Hk mangrove ecosystem

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Introduce common plants and animals in mangrove

Introduce common plants and animals in mangrove

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  • 1. Mangrove ecosystem
  • 2. What are mangroves? Mangroves consists of different kinds of plants living on protected soft shores
  • 3. Northeast New Territories
  • 4. Environment
  • 5. Tidal zone
  • 6. Soil in anaerobic condition
  • 7. Distribution In tropical region between 20ºN and 20ºS where the annual temperature is above 20 degrees
  • 8. Environment Highly unstable environment as sedimentation is active but the soil is not consolidated Waterlogged soil, so aeration is poor In high salinity environment
  • 9. Plants Plants adapt to the soft sea shore where mud and sand are deposited Root buttresses and stilt roots develop
  • 10. Mai Po Marsh
  • 11. Common mangrove plants Kandelia candel Avicennia marina Lumnitzera Racemosa Bruguiera gymnorrhiza Heritiera littoralis Aegiceras corniculatum
  • 12. Salt released on leaves
  • 13. Avicennia marina
  • 14. Lumnitzera Racemosa
  • 15. PneumatophoresAvicennia marina
  • 16. PneumatophoresAvicennia marina
  • 17. Knee roots
  • 18. Buttress roots
  • 19. Derris trifoliata in Lai Chi Wo
  • 20. Heritiera littoralis
  • 21. Droppers
  • 22. CerberaManghas
  • 23. Animals Crabs - fiddler crabs and sesarmine crabs Oysters and barnacles Gastropods
  • 24. Animals Mudskippers live between the high- tide and low-tide level. They can live without water for days Fish and shrimps larval
  • 25. Mudskipper
  • 26. Mudskipper
  • 27. Mudskipper
  • 28. Fiddler Crab (Uca borealis)
  • 29. Crab
  • 30. Crab
  • 31. Fish
  • 32. Egret
  • 33. Energy flow Warm tropical climate provide a lot of solar energy for photosynthesis Mangrove litter dropped on the ground is consumed by crabs, shrimps and fish
  • 34. Energy flow The small animals are then eaten by larger fish and then by resident and migrant birds (egrets and spoonbills) The litter that is not consumed is decomposed in the soil
  • 35. Example The fish ponds and gei wais in South China The marsh provides shelter for juvenile and larval animals such as shrimps and fish Litters, small plants and animals provide food for these animals in the ponds The animal wastes and litter enrich the soil with nutrient
  • 36. Nutrient cycling The sea and rivers carry nutrients to the shore The nutrients are absorbed by mangrove plants and seagrasses and algae. The nutrient is then transferred to the consumers such as crabs, fish and shrimps then transferred to human beings, birds and large fish
  • 37. Nutrientcycling
  • 38. Nutrient cycling The dead bodies and litter are decomposed by micro-organisms in the soil Nutrient is released to the soil and sea water
  • 39. Utilization and threats Marsh lands have been dredged and vegetation removed to form fish ponds They have been developed into recreational grounds for fishing and barbecue This provides income and can make better use of mangrove resource.
  • 40. Threats Increase in demand for land in coastal areas. – For industrial and residential development – Recreational use Environmental pollution around the wetland Other threats?
  • 41. Tin Shui Wai
  • 42. Yuen Long Industrial Estate