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  • 1. Whipped Cream By Melissa Kovar Period 2
  • 2. Grandma's Chocolate Mousse
      • My favorite dessert of all time is my Grandma's Chocolate Mousse
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      • The main ingredient in the mousse which gives it it's delicious texture is whipped cream
      •   I decided to discover why whipped cream makes this dessert so tasty!
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  • 3. Special Qualities
    • Whipped Cream's special qualities are:
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      • The way it holds it's shape
      • It holds it's shape because of the butterfat or milkfat
      • This is made up of the fat that rises when you heat milk
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      • There are many acids in milkfat, but I decided to study the most common, Palmitic acid 
  • 4. Palmitic Acid
      • Palmitic acid makes up 31% of butterfat or milkfat
      • The chemical formula for Palmitic acid is CH 3 (CH 2 ) 14 COOH
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      • There are three chemicals in this compound:
    •              -Oxygen
    •              -Carbon
    •              -Hydrogen
  • 5. Oxygen History: Oxygen was said to come from the birth of Earth (Big Bang) Priestly was credited for it's discovery, however Scheele also discovered it independently.   Properties: The gas is colorless, odorless, and tasteless. The liquid and solid forms are a pale blue color and are strongly paramagnetic   Plants and animals rely on oxygen for respiration. Hospitals frequently prescribe oxygen for patients with respiratory ailments Atomic Number   8 Boiling Point     -182.95 Atomic Radius   66 Electron Configuration     [He]2s^2 2p^4 Atomic Symbol   O Oxidation State    -2 Melting Point     -218.79 Atomic Weight     15.9994
  • 6. Carbon
    • History: Carbon is an element of prehistoric discovery. It is found in abundance in the sun, stars, comets, and atmospheres of most planets.
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    • Properties:Carbon is found free in nature in three forms: graphite, diamond, and fullerines. A fourth form, known as "white" carbon, is now thought to exist. Ceraphite is one of the softest known materials while diamond is one of the hardest.
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    • Uses:
    • Without carbon, the basis for life would be impossible. While it has been thought that silicon might take the place of carbon in forming a host of similar compounds, it is now not possible to form stable compounds with very long chains of silicon atoms. The atmosphere of Mars contains 96.2% CO 2 . Some of the most important compounds of carbon are carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon disulfide (CS 2 ), chloroform (CHCl 3 ), carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ), methane (CH 4 ), ethylene (C 2 H 4 ), acetylene (C 2 H 2 ), benzene (C 6 H 6 ), acetic acid (CH 3 COOH), and their derivatives.
    There are close to ten million known carbon compounds, many thousands of which are vital to organic and life processes. Atomic Mass   6 Atomic Symbol   C Atomic Weight   12.011 Atomic Radius   77pm Boiling Point     3800�C (sublimation) Oxidation States   2, 4, -4 Melting Point   3550 �C (diamond) Electron Configuration   [He]2s^2 2p^2
  • 7. Hydrogen
    • History: Hydrogen was prepared many years before it was recognized as a distinct substance in 1776. The heavier elements were originally made from hydrogen atoms or from other elements that were originally made from hydrogen atoms, so basically, everything evolved from Hydrogen.
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    • Properties:uite apart from isotopes, it has been shown that under ordinary conditions hydrogen gas is a mixture of two kinds of molecules, known as ortho- and para-hydrogen, which differ from one another by the spins of their electrons and nuclei. 
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    • Uses: Liquid hydrogen is important in cryogenics and in the study of superconductivity, as its melting point is only 20 degrees above absolute zero.
    • Tritium is readily produced in nuclear reactors and is used in the production of the hydrogen bomb.
    • Hydrogen is the primary component of Jupiter and the other gas giant planets.   At some depth in the planet's interior the pressure is so great that solid molecular hydrogen is converted to solid metallic hydrogen .
    Atomic Mass   1 Atomic Radius   78pm Atomic Symbol   H Atomic Weight     1.0079 Melting Point     -259.34 Electron Configuration   1s Boiling Point     -252.87 Oxidation States   1, -1   
  • 8. What next?
    • Palmitic acid is highly explosive so it could be used to make construction more efficient.
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    • This picture is a Palmitic Acid crystal.
  • 9. Sources
    • http://periodic.lanl.gov/default.htm
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    • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Butterfat
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    • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palmitic_acid
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