Role of Agriculture in INDIA B.PAVAN SRI SAI 3rd class B section NARAYANA E TECHNO SCHOOL Kothapet Guntur, India
Contents of the presentation Introduction and background , Performance of Agriculture Role of small holding agriculture for food security and livelihoods--Technological innovations--institutional innovations
Introduction and background on Indian AgricultureIndia ‘s population is 1.21 billion in 2011. 67% arerural. Majority are in agriculture.Importance of agriculture in Indian economy. Althoughit contributes only 15% of GDP, the share of workersis about 55%.Major crops are rice, wheat, maize, coarse cereals,groundnut, cotton, sugarcane, fruits and vegetables60% of cultivated area is rainfed as only 40% of areais under irrigation.Rural poverty is 41%in 2004-05.Agriculture is a ‘State Subject’. In other words, thepolicies of provinces are also important
Performance of Agriculture Growth performance in agriculture%)1950-1 to 1964-5: 2.51 (area gro. +yield gro)1967-8 to 1980-1: 2.20 (yield gr. green revol)1980-1 to 1990-1: 3.07 (spread of green rev)1992-3 to 2004-5: 2.76 (reform period)1997-8 to 2004-5: 1.60 (neglect of agri.)2004-5 to 2010-1: 3.47 (revival of growth)
Institutional InnovationsWomen’s collectives: Women’s cooperatives,producer women’s groups and other forms of groupefforts (e.g. Deccan Development Society in AndhraPradesh).Gujarat put in place institutional environment fordevelopment of agriculture (e.g. Krishi Mohatsav).This Mohatsava serves as an institutional platform atthe village level and proved to be an important supportfor farmers.Similarly Andhra Pradesh: The Community ManagedSustainable Agriculture (CMSA) programme. Itaddresses the major causes of agricultural distressand help farmers in adopting sustainable agriculturalpractices. It covers 2.7 million acres and benefit 1.05million farmers
Institutional Innovations Institutions for Marketing of Small holders--There are several models: Contract farming, self help group model, co-operative model and producer co-operatives--One of the most successful producer organization is dairy cooperative with 12.3 million members.--Contract farming is also successful in some cases--Some examples of group approach are: Apni Mandi in Punjab and Rytu Bazar in Andhra Pradesh
Small farmers, value chains and SupermarketsWholesale, processing and retail segments aregrowing in India.In India, super market revolution is also catchingup. Average annual growth rate of top 10retailers during 2000-06 in India was 50%.Linking small farmers to super markets. Linkingfarmers with input suppliers, logistic suppliers,agro-processors and retailersIn those cases where small producers havebeen able to integrate into the supplying chains,supermarkets have offered enhanced securityand considerably higher margins than thetraditional clients, such as wholesales andgroceries
InstitutionsNew institutional approaches are needed to helpthe farmers e.g. formation of producer groups.One of the important policy issue is how to linksmall farmers to high value agriculture.There has been diversification of Indianagriculture away from foodgrains to pulses, edibleoils and to high value products like vegetables,fruits, milk, eggs, fish and meat products.Although foodgrains are important, future sourcesof growth and incomes are going to come fromhigh value agriculture.Being perishable, it needs fast movinginfrastructure and institutions.
Special Programmes for Farmers National Commission for Enterprises in the Unorganized sector (NCEUS) has advocated a special programme for marginal and small farmers. Objectives are: (1) to improve income prospects; (2) to improve the skill base; (3) provide income earning opportunities in the non-farm sector; (4) to ensure the needs of small farmers and adequately reflected in other agricultural and development programmes for livelihood security Principal activities proposed under the special programme are(a) Promotion of group approach to small farmers: It proposes setting up of Marginal and Small farmers’ development society (MSFDS) for the promotion, capacity building and coordination of development of
ConclusionsThere are six deficits in agriculture. These are: (a)investment, credit, infrastructure (b) research,extension (technology) (c) Market (d) diversification(e) institutions (f) education/skillFood security has been an overriding priority in India’since the 1960s. The focus paid off with attaining foodgrain security and poverty reduction.The strategy concentrated on rice and wheat inirrigated areas.The future growth will need to rely on a dual strategy ofdiversification into non-cereal high value crops andrainfed areas with focus on small farms.Basically investment and institution strategies have tofocus on small and marginal farmers, women farmers,rainfed areas, environmental stress, rural non-farmsector for sustainable agri-transformation.