G.N. TEWARI’SENGLISH GRAMMAR -MADE EASYEnglish Expression/Communication –i) Verbal or spokenii) WrittenFirst step is to decide what we want to say. Second step is to say it correctly, that is withi) Correct grammarii) Correct formation of sentence, and finallyiii) Correct pronunciation or spelling.Writing or speaking any language without the knowledge of grammar is like driving onthe road without the knowledge of traffic rules. The result – CRASH.Sometimes, same word with the same spelling may be used with different pronunciationand may mean differently. (For example – “I read” is used as Present and also Past tense.If pronounced like REED, then it is Present tense. If pronounced like RED, then it is Pasttense)Sometimes, different words with different spelling may be used with same pronunciationand may mean differently. (For example – “Made” and “Maid”)Meaning depends upon the context in which it is used.
PARTS OF SPEECH1. NOUN – Name of a person, place or thing( Examples – Ashok, man, Kanpur, city, Class, gold, honesty, men,girls, classes, baby, babies, boy’s, boys’)2. PRONOUN – Words which can be used to replace nouns( Examples – I, we, you, he, she, it, they, me, my, mine, us, our,your, yours, him, hers, its, them, theirs, myself,those, yourself, yourselves, who, which, whose, whom, what,many, all, others, few, any either, neither, each, none)3. ADJECTIVE – Word which qualifies a noun i.e. used to describe its speciality.( Examples – five, clever, that, thin, small, good, white, much, some)Some words may be either noun or adjective depending on the context.Examples – none, some, each, all, many4. ADVERB – Word which modifies a verb, adjective or another adverb.Simple Adverb – time, place, number, manner, degree, quantity, affirmative ornegativeTime – examples- today, tomorrow, daily, soon, whenPlace- here, there, in, out, up, downNumber- once, twice, again, always, after, How OFTENManner- soundly, clearly, bravely, cleverly, well(done)Degree or quantity- very, quite, pretty (well), almost (ripe), how muchAffirmative – certain, surelyNegative- I do not know. He never said so.Interrogative – When, where , why, howThree degrees of Adverbs -Positive – Early, late, near, fast, badly, far, much
Comparative – Earlier, later, nearer, faster, worse, farther, moreSuperlative – Earliest, latest, nearest, fastest, worst, farthest, most5. VERB -Sentence Formation – Must have (i) Subject (Noun/ Pronoun)(ii) VerbTensesINDEFINITE CONTINUOUS PERFECT PERFECTCONTINUOUSPRESENTTENSEI goYou goWe goHe goesShe goesIt goesThey goI am goingYou are goingWe are goingHe is goingShe is goingIt is goingThey are goingI have goneYou have goneWe have goneHe has goneShe has goneIt has goneThey have goneI have been goingYou have been goingWe have been goingHe has been goingShe has been goingIt has been goingThey have been goingINDEFINITE CONTINUOUS PERFECT PERFECTCONTINUOUSPAST TENSEI wentYou wentWe wentHe wentShe wentIt wentThey wentI was goingYou were goingWe were goingHe was goingShe was goingIt was goingThey were goingI had goneYou had goneWe had goneHe had goneShe had goneIt had goneThey had goneI had been goingYou had been goingWe had been goingHe had been goingShe had been goingIt had been goingThey had been going
INDEFINITE CONTINUOUS PERFECT PERFECTCONTINUOUSFUTURETENSEI shall goYou will goWe shall goHe will goShe will goIt will goThey will goI shall be goingYou will be goingWe shall be goingHe will be goingShe will be goingIt will be goingThey will be goingI shall have goneYou will have goneWe shall have goneHe will have goneShe will have goneIt will have goneThey will have goneI shall have been goingYou will have been goingWe shall have been goingHe will have been goingShe will have been goingIt will have been goingThey will have been goingWill & shall – These can be replaced with the other to convey certainty ordetermination.Auxiliary Verbs - used along with the main Verb – Is, am, are, was were, have,has, had, do, does, did, have been, had been.NEGATIVE SENTENCESTensesINDEFINITE CONTINUOUS PERFECT PERFECTCONTINUOUSPRESENTTENSEI do not goYou do not goWe do not goHe does not goShe does not goIt does not goThey do not goI am not goingYou are not goingWe are not goingHe is not goingShe is not goingIt is not goingThey are not goingI have not goneYou have not goneWe have not goneHe has not goneShe has not goneIt has not goneThey have not goneI have not been goingYou have not been goingWe have not been goingHe has not been goingShe has not been goingIt has not been goingThey have not been goingINDEFINITE CONTINUOUS PERFECT PERFECTCONTINUOUSPASTTENSEI did not goYou did not goWe did not goHe did not goShe did not goIt did not goThey did not goI was not goingYou were not goingWe were not goingHe was not goingShe was not goingIt was not goingThey were not goingI had not goneYou had not goneWe had not goneHe had not goneShe had not goneIt had not goneThey had not goneI had not been goingYou had not been goingWe had not been goingHe had not been goingShe had not been goingIt had not been goingThey had not been goingINDEFINITE CONTINUOUS PERFECT PERFECTCONTINUOUS
FUTURETENSEI shall not goYou will not goWe shall not goHe will not goShe will not goIt will not goThey will not goI shall not be goingYou will not be goingWe shall not be goingHe will not be goingShe will not be goingIt will not be goingThey will not be goingI shall not have goneYou will not have goneWe shall not have goneHe will not have goneShe will not have goneIt will not have goneThey will not havegoneI shall not have been goingYou will not have been goingWe shall not have been goingHe will not have been goingShe will not have been goingIt will not have been goingThey will not have been goingINTERROGATIVE SENTENCESTensesINDEFINITE CONTINUOUS PERFECT PERFECTCONTINUOUSPRESENTTENSEDo I go?Do you go?Do we go?Does he go?Does she go?Does it go?Do they go?Am I going?Are you going?Are we going?Is he going?Is she going?Is it going?Are they going?Have I gone?Have you gone?Have we gone?Has he gone?Has she gone?Has it gone?Have they gone?Have I been going?You have been going?We have been going?He has been going?She has been going?It has been going?They have been going?To correctINDEFINITE CONTINUOUS PERFECT PERFECTCONTINUOUSPASTTENSEDid I go?Did you go?Did we go?Did he go?Did she go?Did it go?Did they go?Was I going?Are you going?Are we going?Is he going?Is she going?Is it going?Are they going?Had I gone?Had you gone?Had we gone?Had he gone?Had she gone?Had it gone?Had they gone?Had I been going?Had you been going?Had we been going?Had he been going?Had she been going?Had it been going?Had They been going?INDEFINITE CONTINUOUS PERFECT PERFECTCONTINUOUS
FUTURETENSEShall I go?Will You go?Shall We go?Will He go?Will She go?Will It go?Will They go?Shall I be going?Will You be going?Shell We be going?Will He be going?Will She be going?Will It be going?Will They begoing?Shall I have gone?Will You have gone?Shall We have gone?Will He have gone ?Will She have gone?Will It have gone?Will They havegone?I shall have been goingYou will have been goingWe shall have been goingHe will have been goingShe will have been goingIt will have been goingThey will have been going6. PREPOSITION –Preposition is a word used with a noun or pronoun showing relationship withanother thing.Examples – In , out, at, of, by, from, to, into, off, out, till, for, up, about, acrossamong, between, beside, before, after, since, till, until, with, without, through.Phase Prepositions – According to, in spite of, on account of, with reference to, inaddition to, due to.7. CONJUNCTIONConjunction joins two words or two sentences –Examples - And, while, but, when, if, as , after, before, because, if, where,although, though, lest, how, that, till, until, unless, than, since, yet.8. INTERJECTIONExclamation !Examples – Hurrah, Alas, Hush, Bravo, Ah, Oh, HelloSign of exclamation is put after the word.
ACTIVE / PASSIVE VOICEActive – I did this work.Passive – This work was done by me.DIRECT / INDIRECT SPEECHDirect – Ramesh says “ I shall buy a scooter”.Indirect – Ramesh says that he will buy a scooter.Direct – Ram said “I am very busy today”.Indirect – Ram told that he was very busy on that day.CAN / MAYCOULD / MIGHTI can do this work / I could do this work - It means I have capability to do this workI may do this work / I might do this work - It shows that there is a possibility ofdoing this work.Gerund - Walking is useful.Simple Infinitive – To walk is useful.