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Theme 4   the english in north america
Theme 4   the english in north america
Theme 4   the english in north america
Theme 4   the english in north america
Theme 4   the english in north america
Theme 4   the english in north america
Theme 4   the english in north america
Theme 4   the english in north america
Theme 4   the english in north america
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Theme 4 the english in north america

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  • 1. Gregory Mann History 140 / Spring 2011 English Colonies of North America: Virginia Chesapeake Colonies
  • 2. Chapter 6 – Virginia <ul><li>The 1580’s English colonization began in the mid-Atlantic area which had been abandoned by Spain and France. </li></ul><ul><li>Colonization was privatized as the English government did not have the wealth to colonize the New World on its own due to the war with Spain so they allowed privateers like Sir Walter Raleigh and Sir Francis Drake to colonize the New World. </li></ul><ul><li>The West Countrymen first promoted a plan to export the poor and vagrants to build wealth for the King and clean up London at the same time. </li></ul><ul><li>Roanoke, the first colony in Virginia, failed due to location which had was unfertile soil and lack of financial support. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1606, after James I took the Crown, the Virginia Company was started by London-based private investors. There first attempt at a colony was Jamestown 60 miles up the James river. After nine months, only 38 of the original 104 were alive. The colonists were dying more rapidly than reinforcements could arrive. Jamestown was situated next to a swamp which was good for defense, but contributed highly to disease. </li></ul>
  • 3. Chapter 6 – Virginia <ul><li>Virginia was home to the Algonquian Indians. Powhatan was their Chief/ruler. </li></ul><ul><li>Powhatan who was unable to know what lay ahead thought he could rule the whites, but they insisted only on assimilation. </li></ul><ul><li>Preferring to look for gold, the Colonists thought the Indians needed to supply them with food. The promoters of the colonies had promised the fortune hunters that the locals would welcome them with open arms, generosity and submission. Violence erupted as colonists demanded more and more from the Algonquians. </li></ul><ul><li>This is where we get the story of John Smith and Pocahontas. During a mock execution in which John Smiths subordinates would submit to Powhatan, Pocahontas stopped the proceedings. John Smith was released and proceeded with his bullying of the local Indians. </li></ul><ul><li>Powhatan died a year later and his tribe was taken over by Opechancanough. He despised the English and fought them for many more years. </li></ul>
  • 4. Chapter 6 – Virginia <ul><li>By 1616, the Virginia Company had transported over 1700 people into Chesapeake Bay and </li></ul><ul><li>had only 350 diseased and hungry colonists. They needed to make adjustments as they </li></ul><ul><li>struggling financially and deeply in debt. </li></ul><ul><li>The first thing they did was give control of the land to the laborers allowing them to own land as private property. They also established a system where emigrants received 50 acres of land if they could pay their passage across the Atlantic. </li></ul><ul><li>Led by John Rolfe, the colonists started growing tobacco which primarily was a crop grown in the West Indies. The Virginia colonies were soon exporting more tobacco to England than the West Indies. As tobacco cultivation grew, so did the population. They stole more rich soil from the Indians who were forced to migrate westward or fight back. </li></ul><ul><li>The Virginia Company soon fell to bankruptcy due to loss of revenue from the Indian wars and the English government soon took over Virginia as the first royal colony. </li></ul>Colonial tobacco farm
  • 5. <ul><li>Unlike the Spanish and French, the English sent no missionaries to convert Indians of Virginia. The English thought they could indoctrinate to their Protestant Christianity through regular church services after making them economic subordinates. </li></ul><ul><li>The English insisted that their economic self-interest served God because they were improving the wilderness into productive farmland. </li></ul><ul><li>Just as in Ireland, the English colonial leaders maintained a sense of cultural superiority and therefore justified their treatment of the Indians as for the greater good. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1632, the crown set aside land to the North of Chesapeake Bay that was named Maryland after the Queen of England, Charles I wife. Maryland did very well as a colony due to its tobacco trade. At the cost of many lives, the English had their foothold into the New World and were prospering. To the Indians though the English were nothing more than foreign invaders that managed to destroy their way of living. </li></ul>Chapter 6 – Virginia
  • 6. <ul><li>In the Chesapeake Colonies, tobacco farming became the way of life. Since tobacco crops needed to be tended nine months of the year, some tobacco planters bought African slaves. At first, the slaves were not very cost affective due to there mortality rate of five years. English servants comprised most of the laborers in the seventeenth century. </li></ul><ul><li>Trying to get as much work as possible out of a laborer, the planters commonly resorted to the whipping thinking that fear and pain would motivate servants. Some laborers would bring charges onto the planters, but the courts would always side with the elite masters and extend their time of servitude. </li></ul><ul><li>Soon the Chesapeake colonies were prospering again and the people were acquiring immunities to the local diseases. Freed servants were finally able to acquire land which was becoming available due to peace with local Indians. The colonists still had lower life expectancy and had less possessions than there English counterparts and During the Tobacco boom of the 1660’s and 1670’s there was not much to complain about from the colonists around Chesapeake Bay. </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually the price of tobacco dropped because the English government forced the planters to use only English merchant ships and not Dutch ships to export Tobacco to England. This restriction flooded the English market. </li></ul><ul><li>The New World was no longer a land of opportunity unless you wanted to chance living on the frontier borders. </li></ul>Chapter 7 – Chesapeake Colonies
  • 7. <ul><li>In 1676, a rebellion forced the establishment to rethink its policies after the leading class quickly squashed it. They rapidly switched laborers from white indentured servants to African slaves. </li></ul><ul><li>In the Chesapeake Colonies the Royal crown shared power with the wealthy proprietors. These properties refused to pay taxes unless authorized by their own elected assembly. </li></ul><ul><li>The Chesapeake colonists had a four tier government with the King at the top, then the Governor, under him was the County Court and Parish Vestry which was made up of the wealthiest land owners. On the bottom of the power pyramid was the family household, or actually the man of the house since he was the only one in a family that could own land and vote. This was known as patriarchal power. </li></ul>Chapter 7 – Chesapeake Colonies
  • 8. Chapter 7 – Chesapeake Colonies <ul><li>The Chesapeake colony slipped into a Plantation society during the 1670’s as tobacco prices fell and taxes were raised to cover costs of corruption in local governments. </li></ul><ul><li>The great planters saw this as a time to restructure the government to one which met the needs of the common person. </li></ul><ul><li>Lower taxes and better prices made life more bearable for the common planters. </li></ul><ul><li>The great planters, although still shallow and materialistic, had begun to respect the common planter and their contribution to colonial society. </li></ul>
  • 9. Chapter 7 – Chesapeake Colonies <ul><li>White servants gained freedom, received land and were replaced by African slaves who were brought to the New World at the end of the Seventeenth century due to the loss of laborers coming from England. They eventually made up 40% of the population. </li></ul><ul><li>In the beginning Black slaves were treated like indentured servants. They were freed after years of service. But in the late seventeenth century, slavery was more defined and thus the rights of Black slaves were severally restricted. Supposedly to insure security, numerous laws were imposed on the blacks resulting in racial differences and leading to a perceived racial superiority by whites. </li></ul><ul><li>The slave trade furthered the wealth of the elite. The wealthy were able to afford huge labor forces of slaves, while the small farmer had to rely on his family and common whites without property were pushed into the frontier searching for new opportunity. </li></ul>

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