨ster was very important: Esperanto and other u IALs were used as tertium comparationis (personal communication from Blanke).
  11. 11. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies What is language planning? Structure planning: language revival Structure planning refers to language revival situations, i.e. either where there is no fluent speaker left, but a significant amount of the language is known within the community (language renewal), or where the language is no longer spoken and little is known orally within the community, but there is earlier material on the language (language reclamation). The revival of Hebrew is a typical example of language reclamation, while Welsh is an example of a language renewal process. Typically, structure planning involves every aspect of the language – in particular, the promotion of language-and-culture.
  12. 12. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies What is language planning? Language Planning and Interlinguistics So, Interlinguistics is a part of the science of language planning. Language planning is the methodical activity for regulation and improvement of existing languages or cretion of new regional, national or international languages. [Interlinguistics] is the science of international language planning. V. Tauli, Introduction to a theory of language planning (1968)
  13. 13. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies The problem ‘Planned language’ is a term originally in German, invented by Eugen W¨ster in 1931: Plansprache. A planned language is a u complete language system which started to be written before to be spoken. Using a planned language is a language vivification process, very similar to structure planning in language revitalization issues. After all, “all human languages can be imagined on a scale between naturalness and artificiality.” (Schubert 1989), e.g. Hebrew, Bahasa Indonesa, Kiswahili.
  14. 14. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies How many planned languages? In 2005, more than 1,400 planned languages have been indexed by the Web site www.langmaker.com. We will see the most important ones. The comparative text is part of IALA’s Comparative Texts (Comparative Studies, series A, part VI, division 1). The original text is taken from a book by Prof. W. Ostwald Die Forderung des Tages (“The demand of the day”), Leipzig, 1910.
  15. 15. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies The comparative text in English The idea of a world literature, which Herder and Goethe conceived essentially from the point of view of art, has now gained even greater importance from the point of view of science. For, of the things that mankind possesses in common, nothing is so truly universal and international as science. Now all communication and propogation of science uses the means supplied by language, and so the internationality of science irresistably demands the internationality of language. If we consider that today numerous scientific works, particularly textbooks, are translated into twelve or more foreign languages, then we understand what an immense quantity of labour could be saved, if everywhere on the globe books could be as generally understood as, for example, musical notes or tables of logarithms.
  16. 16. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Some basic facts Features of planned languages As noted by Alessandro Bausani, every planned language may be esoteric (secret) or exoteric (public), and its aims may be ludic, for pure game (Markuska by Bausani), literature (Tolkien’s languages), fiction (Klingon by Mark Okrand) or for religious purposes (Balai-balaan, in Bausani 1974) or auxiliary, i.e. as a lingua franca. We will see that the axis esoterism-exoterism is a very important one in the history of planned languages, even if constructed for auxiliary purposes.
  17. 17. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Some basic facts The role of language amateurs in IALs As Blanke (1998) said, language amateurs often attack problems more bravely than professionals, i.e. linguists. However, when diverse knowledge fields interrilate, the first pioneering work should made by amateurs. As the discipline does not exist yet, so experts can’t exist indeed. They appear later, when the discipline gets into institutions. W. Ostwald, Die Forderung des Tages (in Blanke 1998)
  18. 18. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Some basic facts What is a complete language system? language use pragmatics semantics syntax morphology language core phonetics
  19. 19. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Some basic facts A-priori languages are not human languages! The ancestors of planned languages are pasigraphics, notion-to-symbol systems, i.e. visual semiospheres, in which ideas are decomposed into atomic units and combined, as in Wilkins’ Real Character (1668), a sort of hypertext, or ontology, in modern terms. A-priori languages were created in the 17th and 18th centuries, and they are closed systems – i.e. knowledge should be split up in atoms in every part, and there is no possibility to accept new ideas in the system. The authoritative work is still the collection fo Couturat-Leau (1903).
  20. 20. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Some basic facts So, what is language planning? language use pragmatics status and acquistion planning writing system semantics corpus planning (lexicon) syntax morphology structure planning writing system language core phonetics
  21. 21. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Amateurs plan languages The Golden Age of planned languages Mostly, planned languages are made for auxiliary purposes, and they have been published after Esperanto (1887) and before the II World War (1939). 1879: Volap¨k by J. M. Schleyer. u 1887: Esperanto by L.L. Zamenhof. 1903: Latino Sine Flexione by G. Peano. 1907: Ido by L. Couturat and L. Beaufront. 1922: Occidental/Interlingue by E. de Wahl. 1928: Novial by O. Jespersen. 1931: Basic English by Charles K. Ogden. 1951: Interlingua by A. Gode.
  22. 22. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Amateurs plan languages Volap¨k, by Johann Martin Schleyer u Volap¨k is the first planned language for auxiliary purposes to have u succeed raising a community of practice. It was a great novelty in time, as, unlike previous perfect languages, Volap¨k was based on u ethnic languages (English, French, German, Latin). In order to be the most international as possible, Schleyer decided not to use /r/ phoneme – for Asians – and to simplify drammaticaly pronunciation, preferring monosyllabic words.
  23. 23. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Amateurs plan languages The structure of Volap¨k u The result is that words are unrecognizable to anyone, regardless of the native tongue, e.g. volap¨k derives from ‘Vol’ (world), ‘a’ u (GEN), ‘p¨k’ (speak). From the other side, its grammar is u perfectly regular. When Esperanto was launched (1887), a lot of volapukist circles (over 300 books and 25 reviews were regularly published in 1889) left for the new lingvo internacia de d-ro Esperanto, the international language of Dr. Esperanto. As a tribute to its historical role, some people had started a Wikipedia version in Volap¨k. u
  24. 24. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Amateurs plan languages A specimen of Volap¨k u Pater Noster in Volap¨k, from Wikipedia u O Fat obas, kel binol in s¨s, paisaludom¨ nem ola! u z K¨mom ¨d monarg ¨n ola! o o a Jenom¨z vil olik, ¨s in s¨l, i su tal! o a u Bodi obsik v¨deliki govol ¨s obes adelo! a o E pardol¨s obes devis obsik, o a ¨s id obs aipardobs debeles obas. E no obis nindukol ¨s in tendadi; o sod aidalivol¨s obis de bas. o Jenos¨d’ ! o
  25. 25. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Amateurs plan languages Esperanto, by L.L. Zamenhof (1887-1905) L.L. Zamenhof published the first book (unua libro) in Warsaw, 1887, under the pseudonym Dr. Esperanto (then, it became the name of the language). It was written in Russian. It had an immediate success, thanks of volapukists. The limits of language variations were written down by Zamenhof in 1905, when the first Universala Kongreso occurred in France. After that moment, every structure planning attempt had lead out of the community of practice.
  26. 26. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Amateurs plan languages The structure of Esperanto Esperanto is a pan-European product. Its source languages are: Yiddish, German, Latin, Ancient Greek, English, French, Russian, Polish and Hewbrew. It has the consonants of Yiddish (Litvak variety) and the vowels of sefardic languages (5 Mediterranean). It has a strictly phonematic writing, as e.g. Croatian. The final morphemes marks the part of speech: e.g. ‘o’ for nouns, ‘a’ for adjectives, ‘e’ for circumstantials, e.g. adverbs. It is an agglutinative language as Hungarian or Turkish, and that’s why its compound forms were accused to be “volapukisms”. E.g. junularo ‘jun’ (young), ‘ul’ (guy), ‘aro’ (set), i.e ‘Youth’.
  27. 27. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Amateurs plan languages The reasons of Esperanto Zamenhof was an Ashkenazi influnced by the Haskalah (Jewish Enlightenment) and freemasonry. The lingvo internacia was intended to be at first a bridge between Jewish groups (a proto-Zionist project), and then it became a bridge between people, human beings in general. Speaking with a politically neutral language, nationalisms would have died, according to Zamehof. For historical reasons, the Jewish origins of Esperanto and the relations with Zionism were taken as a secret by the earlier supporters. Zamehof decided in 1905 to let the language free for every use, i.e. its political and religious ideas wouldn’t influence the community of Esperantists.
  28. 28. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Amateurs plan languages The comparative text in English The idea of a world literature, which Herder and Goethe conceived essentially from the point of view of art, has now gained even greater importance from the point of view of science. For, of the things that mankind possesses in common, nothing is so truly universal and international as science. Now all communication and propogation of science uses the means supplied by language, and so the internationality of science irresistably demands the internationality of language. If we consider that today numerous scientific works, particularly textbooks, are translated into twelve or more foreign languages, then we understand what an immense quantity of labour could be saved, if everywhere on the globe books could be as generally understood as, for example, musical notes or tables of logarithms.
  29. 29. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Amateurs plan languages The comparitive text in Esperanto La ideo pri mondliteraturo, kiun Herder kaj Goethe konceptis ˆefec el la vidpunkto de la arto, akiris nun el la vidpunkto de la scienco ˆ multe pli gravan signifon. Car el la komunaj posedaˆ de la oj homaro, neniu estas tiel vere ˆenerala kaj internacia kiel la scienco. g Sed ˆiu komunikado kaj disvastigado de la scienco uzas la helpilon c de la lingvo kaj tial la internacieco de la scienco nerezisteble postulas la internaciecon de la lingvo. Se ni konsideras, ke nuntempe kelkaj sciencaj verkoj, precipe lernolibroj, estas tradukitaj en dek du au pli da fremdaj lingvoj, tiam ni komprenas, kiom granda kvanto da laboro povus esti ˆparata, se libroj ˆie en la s c mondo povus esti tiel ˆenerale komprenataj kiel ekzemple la g muziknotoj au logaritmaj tabeloj.
  30. 30. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Amateurs plan languages Latino sine flexione, by Giuseppe Peano It is the first simplified ethnic language, as it was intended to be used by scholars and scientists with the help of a Latin dictionary, almost without morphology (Chinese is the model). As explained by Peano itself, the original idea is by Leibniz: Poste publicatione de manuscriptos de Leibniz in 1903 me adopta in plure script Latini sine flexione; id es lingua composito ex vocabulos latino, sine flexiones grammaticale. G. Peano, 1915 (in Blanke 1998)
  31. 31. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Amateurs plan languages The comparative text in Latino Sine Flexione Idea de literatura mundiale, que Herder et Goethe habe intellecto praecipue ex puncto de visu de arte, habe hodie acquisito, ex puncto de visu de scientia, sensu etiam majore. Nam, de commune possesiones de genere humano, nihil es tam generale et internationale quam scientia. Sed omne communicatione et propagatione de scientia ute auxilio de lingua, et ita internationalitate de scientia postula in modo irresistibile internationalitate de lingua. Si nos considera, que hodie plure opere scientifico, in particulare tractatus, es translato in duodecim vel plus lingua extero, tunc nos cognosce quale immane mole de labore pote es praeservato, si libros, ubicumque in terra, pote es aequaliter intellecto in generale, sicut per exemplo notas musicale aut tabulas de logarithmos.
  32. 32. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Amateurs plan languages Efforts towards an International Auxiliary Language (IAL) The work of the D´l´gation pour l’adoption d’une langue auxiliaire internationale ee Louis Couturat launched a call for studies for the adoption of an IAL in 1900, Paris. In 1907, 310 organizations and 1250 scholars gave a fund, and a Commission was formed, with 12 members: Hugo Schuchardt, Otto Jespersen, Baudouin de Courtenay, Emil Boirac (for Esperanto), Giuseppe Peano (for Latino Sine Flexione) and others. President: Wilhelm Ostwald. Secretaries: L´opold e Leau and Couturat. The aim of the D´l´gation was to find a common and definitive ee form of the International Auxiliary Language (IAL), starting from the existing ones, among the others Esperanto and Latino Sine Flexione.
  33. 33. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Amateurs plan languages The debate between Couturat and Peano: a new direction Couturat and Peano, both mathematicians and expert of Leibniz’s works, exchanged a great number of letters in years 1896-1914 about maths and IALs. For Peano, the IAL should have no morphology – as Latino Sine Flexione. On the contrary, for Couturat: “il est impossibile de faire une langue r´guli´re avec le latin... Vous ˆtes esclave et prisonnier du ee e vocabulaire latin classique... Por la d´termination du mot e international, l’´tymologie est inutile: il doit r´sulter, soit de la e e comparaison des mots des langues modernes, soit des r`gles dee formation de la L.I.”.
  34. 34. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Amateurs plan languages The diffidence of Zamenhof Why Interlinguistics became an “etherodox branch” (Martinet) of linguistics Regarding your opinion about the so-called volapukisms I don’t agree with you at all. You know, that in 1894 I tried by myself to cut off every constructed word, but afterwards I convinced myself this would be a great mistake. To linguists every arbitrarily constructed word in the beginning should be avoided, but for the forecoming users of the language a certain number of such words is absolutely necessary. I can’t write about this in detail, for a lack of time, but I ask to you never take suggestions from linguists, confront yourself only with people who have a feeling for philology and a lot of practice in Esperanto... who sincerely love the language and want to see in it something eternal, living, powerful. L.L. Zamenhof, Letter to Javal, 1906 (in Ludovikito 1980)
  35. 35. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Amateurs plan languages The results of the D´l´gation ee The Commission voted at unanimity the following declaration: None of the existing languages may be accepted in block without changes. But the Commission decided at principle to adopt Esperanto for its relative perfection and multifaceted use that has proved yet, but under the reserve of more changes to be executed by a permanent Commission (above, subcommittee) in the sense indicated by the final rapport of the secretaries and by the project Ido, and, if possible, in agreement with the Language Committee of Esperantists. A language planning error: when a language enters its “semiological life” (F. de Saussurre), it cannot be planned in structure any more.
  36. 36. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Amateurs plan languages The Ido schism (1908) Louis Couturat and Louis Beaufront, elaborated a Romanced, Latinized version of Esperanto, called Ido (it means ‘offspring’). In Ido, every Slavic element and mostly Germanic ones present in Esperanto had been cut off. Quite paradoxically, Ido has stimulated the linguistics of Esperanto, i.e. Esperantology. They proposed the project as the result of the Del´gation, but e most members didn’t accept the form, and in fact they started proposing other projects. Moreover, the Esperanto supporters considered Ido a “schism”, and they became diffident towards linguists. In the same years, linguistics became institutionalised.
  37. 37. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Amateurs plan languages The comparative text in Ido La ideo pri mondo-literaturo, quan Herder e Goethe konceptis esence del vidpunto dil arto, ganis nun del vidpunto dil cienco mem plu granda importo. Nam del kozi, quin la homaro posedas komune, nula es tam vere universala ed internaciona kam la cienco. Or, omna komunikado e propagado dil cienco uzas la moyeno dil linguo, do la internacioneso dil cienco postulas nerezisteble la internacioneso dil linguo. Se ni konsideras, ke cadie sat multa ciencala verki, specale lernolibri, tradukesas aden dekedu o plu multa stranjera lingui, ni komprenas, qua enorma quanteso de laboro povus sparesar, se libri omnaloke sur la terglobo povus komprenesar tam generale, kam exemple muzikal noti o logaritmala tabeli.
  38. 38. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Planned languages and linguistics The Golden Age of planned languages After the Great War, Couturat (1914) and Zamenhof (1917) were died. The Esperanto and the Ido movements had a firm vitality – congresses, books, reviews, services. Linguists got interest in IALs. 1879: Volap¨k by J. M. Schleyer. u 1887: Esperanto by L.L. Zamenhof. 1903: Latino Sine Flexione by G. Peano. 1907: Ido by L. Couturat and L. Beaufront. 1922: Occidental/Interlingue by E. de Wahl. 1928: Novial by O. Jespersen. 1931: Basic English by Charles K. Ogden. 1951: Interlingua by A. Gode.
  39. 39. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Planned languages and linguistics The novelty of Occidental (1922) Edgard De Wahl was a supporter of Volap¨k and became one of u the first 1,000 Esperantists, before 1894. After the ballot about reforming Esperanto, based on a proposal by Zamenhof itself, he followed Ido and then he proposed his own project, named Occidental. Although he was a language amateur, he introduced a new principle in IAL planning. He tried to standardize the morphology of Romance languages, as most international vocabulary derives from this language group, even if passed in English. Occidental is deeply influenced by French.
  40. 40. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Planned languages and linguistics Two principles, two directions in planning a IAL Existe du principies: li un es li regulari grammatica e clar e precis derivation, e li altri li usation de paroles ja conosset, por ne cargar li memorie del usatores, e por max facilmen intercomprender-se. Ma li fatal cose esset, que ti du principies presc strictmen contradictet li un al altri. Pro to Schleyer obsedet del id´ e que li grammatica es lu principal in su Volap¨k negliget li u vocabularium international. [...] Peano mem eat in su Latino sine Flexione till abolir li tot grammatica. Ma to arudimentat talmen su lingue que su adherentes esset fortiat introducter divers arbitrari grammatical formes, quam por ex. e quel significa li preterit. E. De Wahl, Evolution: du principios, du directiones, Cosmoglotta, 1930
  41. 41. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Planned languages and linguistics Occidental tries to be a synthesis Un´simili in li systema Occidental ti harmonisation e esset attin´t in comparativmen alt gradu. Un absolut e harmonisation, quam ja dit, ne es possibil. Pro to on anc ne posse haver un fix l´ ımite a quel li lingue va evoluer. In fact ti evolution posse marchar in li direction de sempre plu grand naturalit` e do anc ´ a ınregularit`, o in li opposit a direction a plu grand regularit` con autonomi derivation a de propri paroles, forsan divergent del existent international tales. Quel direction nu fact li va secuer li evolution, es ancor ´ ınpossibil predir ye li hodial momente. Chascun del du directiones depende del constellation del usatores. E. De Wahl, Evolution: du principios, du directiones, Cosmoglotta, 1930
  42. 42. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Planned languages and linguistics The comparative text in Occidental Li id´ pri mund-literature, quel Herder e Goethe hat conceptet e esentialmen ex li vidpunctu del arte, ha nu ganat ancor mult plu grand importantie ex li vidpunctu del scientie. Nam de omni comun possedages del homanit` niun es tam vermen general e a international, quam scientie. Ma omni comunication e transmediation del scientie usa li medie del lingue. Do li internationalit` del scientie ´ a ınresistibilmen postula li internationalit` del lingue. Si noi considera, que hodie pluri a sciential ovres, specialmen libres de aprension, trova se traductet in decidu o plu foren lingues, tande noi comprende quel immens quantit` de labor on vell economisar, si on vell posser comprender a libres part´ sur li glob sam generalmen quam por exemples notes e u tabelles de logaritmes.
  43. 43. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Planned languages and linguistics Novial, by Otto Jespersen (1928) Otto Jespersen was deeply convinced of the need to find a acceptable form for the IAL, so he tried to combine Esperanto, Ido, Occidental in a new project, called Novial. Novial is very regular in structure and readable by people educated in European-based cultures. This is the last attempt to planning from structure: the direction of Interlinguistics will be more and more planning from corpus, and in particular from the lexicon.
  44. 44. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Planned languages and linguistics The comparative text in Novial Li idee pri monde-literature, kel Herder e Goethe koncepted esentialim fro li vidpunctu del arte, ha nun ganat mem multim plu grand importanteso fro li vidpunctu del scientie. Den ek li coses kel li homaro posese comunim, nuli es tam verim general e international kam li scientie. Or omni comunico e mediatione del scientie usa li moyene del lingue, dunke li internationaleso del scientie demanda nonresistablim li internationaleso del lingue. Si nus considera ke disdi pluri sciential verkes, particularim lernolibres, es traductet en dekdu e plu multi stranjeri lingues, tand nus comprenda qui imensi quanteso de laboro povud bli sparat, si libres povud omnilok sur li globe bli comprendat tam generalim kam exemplim musical notes o tabeles de logaritmes.
  45. 45. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Planned languages and linguistics Basic English, an ethnic-based planned language Ch. K. Ogden, author of The Meaning of Meaning, proposed the Basic English in 1931, under the support of Churchill. As Latino Sine Flexione, he had a lexicon planning-driven approach. Basic English should have 850 basic words, divided in three categories (things, qualities, operators). Every concept may be expressed by circumlocutions: to descend becomes to come down/to go down, to wander becomes to go from place to place without aim. Nowadays, this principle is followed in building dictionaries for advanced learners. In De Wahl’s terms, it’s an extreme: no structure planning is performed.
  46. 46. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Planned languages and linguistics A new IAL from linguists Andr´ Martinet in the 6th Congress of Linguistics, 1948, Paris, e announced its work for an IAL, as Jespersen did in 1928. French would lose nothing if, instead of saying: je vais, tu vas, nous allons, nous irons you say j’alle, tu alles, nous allons, nous allerons: so it would be simpler for all. Consequently, the contact with a language such as Ido convinced be that something essential in every language really exists: its structure – phonological, grammatical, it doesn’t matter, and that every morphological intrication, pushed by tradition, is useless, and only get communication more difficult. A. Martinet, Interview to Franca Esperantisto (1992)
  47. 47. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Planned languages and linguistics The role of IALA The International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA) tried to make the work of the D´l´gation again under a more scientific ee point of view and with a lot of money – among others, Rockfeller’s. IALA was found by by Mrs. Vanderbilt-Morris in 1924 in Swizerland. It started an impossible attempt to synthetize Esperanto, Ido, Esperanto II (by Rene´ De Saussure, 1910), Novial e and Occidental. In the 1930s Herbert L. Schenton and Edward L. Thorndike tried to measure the propedeutical value of Esperanto for English L1 learners of French.
  48. 48. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Planned languages and linguistics IALA after the II World War Because of the war, IALA went to New York in 1943. Here Mrs. Morris tried to establish two groups of linguists working on the definitive form of the IAL. The first group (3 people) was lead by Andr´ Martinet, who joined in 1946, and they prepared an e autonomous system, by classics of structuralism and functionalism in linguistics, similar to Occidental The second group (5 people) was lead by Alexander Gode, philogist and expert of Romance languages. Under the influence of Basic English and the experiments of Thorndike, his group introduced the propedeutic principle: the IAL should provide basic introduction to national languages with vocabularies based on word frequency statistics. In particular, Gode wanted to prove the Standard Average European hypothesis by Benjamin Lee Whorf.
  49. 49. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Planned languages and linguistics Interlingua by A. Gode (1951) After a ballot into 3,000 informants between 4 proposals, the winning form of Interlingua was Gode’s, wha had the votes of not-Romance and English natives. Unsurprisingly, Martinet’s form had the votes of French natives. Io non voleva partir del latino ma trovar le parolas que le gente comprenderea al lectura directemente sin haber apprendite le lingua o forsan con un minimo de apprentissage. Un sorta de parve libretto esserea sufficente. Lo que on pote reprochar a Gode es haber automaticamente limitate le internationalitate al linguas romanic. A. Martinet, Interview to Panorama, (62, 1998)
  50. 50. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Planned languages and linguistics A specimen of Interlingua Le genese del lingua universal coincide con le genese del civilisation. Le vision historic e genetic del interdependentia de civilisation e lingua universal es certemente un vision revolutionari. Qui aspira a un moderne lingua universal debe familiar se con este interdependentia. In este nostre studio nos cerca demonstrar factos e fortias que governa le interdependentia de civilisation e lingua universal. In tal maniera nos va ganiar un vision profunde in le processo del genese de linguas universal, e nos va discoperir le leges del genese e del developpamento. Le autor non parti de hipoteses o teorias, ma prefere sequer le metodo empirico-inductive, que consiste in le collection de factos e in le tentativa de organisar este factos a un succession regular, subjecte a leges natural.
  51. 51. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Evaluation of IALs Have planned languages some vitality? Possible metrics may be taken from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Number of articles (February 2006): 950,000 + in English 350,000 + in German 233,000 + in French 38,000 + in Esperanto 13,000 + in Ido 2,900 + in Interlingua 265 in Interlingue (ex Occidental) 46 in Volap¨k u Esperanto is clearly the winner.
  52. 52. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Evaluation of IALs What we may learn from IALs’ history? From estimates ofGesellschaft F¨r Interlingvistik (GIL), about 60% u of interlinguistics literature is written in planned languages (and 95% in Esperanto). Too often I find English-only bibliography in interlinguistic papers. In general, the (un)success of an IAL in the world is due to a failure of status and acquisition planning, i.e. quasi-extralinguistic factors. Moreover, a key part of Esperanto success is to the language policy of the founder: absolute freedom of use and absolute closeness to reforms, at least after 1905, i.e. the first international public meeting.
  53. 53. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Evaluation of IALs Esperanto is a language that created a new culture Among IALs, Zamenhof’s project always was the most used in practice, and survived II World Wars, in spite of persecutions by Nazis and Stalinists. (Remember that Zamenhof was a Jew). Why? Because Esperantists believe in it. Zamenhof started translating classics of world literature and proverbs. People use it for theater, rock music, podcasting, whatever. After all, ordinary people – not linguists – prefer to use a language instead of questioning about grammar details without using it! Esperanto is the proof that a language can create a culture.
  54. 54. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Current trends in Esperantic studies Esperantology and Esperantic studies Eugen W¨ster (1955) say that Esperantology – a branch of u Interlinguistics – is the language planning field for Esperanto, i.e. how to lead consciously an organized evolution of the Esperanto language. Conversely, the Esperantic studies underlines the study of Esperanto as a living language, i.e. without structural language planning efforts, exactly as every natural language. This is the approach followed by the Esperantic Studies Foundation (ESF).
  55. 55. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Current trends in Esperantic studies A small corpus fo contemporary spoken Esperanto lernu.net is a e-learning portal made entirely by volunteers to learn Esperanto on-line – now from 24 languages, from Mandarine to Lithuanian. It uses a lot interaction (live chat) and video and audio materials. There are intervjuetoj (“small interviews”) about general questions to young informants: 64 interviews to 11 people from Italy, South Corea, Russia, France, Venezuela, Canada, Montenegro, Lithuania, Scotland, Japan. In total, about 700 sentences.
  56. 56. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Current trends in Esperantic studies An explorative study on pragmatics and politeness In Esperanto, asking: “where are you from?” is quite unpolite. Most esperantists have a complex notion of identity relating place and languages: they feel more linked to languages than places, e.g. “I am Italian as my language is Italian, even if I live in Britain”. One of the most asked questions is: “how many languages do you know?” Esperantists tend to exaggerate their knowledge and to consider minority languages or dialects simply languages. Theoretically, languages give prestige into the community, even if paradoxically one is expected to speak to Esperanto with one own’s natives, e.g. a group of only Germans will speak Esperanto in a meeting very naturally (otherwise, you are a krokodilo).
  57. 57. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Current trends in Esperantic studies Pragmatics of Esperanto as an endangered language? Esperanto gives no social prestige out of the community, so speakers may be a bit close and fanatical about the virtues of the language, as sometimes happen with speakers of endangered languages. Of course, talkin in English (or any other lingua franca) as a foreign language (kajmani) is absolutely anathema, save to externals, e.g. journalists or other people in visit. An other typical question is: “how did you learn Esperanto?”, meaning ‘how did you entered our world? Who or what introduced you’. Nota bene: to be an Esperantist you don’t need to know (well) the language, you need to go to a meeting.
  58. 58. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Current trends in Esperantic studies Esperanto as a Language Ecology tool The Language Ecology paradigm is a view in which commodification, effectiveness, communication (Rationalist view, Blommaert) is less important than authenticity, identity, expression (Romantic view). Linguistic diversity is treated as biodiversity – a richness of humankind (Phillipson, Skutnabb-Kangas). The 4th Nitobe Symposium, Vilnius, 2005, adapted the Universal Declaration of Linguistic Rights (Barcellona, 1996) to the situation of enlarged EU.
  59. 59. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Current trends in Esperantic studies Nitobe Conclusions, Commitments 4. Alternative visions. Defining and defending the status and needs of small national and non-national language communities, both indigenous and immigrant, within the EU; Developing policy frameworks to ensure that any widely used lingua franca does not undermine the continued vitality of national languages, the equal treatment of their speakers in EU institutions, and the preservation of cultural diversity; Exploring the potential role of Esperanto within an EU language framework, with particular regard to the economic benefits of its use as a pivot language in translation and interpretation, its efficacy as an introduction to foreign language education, and its advantages as a medium of intercultural communication;
  60. 60. Index Introduction Planning languages Before the I WW After the I WW Esperantic studies Current trends in Esperantic studies Thanks I want to acknowledge Detlev Blanke for his unvaluable help. Attribuzione - Non Commerciale - Condividi allo stesso modo 2.0 Italia http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/it/ You may have this presentation and hand-out here: http://purl.org/net/fgobbo Questions?
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