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Energy flow Warm tropical climate provide a lot of solar energy for photosynthesis Mangrove litter dropped on the ground is consumed by crabs, shrimps and fish
Energy flow The small animals are then eaten by larger fish and then by resident and migrant birds (egrets and spoonbills) The litter that is not consumed is decomposed in the soil
Example The fish ponds and gei wais in South China The marsh provides shelter for juvenile and larval animals such as shrimps and fish Litters, small plants and animals provide food for these animals in the ponds The animal wastes and litter enrich the soil with nutrient
Nutrient cycling The sea and rivers carry nutrients to the shore The nutrients are absorbed by mangrove plants and seagrasses and algae. The nutrient is then transferred to the consumers such as crabs, fish and shrimps then transferred to human beings, birds and large fish
Nutrient cycling The dead bodies and litter are decomposed by micro-organisms in the soil Nutrient is released to the soil and sea water
Utilization and threats Marsh lands have been dredged and vegetation removed to form fish ponds They have been developed into recreational grounds for fishing and barbecue This provides income and can make better use of mangrove resource.
Threats Increase in demand for land in coastal areas. – For industrial and residential development – Recreational use Environmental pollution around the wetland Other threats?