Informal Certification based on Authentic Trust

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Informal Certification based on Authentic Trust

  1. 1. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions Informal certification based on authentic trust Federico Gobbo Rosario Sica {federico.gobbo,rosario.sica}@uninsubria.it Universit` dell’Insubria, Varese, Italy a (cc) Some rights reserved. ETHICOMP2008 Mantua, 24th September 1/20
  2. 2. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions What is a social network? What’s new? What’s different? Who gains? Who loses? 2/20
  3. 3. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions Knowledge and participation knowledge moves fast today 3/20
  4. 4. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions Knowledge and participation knowledge moves fast today participation is a mark of prestige in itself 3/20
  5. 5. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions Knowledge and participation knowledge moves fast today participation is a mark of prestige in itself paradox: 3/20
  6. 6. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions Knowledge and participation knowledge moves fast today participation is a mark of prestige in itself paradox: we need domain experts, but 3/20
  7. 7. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions Knowledge and participation knowledge moves fast today participation is a mark of prestige in itself paradox: we need domain experts, but we want everyone in (crowdsourcing), so 3/20
  8. 8. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions Knowledge and participation knowledge moves fast today participation is a mark of prestige in itself paradox: we need domain experts, but we want everyone in (crowdsourcing), so experts are underestimated. 3/20
  9. 9. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions Knowledge and participation knowledge moves fast today participation is a mark of prestige in itself paradox: we need domain experts, but we want everyone in (crowdsourcing), so experts are underestimated. A social and ethical model of the phenomenon is needed 3/20
  10. 10. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions Social networking: an old idea... In social cognitive research: 4/20
  11. 11. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions Social networking: an old idea... In social cognitive research: people act on the basis of their interpretation of the world 4/20
  12. 12. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions Social networking: an old idea... In social cognitive research: people act on the basis of their interpretation of the world interpretations are shared among individuals as 4/20
  13. 13. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions Social networking: an old idea... In social cognitive research: people act on the basis of their interpretation of the world interpretations are shared among individuals as common beliefs 4/20
  14. 14. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions Social networking: an old idea... In social cognitive research: people act on the basis of their interpretation of the world interpretations are shared among individuals as common beliefs cognitive schemas 4/20
  15. 15. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions Social networking: an old idea... In social cognitive research: people act on the basis of their interpretation of the world interpretations are shared among individuals as common beliefs cognitive schemas This idea of knowledge sharing has got a lot of names (since Wittengstein). 4/20
  16. 16. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions From Wittengstein (1953) to Bijker (1995) From Wittengstein (1953): family resemblance: individuals share a frame if assumptions and expectations are similar. Bijker (1995) applied Wittengstein’s frame to sociocultural processes driven by science and technology (p. 123): 5/20
  17. 17. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions From Wittengstein (1953) to Bijker (1995) From Wittengstein (1953): family resemblance: individuals share a frame if assumptions and expectations are similar. Bijker (1995) applied Wittengstein’s frame to sociocultural processes driven by science and technology (p. 123): a technological frame (TF) comprises all elements that influence the interaction within relevant social groups and lead to the attribution of meaning to technical artifacts – and thus to constituting technology. 5/20
  18. 18. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions How technological frames are made 1 elements of interpretation: Wittengstein’s notion of frame; 2 elements of practice: practical constraints to be fronted in adopting the new technology. 6/20
  19. 19. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions How technological frames are made 1 elements of interpretation: Wittengstein’s notion of frame; 2 elements of practice: practical constraints to be fronted in adopting the new technology. Bijker (1995) applied to bicycles, bakelite and the fluorescent bulb. A more recente example can be email. 6/20
  20. 20. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions How technological frames are made 1 elements of interpretation: Wittengstein’s notion of frame; 2 elements of practice: practical constraints to be fronted in adopting the new technology. Bijker (1995) applied to bicycles, bakelite and the fluorescent bulb. A more recente example can be email. 1 elements of interpretation: to be literate in computing; 2 elements of practice: the need to have an internet connection. 6/20
  21. 21. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions ‘Social networking’ vs. ‘Knowledge management’ Knowledge management: 1 elements of interpretation: knowledge is something you manage 2 elements of practice: CMS, LMS, where knowledge is packed and producted by selected sources 7/20
  22. 22. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions ‘Social networking’ vs. ‘Knowledge management’ Knowledge management: 1 elements of interpretation: knowledge is something you manage 2 elements of practice: CMS, LMS, where knowledge is packed and producted by selected sources Social networking: 1 elements of interpretation: knowledge is something you cultivate 2 elements of practice: social computing environments (i.e., built on networks) 7/20
  23. 23. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions ‘Social networking’ vs. ‘Knowledge management’ Knowledge management: 1 elements of interpretation: knowledge is something you manage 2 elements of practice: CMS, LMS, where knowledge is packed and producted by selected sources Social networking: 1 elements of interpretation: knowledge is something you cultivate 2 elements of practice: social computing environments (i.e., built on networks) A process of sense-making naturalization can be established 7/20
  24. 24. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions Social Network Analysis (SNA) Pioneered by Levi Moreno (1977); Applied by Cross and Parker (2004) to organizations. Key results: problems are solved thanks to informal networks of people; these networks are totally different from the official hierarchy; the most relevant nodes (hubs) follow a power law distribution. 8/20
  25. 25. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions From organization charts to corporate social networks 9/20
  26. 26. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions How to find hubs and communication fluxes? SNA focus only to the elements of interpretations 10/20
  27. 27. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions The process of externalization in web 2.0 sites each person’s network becomes public and connected to the others; machine learning algorithms infer new nodes on tagging and structured data; eventually, virtual networks became real in communities of practice. people externalize their networks through web 2.0 sites; Externalization is a web 2.0 element of practice 11/20
  28. 28. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions The problem of boundaries Externalization leads to informal certification. 12/20
  29. 29. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions The problem of boundaries Externalization leads to informal certification. Key questions: 12/20
  30. 30. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions The problem of boundaries Externalization leads to informal certification. Key questions: Can we trust a professional because some people say he or she is trustworthy? 12/20
  31. 31. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions The problem of boundaries Externalization leads to informal certification. Key questions: Can we trust a professional because some people say he or she is trustworthy? Even if we actually don’t know him or her directly? 12/20
  32. 32. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions The problem of boundaries Externalization leads to informal certification. Key questions: Can we trust a professional because some people say he or she is trustworthy? Even if we actually don’t know him or her directly? 12/20
  33. 33. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions The problem of boundaries Externalization leads to informal certification. Key questions: Can we trust a professional because some people say he or she is trustworthy? Even if we actually don’t know him or her directly? Solution by LinkedIn: write public recommendations 12/20
  34. 34. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions The problem of boundaries Externalization leads to informal certification. Key questions: Can we trust a professional because some people say he or she is trustworthy? Even if we actually don’t know him or her directly? Solution by LinkedIn: write public recommendations Solution by Naymz: private one-minute survey about the trustworthiness of your contact gives a public reputations score 12/20
  35. 35. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions Endorsement needs trust Business-oriented web 2.0 communities informally certify endorsement, i.e., the public approval of formally certified competence. Examples of headlines: 13/20
  36. 36. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions Endorsement needs trust Business-oriented web 2.0 communities informally certify endorsement, i.e., the public approval of formally certified competence. Examples of headlines: Naymz: empower reputable professionals Ecademy: connect business people Xing: powers relationships for the world’s business professionals 13/20
  37. 37. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions Endorsement needs trust Business-oriented web 2.0 communities informally certify endorsement, i.e., the public approval of formally certified competence. Examples of headlines: Naymz: empower reputable professionals Ecademy: connect business people Xing: powers relationships for the world’s business professionals They are virtual places of trustworthiness 13/20
  38. 38. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions The notion of ‘authentic trust’ Solomon and Flores (2001) defined the notion of trust. 14/20
  39. 39. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions The notion of ‘authentic trust’ Solomon and Flores (2001) defined the notion of trust. authentic trust: an act performed by an agent, according to its interests and strategies, in a conditional, focused and limited context. 14/20
  40. 40. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions The notion of ‘authentic trust’ Solomon and Flores (2001) defined the notion of trust. authentic trust: an act performed by an agent, according to its interests and strategies, in a conditional, focused and limited context. Corollaries: it involves the establishment of a relationship; authentic trust is negotiable and conditional; the agent is aware of the risk of betrayal; Authentic trust solves the problem of boundaries 14/20
  41. 41. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions Misunderstandings of trust simple trust: naive, unconditioned, typical of children (no boundaries). 15/20
  42. 42. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions Misunderstandings of trust simple trust: naive, unconditioned, typical of children (no boundaries). blind trust: not considering any argument or even evidence against it (not negotiable, unconditional). 15/20
  43. 43. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions Misunderstandings of trust simple trust: naive, unconditioned, typical of children (no boundaries). blind trust: not considering any argument or even evidence against it (not negotiable, unconditional). trustworthiness: passive side of trust(ing), i.e., the belief(s) about the receiver (is he or she worth being trusted?) 15/20
  44. 44. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions Misunderstandings of trust simple trust: naive, unconditioned, typical of children (no boundaries). blind trust: not considering any argument or even evidence against it (not negotiable, unconditional). trustworthiness: passive side of trust(ing), i.e., the belief(s) about the receiver (is he or she worth being trusted?) reliance: machines are reliable, not trustworthy, as they don’t have interests of beliefs. 15/20
  45. 45. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions The case-study of BTicino SpA World-wide producer of electrical equipment in Varese (Italy). Needs: abrupt enlargement of the sales force; some people don’t know others; 16/20
  46. 46. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions The case-study of BTicino SpA World-wide producer of electrical equipment in Varese (Italy). Needs: abrupt enlargement of the sales force; some people don’t know others; Steps for the technological framework: a SNA was performed (elements of interpretation); design of an ad-hoc web environment (elements of practice); salespersons start to get in touch and trust each others. 16/20
  47. 47. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions The case-study of GAS ‘GAS’ or “Gruppo di Acquisto Solidale” (Solidarity Purchasing Group). Needs: reduce costs in buying food and commodities; people don’t know each other at all; 17/20
  48. 48. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions The case-study of GAS ‘GAS’ or “Gruppo di Acquisto Solidale” (Solidarity Purchasing Group). Needs: reduce costs in buying food and commodities; people don’t know each other at all; Technological framework: an old web site gives the appointment (elements of practice); people meet vis-`-vis (elements of interpretation). a 17/20
  49. 49. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions Comparison of the two cases BTicino: already settled community of practices (salespersons); they need a virtual place to meet; afterwards, they also meet in the real world. 18/20
  50. 50. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions Comparison of the two cases BTicino: already settled community of practices (salespersons); they need a virtual place to meet; afterwards, they also meet in the real world. GAS: people do want to form a community of practice; they use the web to launch meetings; they meet only in the real world. 18/20
  51. 51. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions Comparison of the two cases BTicino: already settled community of practices (salespersons); they need a virtual place to meet; afterwards, they also meet in the real world. GAS: people do want to form a community of practice; they use the web to launch meetings; they meet only in the real world. The two cases are complementary 18/20
  52. 52. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions Conclusions organizations deal with competence certification; their inner social networks informally certify endorsement; challenge: organizational models more flexible; risk: redefinition of roles, i.e., less need of control; 19/20
  53. 53. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions Conclusions organizations deal with competence certification; their inner social networks informally certify endorsement; challenge: organizational models more flexible; risk: redefinition of roles, i.e., less need of control; Most people gain, some heads lose if they don’t adapt 19/20
  54. 54. Introduction Technological Framework SNA and web 2.0 Informal certification Case-studies Conclusions Thank you. Any questions? Download these slides here: http://www.slideshare.net/goberiko/ (cc) F. Gobbo 2008. Published in Italy. Attribuzione – Non commerciale – Condividi allo stesso modo 2.5 20/20

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