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Introduction   Concept maps   Dialog maps   Mind maps   Pitfalls   Agile intersections   Conclusions




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Introduction   Concept maps   Dialog maps   Mind maps   Pitfalls   Agile intersections   Conclusions



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Introduction   Concept maps   Dialog maps   Mind maps   Pitfalls   Agile intersections   Conclusions



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Introduction   Concept maps    Dialog maps   Mind maps   Pitfalls   Agile intersections   Conclusions



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Introduction   Concept maps   Dialog maps   Mind maps   Pitfalls   Agile intersections   Conclusions



           Assimil...
Introduction   Concept maps   Dialog maps   Mind maps   Pitfalls   Agile intersections   Conclusions



       Concept map...
Introduction    Concept maps   Dialog maps   Mind maps   Pitfalls   Agile intersections   Conclusions



               Le...
Introduction     Concept maps   Dialog maps   Mind maps   Pitfalls   Agile intersections   Conclusions



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A basic concept map
Introduction   Concept maps   Dialog maps   Mind maps   Pitfalls   Agile intersections   Conclusions



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A concept map on concept mapping
Ref: Novak-Ca˜as (2006) on the theory and how to construct concept maps
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Introduction     Concept maps   Dialog maps   Mind maps   Pitfalls   Agile intersections   Conclusions



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The knowledge portfolio by NASA for MArs Exploration
  Ref: Novak-Ca˜as (2006) on the theory and how to construct concept ...
Introduction   Concept maps     Dialog maps   Mind maps   Pitfalls   Agile intersections   Conclusions



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Introduction   Concept maps     Dialog maps   Mind maps   Pitfalls   Agile intersections   Conclusions



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Introduction   Concept maps     Dialog maps   Mind maps   Pitfalls   Agile intersections   Conclusions



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Introduction   Concept maps     Dialog maps   Mind maps   Pitfalls   Agile intersections   Conclusions



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Introduction   Concept maps     Dialog maps   Mind maps   Pitfalls   Agile intersections   Conclusions



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A parking lot spread from a focus question...
Ref: Novak-Ca˜as (2006) on the theory and how to construct concept maps
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..and an expert skeleton map
Ref: Novak-Ca˜as (2006) on the theory and how to construct concept maps
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Introduction   Concept maps   Dialog maps      Mind maps   Pitfalls   Agile intersections   Conclusions



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Introduction    Concept maps   Dialog maps   Mind maps   Pitfalls   Agile intersections   Conclusions



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Introduction   Concept maps   Dialog maps   Mind maps   Pitfalls   Agile intersections   Conclusions



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The Answer Reflex...




Question                         Justification
...is broken by Ideas...


                  Idea




Question                              Justification
...and Justifications become Arguments!


               Idea




Question                      Argument
Introduction   Concept maps      Dialog maps   Mind maps   Pitfalls   Agile intersections   Conclusions



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Introduction   Concept maps   Dialog maps   Mind maps   Pitfalls   Agile intersections   Conclusions



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Introduction   Concept maps   Dialog maps   Mind maps   Pitfalls   Agile intersections   Conclusions



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Introduction   Concept maps     Dialog maps   Mind maps   Pitfalls   Agile intersections   Conclusions



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Look at the right-click menu: nodes are typified
Pros and cons of dialog mapping through Compendium
             A dialog map on dialog map evaluation
Compendium GUI prefers multiple mapping instead of
               expand/collapse
Introduction   Concept maps   Dialog maps   Mind maps   Pitfalls   Agile intersections   Conclusions



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Introduction   Concept maps   Dialog maps   Mind maps   Pitfalls   Agile intersections   Conclusions



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Mind mapping is a “human universal” (Brown, 1999)
    A mind map by Charles Darwin on evolution (Buzan-Buzan, 2000
A mind map may be well drawn...
A mind map about the ideal job (Buzan-Buzan, 2000)
..or without words!
A mind map about love (Buzan-Buzan, 2000)
A mind map about study tips
This mind map was made by MindManager
A mind map about Taiji models
   Look at the important role of colours
A mind map template for meetings
                      This is a template of MindManager



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           2.
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Introduction   Concept maps   Dialog maps   Mind maps   Pitfalls   Agile intersections   Conclusions



          The risk...
A bad mind map about a book report
    What mistakes did the mind mapper make?
This is not a mind map
A chart can be useful, but it’s not a mind map!
Introduction   Concept maps   Dialog maps   Mind maps   Pitfalls   Agile intersections   Conclusions



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Introduction     Concept maps   Dialog maps   Mind maps   Pitfalls   Agile intersections   Conclusions



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Introduction     Concept maps   Dialog maps   Mind maps   Pitfalls   Agile intersections   Conclusions



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Introduction     Concept maps   Dialog maps   Mind maps   Pitfalls   Agile intersections   Conclusions



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Introduction     Concept maps   Dialog maps   Mind maps   Pitfalls   Agile intersections   Conclusions



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Introduction   Concept maps   Dialog maps   Mind maps   Pitfalls   Agile intersections   Conclusions



          Disadvan...
Introduction     Concept maps   Dialog maps   Mind maps   Pitfalls   Agile intersections   Conclusions



               K...
A plethora of software tools for mapping
     How to choose the best for Agile mapping?
Ockam’s solution: use paper and (a lot of) pencil(s)
            Kent Beck explains XP with a mind map
Introduction   Concept maps   Dialog maps   Mind maps   Pitfalls   Agile intersections   Conclusions



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Paper-and-pencils mind maps are ok in single-user mode
            Kent Beck explains Developer Accountability
Introduction   Concept maps   Dialog maps   Mind maps   Pitfalls   Agile intersections   Conclusions



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Introduction    Concept maps   Dialog maps   Mind maps   Pitfalls   Agile intersections   Conclusions



               Ag...
Gathering and modeling

                              a bridge between customers and team members




    Requirement Gath...
ESSAP started with a map brainstorming...
Introduction   Concept maps   Dialog maps   Mind maps   Pitfalls   Agile intersections   Conclusions



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Introduction   Concept maps   Dialog maps   Mind maps   Pitfalls   Agile intersections   Conclusions



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Introduction   Concept maps   Dialog maps   Mind maps   Pitfalls   Agile intersections   Conclusions



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Introduction     Concept maps   Dialog maps    Mind maps   Pitfalls   Agile intersections   Conclusions



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Free Idea Maps: Toward Agility Mapping

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    thanks for the introduction. Very clear and well done
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Transcript of "Free Idea Maps: Toward Agility Mapping"

  1. 1. Introduction Concept maps Dialog maps Mind maps Pitfalls Agile intersections Conclusions Free Idea Maps Towards Agile Mapping Federico Gobbo federico.gobbo@uninsubria.it Dipartimento di Informatica e Comunicazione Universit` degli Studi dell’Insubria a
  2. 2. Introduction Concept maps Dialog maps Mind maps Pitfalls Agile intersections Conclusions Cognitive mapping history: origins Information visualization studies and started in the francophone world in the late 1960s (Bertin, Piaget) and indipendently in the UK by Tony Buzan. In the 1970s cognitive psychologists and US-scholars started to study psychological implication, applying concept maps into educational settings (Ausubel, Novak). Tony Buzan took PhD at the London School of Economics and then put ‘radiant thinking’ and ‘mind mapping’ under copyright.
  3. 3. Introduction Concept maps Dialog maps Mind maps Pitfalls Agile intersections Conclusions Cognitive mapping history: now In the late 1980s and in the 1990s mapping software entered the arena esp. for educational purposes – i.e. for creating lecture notes or for active studying – but not only: brainstorming, time management, life self-coaching, information management, etc. The Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC) developed CmapTools, MindJet released MindManager for Buzan’s mind mapping. After 2000 a lot of clones spread out, but always along the two main models – concept mapping (IHMC) vs. mind mapping (Buzan). Notable exception is the Compendium Institute, which developed a third way, i.e. conversational or dialog mapping, enabling groups to build shared knowledge – revealing collective intelligence.
  4. 4. Introduction Concept maps Dialog maps Mind maps Pitfalls Agile intersections Conclusions Why cognitive mapping? Empirical evidences. Our brain process complex information conveyed visually in a very effective way, we typically identify visual patterns easier than not-visual (e.g. words as concepts). Forthermore, visual images can overcome language barriers. Knowledge elicitation. Information visualization doesn’t merely communicate ideas but it actively, organizes, concises, and clarifies info chunks (Dawkins’ memes) revealing hidden patterns, gaining insights and discovering new ideas and relations. Cognitive mapping is the ability to see and move through the “big picture” (Gestalt) as well as into details: thinking is considered as a complex adaptive system. i.e. informations grow and change maintain accuracy and relevance.
  5. 5. Introduction Concept maps Dialog maps Mind maps Pitfalls Agile intersections Conclusions Assimilation and learning in cognitive psychology Concept mapping started in 1972 in a research program about how children represent knowledge. Ausubel’s cognitive psychology, spread from Piaget’s, has at the core the idea of assimilation. New concepts and propositions may be assimilated only if they find a place into existing concept network, i.e. individual’s cognitive structure. In general, the introduction of a new concept inplies a reconfiguration of the concept network for assimilation.
  6. 6. Introduction Concept maps Dialog maps Mind maps Pitfalls Agile intersections Conclusions Concept map for collaborative and distance learning Members of a social group share the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD, Vygotsky 1978), i.e. a social space where dialogue and cooperation can effectively support learning with minimal aid from a tutor. Teachers are similar to coaches. Concept maps started as a tool to externalize the cognitive structures behind ZPDs. Ausubel distinguish two ways to learn: rote learning vs. meaningful learning.
  7. 7. Introduction Concept maps Dialog maps Mind maps Pitfalls Agile intersections Conclusions Learning in the constructive learning theory Ref: Novak-Ca˜as (2006) on the theory and how to construct concept maps n
  8. 8. Introduction Concept maps Dialog maps Mind maps Pitfalls Agile intersections Conclusions Maps, concepts, propositions and tagged arcs Concept maps are graphical tools for organizing and representing knowledge. • A concept is a ‘perceived regularity in events or objects, or records of events or objects, designated by a label’ (Novak-Ca˜as 2006). n • A proposition is meaningful statement obtained connecting two or more concepts using linking words. • Linking words are represented by tagged arcs.
  9. 9. A basic concept map
  10. 10. Introduction Concept maps Dialog maps Mind maps Pitfalls Agile intersections Conclusions Hierarchical fashion and cross-linking In concept maps, general concepts are at the top of the map and less general concepts are arranged hierarchically below. Cross-links are links that put into relations concepts in different segments or domains. Note that in the previous map there were no cross-links, and the map itself was very simple indeed.
  11. 11. A concept map on concept mapping Ref: Novak-Ca˜as (2006) on the theory and how to construct concept maps n
  12. 12. Introduction Concept maps Dialog maps Mind maps Pitfalls Agile intersections Conclusions It works in well-structured knowledge domains Learners evaluated by their concept maps are engaged into meaningful learning, Concept proved very helpful to avoid misconceptions in science and mathematics in education. CmapTools was used to prepare NASA material on Mars before the mission. The epistemological foundation in concept mapping is semantic atomicity: with about 100 atoms you may have a great number of molecules; with appox. 460,000 words in English you may express a lot of sentences; analogously, with a not-too-great set of concepts you may express a lot of maps.
  13. 13. The knowledge portfolio by NASA for MArs Exploration Ref: Novak-Ca˜as (2006) on the theory and how to construct concept maps n
  14. 14. Introduction Concept maps Dialog maps Mind maps Pitfalls Agile intersections Conclusions How to build a concept map 1. Start from a Focus Question, i.e. it should cleary states the issue as an open problem or topic. Prefer “how” and “why” questions (descriptive and explicative) to “what” or “who” ones (prescriptive and classificatory). If the problem/topic is very hard, let an expert in the field prepare an “expert skeleton” map.
  15. 15. Introduction Concept maps Dialog maps Mind maps Pitfalls Agile intersections Conclusions How to build a concept map 1. Start from a Focus Question, i.e. it should cleary states the issue as an open problem or topic. Prefer “how” and “why” questions (descriptive and explicative) to “what” or “who” ones (prescriptive and classificatory). If the problem/topic is very hard, let an expert in the field prepare an “expert skeleton” map. 2. Then build a list of concept as a parking lot, as a set of Post-its. Avoid “sentences in the boxes”.
  16. 16. Introduction Concept maps Dialog maps Mind maps Pitfalls Agile intersections Conclusions How to build a concept map 1. Start from a Focus Question, i.e. it should cleary states the issue as an open problem or topic. Prefer “how” and “why” questions (descriptive and explicative) to “what” or “who” ones (prescriptive and classificatory). If the problem/topic is very hard, let an expert in the field prepare an “expert skeleton” map. 2. Then build a list of concept as a parking lot, as a set of Post-its. Avoid “sentences in the boxes”. 3. Organize your concepts in domains (horizontal axis) and in generality (vertical axis) and define the relations between them.
  17. 17. Introduction Concept maps Dialog maps Mind maps Pitfalls Agile intersections Conclusions How to build a concept map 1. Start from a Focus Question, i.e. it should cleary states the issue as an open problem or topic. Prefer “how” and “why” questions (descriptive and explicative) to “what” or “who” ones (prescriptive and classificatory). If the problem/topic is very hard, let an expert in the field prepare an “expert skeleton” map. 2. Then build a list of concept as a parking lot, as a set of Post-its. Avoid “sentences in the boxes”. 3. Organize your concepts in domains (horizontal axis) and in generality (vertical axis) and define the relations between them. 4. Refine your concept map adding cross-links.
  18. 18. Introduction Concept maps Dialog maps Mind maps Pitfalls Agile intersections Conclusions How to build a concept map 1. Start from a Focus Question, i.e. it should cleary states the issue as an open problem or topic. Prefer “how” and “why” questions (descriptive and explicative) to “what” or “who” ones (prescriptive and classificatory). If the problem/topic is very hard, let an expert in the field prepare an “expert skeleton” map. 2. Then build a list of concept as a parking lot, as a set of Post-its. Avoid “sentences in the boxes”. 3. Organize your concepts in domains (horizontal axis) and in generality (vertical axis) and define the relations between them. 4. Refine your concept map adding cross-links. 5. Eventually link your concept map with previous ones, so to demonstrate that your understanding is not limited to a single concept map, i.e. build a Knowledge Model (Ca˜as 2003). n
  19. 19. A parking lot spread from a focus question... Ref: Novak-Ca˜as (2006) on the theory and how to construct concept maps n
  20. 20. ..and an expert skeleton map Ref: Novak-Ca˜as (2006) on the theory and how to construct concept maps n
  21. 21. Introduction Concept maps Dialog maps Mind maps Pitfalls Agile intersections Conclusions Evaluation With over two decades of research experience, concept maps proved to be effective in constructive learning settings, esp. about hard science topics. E.g. in Italy Giuseppe Valitutti is translating into Italian the World of Science books with pupils of elementary schools. Concept mapping is not an easy task, as everything in the map is meaningful. Furthermore, defining the parking lot of concepts before their relations may be difficult for people used to think simultaneously in a “concepts-in-context” way.
  22. 22. Introduction Concept maps Dialog maps Mind maps Pitfalls Agile intersections Conclusions Dialog maps as solutions to wicked problems Compendium is based on the conversational or dialog mapping approach and derived from Issue-Based Information System (IBIS). Horst Rittel developed IBIS in the 1970s as a method to solve wicked problems. Unlike tame problems, in the case of wicked problems the problem solving approach doesn’t fit. Links (arcs) may be tagged as in the concept map approach.
  23. 23. Introduction Concept maps Dialog maps Mind maps Pitfalls Agile intersections Conclusions Dialog maps as group support Dialog mapping is particulary useful in groups, i.e. supporting the continous dialogue among stakeholders in the problem in order to reframe. Every misunderstanding or disagreement should be reframed as an issue or in an inquiry, avoiding the Answer Reflex (the loop question-justification).
  24. 24. The Answer Reflex... Question Justification
  25. 25. ...is broken by Ideas... Idea Question Justification
  26. 26. ...and Justifications become Arguments! Idea Question Argument
  27. 27. Introduction Concept maps Dialog maps Mind maps Pitfalls Agile intersections Conclusions How to reframe Questions... As in the concept map approach, conversations in IBIS start from a root Question, which may be decomposed in sub-Questions. Questions should be: 1. clear, short, neutral (no “not”), unique (no “and” and “or”); 2. of the “wh” type or “how” (no “yes/no” questions);
  28. 28. Introduction Concept maps Dialog maps Mind maps Pitfalls Agile intersections Conclusions ...placing Ideas... Ideas are proposals for resolution of Questions. They should be practical and small (Ideas Network). They are linked to Questions.
  29. 29. Introduction Concept maps Dialog maps Mind maps Pitfalls Agile intersections Conclusions ...in order to obtain Arguments Arguments may either support (Pros) or object (Cons) Ideas. Arguments are linked to Ideas.
  30. 30. Introduction Concept maps Dialog maps Mind maps Pitfalls Agile intersections Conclusions Questions, Idea, Arguments “The Bohr model of the rhetoric atom” • Questions • Ideas • Arguments • Pros • Cons
  31. 31. Look at the right-click menu: nodes are typified
  32. 32. Pros and cons of dialog mapping through Compendium A dialog map on dialog map evaluation
  33. 33. Compendium GUI prefers multiple mapping instead of expand/collapse
  34. 34. Introduction Concept maps Dialog maps Mind maps Pitfalls Agile intersections Conclusions Mind mapping is fast and easy A mind map is a tree structure of keywords and they relations. It has a radiant shape and is much more rich in colours, pictures, and drawings compared with concept or dialog maps. Human brains recognize shapes and drawings better than words and numbers, so if you want to remember ideas give them a good look.
  35. 35. Introduction Concept maps Dialog maps Mind maps Pitfalls Agile intersections Conclusions Mind mapping is fast and easy A mind map is a tree structure of keywords and they relations. It has a radiant shape and is much more rich in colours, pictures, and drawings compared with concept or dialog maps. Human brains recognize shapes and drawings better than words and numbers, so if you want to remember ideas give them a good look. Be evocative.
  36. 36. Mind mapping is a “human universal” (Brown, 1999) A mind map by Charles Darwin on evolution (Buzan-Buzan, 2000
  37. 37. A mind map may be well drawn... A mind map about the ideal job (Buzan-Buzan, 2000)
  38. 38. ..or without words! A mind map about love (Buzan-Buzan, 2000)
  39. 39. A mind map about study tips This mind map was made by MindManager
  40. 40. A mind map about Taiji models Look at the important role of colours
  41. 41. A mind map template for meetings This is a template of MindManager 1. 2. Purpose 3. Parking lot 4. 1. 5. 2. Distant participants 3. 1. 1. 2. Meeting Participants 2. 3. Action items [keyword+date] 3. 4. 4. 5. 5. 1. Day 2. Exact time 3. Time/Place Agenda Place 4. 5.
  42. 42. Introduction Concept maps Dialog maps Mind maps Pitfalls Agile intersections Conclusions The risk with mind mapping is information noise! A mind map has a loose syntax and semantics. Unlike concept and dialog maps, nodes hasn’t any a-priori type and their position in the map is meaningless. Moreover, arcs are not taggable, and relations are nodes as well. The risk of mind mapping is to add useless informations in the map itself, e.g. colours that have more than one meaning. This is particularly true in collective maps.
  43. 43. A bad mind map about a book report What mistakes did the mind mapper make?
  44. 44. This is not a mind map A chart can be useful, but it’s not a mind map!
  45. 45. Introduction Concept maps Dialog maps Mind maps Pitfalls Agile intersections Conclusions Radiant thinking • Mind mapping begins from a central idea.
  46. 46. Introduction Concept maps Dialog maps Mind maps Pitfalls Agile intersections Conclusions Radiant thinking • Mind mapping begins from a central idea. • Then related ideas radiate out from the center as branches. They are called Basic Ordering Ideas (BOIs).
  47. 47. Introduction Concept maps Dialog maps Mind maps Pitfalls Agile intersections Conclusions Radiant thinking • Mind mapping begins from a central idea. • Then related ideas radiate out from the center as branches. They are called Basic Ordering Ideas (BOIs). • Some branches give birth to minor branches, as minor themes or particular and detailed ideas.
  48. 48. Introduction Concept maps Dialog maps Mind maps Pitfalls Agile intersections Conclusions Radiant thinking • Mind mapping begins from a central idea. • Then related ideas radiate out from the center as branches. They are called Basic Ordering Ideas (BOIs). • Some branches give birth to minor branches, as minor themes or particular and detailed ideas. • Like neurons.
  49. 49. Introduction Concept maps Dialog maps Mind maps Pitfalls Agile intersections Conclusions Advantages of paper-and-pencil mind mapping It’s easy. Take a A3 sheet of paper landscape and write the topic, problem or subject in the center. Then place the BOIs and go along. They are perfect for single-user mapping, where you don’t share the map itself – they may be even confusing to others, but clear for you.
  50. 50. Introduction Concept maps Dialog maps Mind maps Pitfalls Agile intersections Conclusions Disadvantages of paper-and-pencil mind mapping It’s not easy to copy and share. It’s not easy to correct errors – more important ideas should be close to the center. In fact, you often don’t recognize BOIs at the first glance. On the contrary, electronic maps may even be route maps to resources as well (other maps, music, videos, etc.) We choose FreeMind as the best software tool: it’s free (GPLed), cross-platform (Windows, Linux, MacOS, etc.) but above all flexible.
  51. 51. Introduction Concept maps Dialog maps Mind maps Pitfalls Agile intersections Conclusions Known mistakes made by beginners in mapping More than one. The main mistake – in every cognitive mapping approach – is not to analyse ideas, i.e. put more than one ideas in a single node (for example, put a whole sentence in a node, instead of chunking). Wrong type. A common mistake in dialog maps is to put a Question in a Idea or using a Question node for judgements (false questions). Class error. A common mistake in concept maps is to put a node either too high (abstract) or too low (concrete) in the map itself. Importance. A common mistake in mind maps is to put a node either too distant (less important) or too close (more important) to the center.
  52. 52. A plethora of software tools for mapping How to choose the best for Agile mapping?
  53. 53. Ockam’s solution: use paper and (a lot of) pencil(s) Kent Beck explains XP with a mind map
  54. 54. Introduction Concept maps Dialog maps Mind maps Pitfalls Agile intersections Conclusions FreeMind is our choice this year In Retrospectives, I ask to you to collect critiques (Pros and Cons!) of Freemind.
  55. 55. Paper-and-pencils mind maps are ok in single-user mode Kent Beck explains Developer Accountability
  56. 56. Introduction Concept maps Dialog maps Mind maps Pitfalls Agile intersections Conclusions Free idea mapping as an Agile practice One of the core values of Agile is Interaction, i.e. a mind shift from “writing (documentation)” to “talking (conversation)”. Free idea mapping is a proposal to capture user wish as a whole, before restrictiong written information in tangible small cards – User Stories as mementos of user interaction.
  57. 57. Introduction Concept maps Dialog maps Mind maps Pitfalls Agile intersections Conclusions Agile mapping should be antifundamentalist In my personal experience, a surveilled mind mapping approach is the best in knowledge elicitation. “Surveilled” means antifundamentalis, i.e. mind mapping with injections of the concept and dialog approach as well, e.g. with Focus Questions as BOIs radiating from the central topic/idea and defining Pros and Cons as well, aware of ZPDs in leading groups. Sometimes “expert skeleton” maps proved effective.
  58. 58. Gathering and modeling a bridge between customers and team members Requirement Gathering (User Wish Elicitation) Requirement Modeling divergent thinking convergent thinking Idea User Agile planning Goal map stories Use free idea mapping to get customers into Agile directly
  59. 59. ESSAP started with a map brainstorming...
  60. 60. Introduction Concept maps Dialog maps Mind maps Pitfalls Agile intersections Conclusions Two project proposals Let’s try to visualize thinking with a free idea map on-the-fly, with me as your customer-on-site. Both web applications DICOM need...
  61. 61. Introduction Concept maps Dialog maps Mind maps Pitfalls Agile intersections Conclusions First: Examinando “I want to manage dates of lectures, courses and exams with a reservation whiteboard. Teachers should see a calendar before date booking, and a content administrator should confirm the reservation or propose more dates. We want to avoid overbooking, i.e. more than one exam for the same student classes in the same day!”
  62. 62. Introduction Concept maps Dialog maps Mind maps Pitfalls Agile intersections Conclusions Second: Academia “Scholars go to conferences and (summer) schools. We want a web application in order to manage the whole fluxus of information: call for papers, deadlines, review process (e.g. send an anonymized copy of docs to the reviewers, etc.), session chairs, parallelism for sessions, (extended) abstracts, registration (from dietary requirements to foreseen arrival and departure dates, infos about the venue, last-minute important news, until the publication of proceedings, and the call of the next year edition.”
  63. 63. Introduction Concept maps Dialog maps Mind maps Pitfalls Agile intersections Conclusions Thanks Attribuzione - Non Commerciale - Condividi allo stesso modo 2.0 Italia http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0/it/ Permalink of this document: http://purl.org/net/fgobbo Let’s get into practice!
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