Research Data Management for Researchers: Module 1: Intro to Data, Metadata and the Research Data Lifecycle
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Research Data Management for Researchers: Module 1: Intro to Data, Metadata and the Research Data Lifecycle

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Research Data Management for Researchers: Module 1: Intro to Data, Metadata and the Research Data Lifecycle Research Data Management for Researchers: Module 1: Intro to Data, Metadata and the Research Data Lifecycle Presentation Transcript

  • Research Data Management for Researchers: Module 1: Intro to Data, Metadata and the Research Data Lifecycle —DRAFT— Glen Newton∗ Paul Budkewitsch† ∗ Glen.Newton@gmail.com † Paul.Budkewitsch@nrcan-rncan.gc.ca 1 / 79
  • Outline Some definitions Some definitions Data Sharing Research & Research Data Sharing Data Lifecycle Research Data Research & Research Data Lifecycle Complexity Data Archiving Research Data Complexity Data Management Roles Data Archiving Next Modules Data Management Roles Next Modules 2 / 79
  • Some definitions Some definitions What is: Data Sharing Research & Research s Research? Data Lifecycle s Research Data? Research Data Complexity s Research & Research Data Life Cycles? Data Archiving Data Management Roles Next Modules 3 / 79
  • Some definitions Data Sharing Research & Research Data Lifecycle Research Data Complexity Data Archiving Data Management Roles Next Modules Data Sharing 4 / 79
  • Data is becoming more important Some definitions In the past, more emphasis was given to publications. Data Sharing This is changing. Research & Research Data Lifecycle Research Data Complexity Data Archiving Data Management Roles Next Modules 5 / 79
  • Diepenbroek, M., Schindler, U., Grobe, H. 2008. PANGAEA - An ICSU World Data Center as a Networked Publication and Library System for Geoscientific Data http://hdl.handle.net/10013/epic.28613
  • Research Data Disappears Some definitions s The status quo is for most research data to (eventually) disappear: Data Sharing except for large well organized projects, historically most research Research & Research Data Lifecycle data collected has already disappeared. Research Data s Not through malice, just through mismanagement or more Complexity Data Archiving accurately a lack of management Data Management Roles Next Modules 7 / 79
  • Degradation in information content associated with data and metadata over time Status quo Information Content of Data and Metadata Time of publication Specific details about problems with individual items or specific dates of collection are lost relatively rapidly General details about the data collection are lost through time Retirement or career change makes access by scientists to “mental storage” difficult or unlikely Accident may destroy Death of investigator and subse- data and documentation quent loss of remaining records Time ´ de la Sablonniere, Auger, Sabourin and Newton. 2010. Facilitating Data Sharing in the Behavioral Sciences. Submitted to Data Science Journal. After Michener et al. 1997, Nongeospatial Metadata for the Ecological Sciences. Ecological Applications 7:1:330-342 10.1890/1051-0761(1997)007[0330:NMFTES]2.0.CO;2
  • Why Share data? Some definitions s encourages scientific enquiry and debate Data Sharing s enables scrutiny of research outcomes Research & Research Data Lifecycle s facilitates research beyond the scope of the original research Research Data s leads to new collaborations between data users and data creators Complexity Data Archiving s reduces the cost of duplicating data collection Data Management Roles s provides important resources for education and training Next Modules s encourages the improvement and validation of research methods s promotes the research that created the data and its outcomes s can provide a direct credit to the researcher as a research output in its own right 9 / 79
  • Benefits of Data Sharing Some definitions “Within this new technological context, more widespread and efficient access Data Sharing to and sharing of research data will have substantial benefits for public Research & Research Data Lifecycle scientific research. Open access to, and sharing of, data reinforces open Research Data scientific inquiry, encourages diversity of analysis and opinion, promotes new Complexity research, makes possible the testing of new or alternative hypotheses and Data Archiving methods of analysis, supports studies on data collection methods and Data Management Roles measurement, facilitates the education of new researchers, enables the Next Modules exploration of topics not envisioned by the initial investigators, and permits the creation of new data sets when data from multiple sources are combined. Sharing and open access to publicly funded research data not only helps to maximize the research potential of new digital technologies and networks, but provides greater returns from the public investment in research.” OECD. 2003. Promoting Access to Public Research Data for Scientific, Economic, and Social Development: OECD Follow Up Group on Issues of Access to Publicly Funded Research Data. http://dataaccess.ucsd.edu/Final Report 2003.pdf 10 / 79
  • Unpredicted re–use of data Some definitions s Data often has value beyond that planned or even imagined by the Data Sharing collector of the data Research & Research Data Lifecycle s And combining it with other data can often support the discovery of Research Data emergent processes Complexity Data Archiving Data Management Roles Next Modules 11 / 79
  • Unpredicted re–use of data Some definitions What is the following? Data Sharing Research & Research Data Lifecycle Research Data Complexity Data Archiving Data Management Roles Next Modules 12 / 79
  • Page from a ship’s log Some definitions New Zealand, October 1769 Data Sharing Research & Research Data Lifecycle Research Data Complexity Data Archiving Data Management Roles Next Modules 14 / 79
  • These are Captain James Cook’s logs Some definitions “His Majestys Bark [a type of ship] Endeavour on Her Passage On the Data Sharing Coast of New Zealand from Poverty Bay to Southw Research & Research Data Lifecycle October 15th 1769; Course: S 20 ◦ E; Winds: Vary; Location: Research Data 39◦ 50 180◦ 51 ; Moderate and fair weather...thunder and spitting Complexity Data Archiving rain...” — Log 39, page 79. UK National Archives Data Management Roles s Record of date, time, location (lat/long), the sea conditions and Next Modules local weather conditions s Now being mined by JISC, the University of Sunderland, the Met Office Hadley Centre and the British Atmospheric Data Centre for climate change research1 1 http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/news/stories/371.htm 17 / 79
  • Some definitions Data Sharing Research & Research Data Lifecycle Research Data Complexity Data Archiving Data Management Roles Next Modules Research & Research Data Lifecycle 19 / 79
  • Research & Research Data Lifecycle Some definitions Various perspectives Data Sharing Research & Research Data Lifecycle Research Data Complexity Data Archiving Data Management Roles Next Modules 20 / 79
  • Pepe,A. & Mayernik, M & Borgman, C. & Van de Sompel, H. Technology to Represent Scientific Practice: Data, Life Cycles, and Value Chains http://arxiv.org/abs/0906.2549
  • Lord, P., A. Macdonald, L. Lyon & D. Giarretta. 2004. From Data Deluge to Data Curation. In Proceedings of the UK e-science http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/ukoln/staff/e.j.lyon/150.pdf
  • Lyon, L. 2007. Dealing with Data: Roles, Rights, Responsibilities and Relationships http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/ukoln/staff/e.j.lyon/reports/dealing with data report-final.pdf
  • Humphrey, C. 2006. e-Science and the Life Cycle of Research http://datalib.library.ualberta.ca/∼humphrey/lifecycle-science060308.doc
  • Interagency Working Group on Digital Data. 2009. Harnessing the Power of Digital Data for Science and Society http://www.whitehouse.gov/files/documents/ostp/opengov inbox/harnessing power web.pdf
  • Very complete view: Bechhofer, S. & D. Roure & M. Gamble & C. Goble & I. Buchan. 2010. Research Objects: Towards Exchange and Reuse of Digital Knowledge. Nature Preceedings. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/npre.2010.4626.1
  • Some definitions Data Sharing Research & Research Data Lifecycle Research Data Complexity Data Archiving Data Management Roles Next Modules Research Data Complexity 27 / 79
  • Research Data Complexity Some definitions s Data Data Sharing s Metadata Research & Research Data Lifecycle s Transformations (derived data/metadata), combinations Research Data s More Metadata Complexity Data Archiving Data Management Roles Next Modules 28 / 79
  • Research Data Complexity Some definitions Real research projects can have extremely complex data collection and Data Sharing management needs. Research & Research Data Lifecycle Research Data Complexity Data Archiving Data Management Roles Next Modules 29 / 79
  • Wallis, J. 2008. Moving Archival Practices Upstream: An Exploration of the Life Cycle of Ecological Sensing Data in Collaborative Field Research Lineage Retrieval for Scientific Data Processing: A Survey. The International Journal of Digital Curation 1:3 http://www.ijdc.net/index.php/ijdc/article/view/67
  • Research Data Complexity Some definitions Data collection and management complexity are effected by a number Data Sharing of factors. For example: Research & Research Data Lifecycle s multiple researchers Research Data s multiple teams Complexity s inter– and multi– disciplinary Data Archiving s multiple jurisdictions Data Management Roles s multiple funding agencies Next Modules s multiple types of funding agencies (government, industry, philanthropic) s long term projects s human subjects s multiple/competing vocabularies/ontologies/metadata standards s data formats, data transformation, data quality control 31 / 79
  • What is Metadata? Some definitions “Metadata is structured information that describes, explains, locates, or Data Sharing otherwise makes it easier to retrieve, use, or manage an information Research & Research Data Lifecycle resource. Metadata is often called data about data or information about Research Data information.” Complexity Data Archiving Data Management Roles Next Modules NISO. 2004. Understanding Metadata. http://http://www.ijdc.net/index.php/ijdc/article/view/67 32 / 79
  • What is Metadata? Some definitions Three main types of metadata: Data Sharing Research & Research s “Descriptive metadata describes a resource for purposes such as Data Lifecycle discovery and identification. It can include elements such as title, Research Data Complexity abstract, author, and keywords.” Data Archiving s “Structural metadata indicates how compound objects are put Data Management Roles together, for example, how pages are ordered to form chapters. “ Next Modules s “Administrative metadata provides information to help manage a resource, such as when and how it was created, file type and other technical information, and who can access it.” NISO. 2004. Understanding Metadata. http://http://www.ijdc.net/index.php/ijdc/article/view/67 33 / 79
  • What is Metadata? Some definitions Administrative metadata usually divided into two types: Data Sharing Research & Research s “Rights management metadata, which deals with intellectual Data Lifecycle property rights.” Research Data Complexity s “Preservation metadata, which contains information needed to Data Archiving archive and preserve a resource.” Data Management Roles Next Modules NISO. 2004. Understanding Metadata. http://http://www.ijdc.net/index.php/ijdc/article/view/67 34 / 79
  • Research Data Complexity Some definitions Real research projects often have data that is described by many Data Sharing metadata standards Research & Research Data Lifecycle Research Data Complexity Data Archiving Data Management Roles Next Modules 35 / 79
  • Brandt, D.S. 2007. Data, research, metadata, metaresearch. ACRL/STS, ALA annual meeting http://ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/acrl/about/sections/sts/programs/annual2007programs/brandt.pdf
  • Research Data Complexity Some definitions As data is transformed, translated, filtered, combined with other data in Data Sharing a research data workflow, lineage or provenance metadata can capture Research & Research Data Lifecycle the nature of these changes. Research Data Complexity Data Archiving Data Management Roles Next Modules 37 / 79
  • Bose, R. & Frew, J. 2005. Lineage Retrieval for Scientific Data Processing: A Survey. ACM Computing Surveys 37:1 http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1057977.1057978
  • Research Data Complexity Some definitions Some of these work flows can be very complex. Data Sharing Research & Research Data Lifecycle Research Data Complexity Data Archiving Data Management Roles Next Modules 39 / 79
  • Davidson, S. & Freire, J. 2008. Provenance and scientific workflows: challenges and opportunities. SIGMOD ’08: Proceedings of the 2008 ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1376616.1376772
  • Freire,J. & Koop, D. & Santos, E. & Silva, C.T. 2008. Provenance for Computational Tasks: A Survey. Computing in Science & Engineering http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MCSE.2008.79
  • Barga, R. & Digiampietri,L. 2008. Automatic capture and efficient storage of e-Science experiment provenance. Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience 20:5:419-429 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpe.1235
  • Bowers, S. & McPhillips, T. & Ludscher, B. 2008. Provenance in collection-oriented scientific workflows. Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience 20:5:519-529 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpe.1235
  • Research Data Complexity Some definitions Some transformations can cause metadata to become data! Data Sharing Research & Research Data Lifecycle Research Data Complexity Data Archiving Data Management Roles Next Modules 44 / 79
  • Jones, M. and Schildhauer, P. and Reichman, O. and Bowers, Shawn. 2006. The New Bioinformatics: Integrating Ecological Data from the Gene to the Biosphere. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 37:1:519-544. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.37.091305.110031
  • Some definitions Data Sharing Research & Research Data Lifecycle Research Data Complexity Data Archiving Data Management Roles Next Modules Data Archiving 46 / 79
  • Data Archiving Some definitions s Medium Data Sharing s Migration Research & Research Data Lifecycle Research Data Complexity Data Archiving Data Management Roles Next Modules 47 / 79
  • Medium Some definitions s The physical storage medium – both for analog and digital storage Data Sharing of information – has an expected lifespan. Research & Research Data Lifecycle s Digital media can deteriorate and alter the underlying data (bits) of Research Data files well before their expected end of life Complexity Data Archiving Data Management Roles Next Modules 48 / 79
  • Miller, S. 2002. Bridging the Gap between Libraries and Data Archives: Progress Report. Presentation at Joint Informations Systems Committee (JISC, UK) and NSF Digital Libraries Initiative All Projects Meeting, Edinburgh, Scotland. http://gdc.ucsd.edu:8080/digarch/about-project/presentations/edinburgh2002/view
  • Medium Some definitions Any single project can have a number of initial physical media. Data Sharing Research & Research Data Lifecycle Research Data Complexity Data Archiving Data Management Roles Next Modules 50 / 79
  • Diepenbroek, M., Schindler, U., Grobe, H. 2008. PANGAEA - An ICSU World Data Center as a Networked Publication and Library System for Geoscientific Data http://hdl.handle.net/10013/epic.28613
  • Migration Some definitions s Before the end–of–life of a medium, its contents need to be copied Data Sharing reliably (bits verified) to a new medium (the same kind or different) Research & Research Data Lifecycle s The provenance metadata needs to be updated when this occurs Research Data s Sometimes the ability to read the old medium is difficult or not Complexity Data Archiving possible, as the technology has progressed and due to the lack of Data Management Roles availability of the appropriate working readers (i.e. 9–track tape Next Modules readers) 52 / 79
  • Some definitions Data Sharing Research & Research Data Lifecycle Research Data Complexity Data Archiving Data Management Roles Next Modules Data Management Roles 53 / 79
  • Data Management Roles Some definitions Understanding roles in the research data workflow is helpful in Data Sharing succcessfully managing data. Research & Research Data Lifecycle Research Data Complexity Data Archiving Data Management Roles Next Modules 54 / 79
  • Data Management Roles Some definitions One view: Data Sharing Research & Research Data Lifecycle Research Data Complexity Data Archiving Data Management Roles Next Modules 55 / 79
  • Pryor, G. & Donnelly, M. 2009. Skilling Up to Do Data: Whose Role, Whose Responsibility, Whose Career? International Journal of Digital Curation 4:2 http://www.ijdc.net/index.php/ijdc/article/view/126
  • Roles & Responsibilities: Another view Some definitions Liz Lyon, Director, United Kingdom Office for Library and Information Data Sharing Networking (UKOLN) Research & Research Data Lifecycle s Scientist: creation and use of data Research Data Complexity s Institution: curation of and access to data Data Archiving s Data centre: curation of and access to data Data Management Roles s User: use of 3rd party data Next Modules s Funder: set/react to public policy drivers s Publisher: maintain integrity of the scientific record Directly from: Lyon, L. 2007. Dealing with Data: Roles, Rights, Responsibilities and Relationships http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/ukoln/staff/e.j.lyon/reports/dealing with data report-final.pdf 57 / 79
  • Roles & Responsibilities: Scientist Some definitions s Rights: Data Sharing Research & Research x Of first use. Data Lifecycle x To be acknowledged. Research Data x To expect IPR to be honoured. Complexity x To receive data training and advice. Data Archiving Data Management Roles s Responsibilities: Next Modules x Manage data for life of project. x Meet standards for good practice. x Comply with funder / institutional data policies and respect IPR of others. x Work up data for use by others. Directly from: Lyon, L. 2007. Dealing with Data: Roles, Rights, Responsibilities and Relationships http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/ukoln/staff/e.j.lyon/reports/dealing with data report-final.pdf 58 / 79
  • Roles & Responsibilities: Scientist (cont.) Some definitions s Relationships: Data Sharing Research & Research x With institution as employee. Data Lifecycle x With subject community Research Data x With data centre. Complexity x With funder of work. Data Archiving Data Management Roles Directly from: Lyon, L. 2007. Dealing with Data: Roles, Rights, Responsibilities and Relationships Next Modules http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/ukoln/staff/e.j.lyon/reports/dealing with data report-final.pdf 59 / 79
  • Roles & Responsibilities: Institution Some definitions s Rights: Data Sharing Research & Research x To be offered a copy of data. Data Lifecycle s Responsibilities: Research Data Complexity x Set internal data management policy. Data Archiving x Manage data in the short term. Data Management Roles x Meet standards for good practice. Next Modules x Provide training and advice to support scientists. x Promote the repository service. s Relationships: x With scientist as employer. x With data centre through expert staff. Directly from: Lyon, L. 2007. Dealing with Data: Roles, Rights, Responsibilities and Relationships http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/ukoln/staff/e.j.lyon/reports/dealing with data report-final.pdf 60 / 79
  • Roles & Responsibilities: Data Centre Some definitions s Rights: Data Sharing Research & Research x To be offered a copy of data. Data Lifecycle x To select data of long-term value. Research Data Complexity s Responsibilities: Data Archiving x Manage data for the long-term. Data Management Roles x Meet standards for good practice. Next Modules x Provide training for deposit. x Promote the repository service. x Protect rights of data contributors. x Provide tools for re-use of data. Directly from: Lyon, L. 2007. Dealing with Data: Roles, Rights, Responsibilities and Relationships http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/ukoln/staff/e.j.lyon/reports/dealing with data report-final.pdf 61 / 79
  • Roles & Responsibilities: Data Centre (cont.) Some definitions s Relationships: Data Sharing Research & Research x With scientist as client Data Lifecycle x With user communities. Research Data x With institution through expert staff. Complexity x With funder of service. Data Archiving Data Management Roles Directly from: Lyon, L. 2007. Dealing with Data: Roles, Rights, Responsibilities and Relationships Next Modules http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/ukoln/staff/e.j.lyon/reports/dealing with data report-final.pdf 62 / 79
  • Roles & Responsibilities: User Some definitions s Rights: Data Sharing Research & Research x To re-use data (non-exclusive licence). Data Lifecycle x To access quality metadata to inform usability. Research Data Complexity s Responsibilities: Data Archiving x Abide by licence conditions. Data Management Roles x Acknowledge data creators / curators. Next Modules x Manage derived data effectively. s Relationships: x With data centre as supplier. x With institution as supplier. Directly from: Lyon, L. 2007. Dealing with Data: Roles, Rights, Responsibilities and Relationships http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/ukoln/staff/e.j.lyon/reports/dealing with data report-final.pdf 63 / 79
  • Roles & Responsibilities: Funder (1/2) Some definitions s Rights: Data Sharing Research & Research x To implement data policies. Data Lifecycle x To require those they fund to meet policy obligations. Research Data Complexity s Responsibilities: Data Archiving x Consider wider public-policy perspective & stakeholder needs Data Management Roles x Participate in strategy co-ordination. Next Modules x Develop policies with stakeholders. x Participate in policy co-ordination, joint planning & fund service delivery. x Monitor and enforce data policies. Directly from: Lyon, L. 2007. Dealing with Data: Roles, Rights, Responsibilities and Relationships http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/ukoln/staff/e.j.lyon/reports/dealing with data report-final.pdf 64 / 79
  • Roles & Responsibilities: Funder (2/2) Some definitions s Responsibilities (cont.): Data Sharing Research & Research x Resource post-project long-term data management. Data Lifecycle x Act as advocate for data curation & fund expert advisory service(s). Research Data x Support workforce capacity development of data curators. Complexity Data Archiving s Relationships: Data Management Roles x With scientist as funder. Next Modules x With institution. x With data centre as funder. x With other funders. x With other stakeholders as policy-maker and funder of services. Directly from: Lyon, L. 2007. Dealing with Data: Roles, Rights, Responsibilities and Relationships http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/ukoln/staff/e.j.lyon/reports/dealing with data report-final.pdf 65 / 79
  • Roles & Responsibilities: Publisher Some definitions s Rights: Data Sharing Research & Research x To expect data are available to support publication. Data Lifecycle x To request pre-publication data deposit in long-term repository. Research Data Complexity s Responsibilities: Data Archiving x Engage stakeholders in development of publication standards. Data Management Roles x Link to data to support publication standards. Next Modules x Monitor & enforce public. standards. s Relationships: x With scientist as creator, author and reader. x With data centres and institutions as suppliers. Directly from: Lyon, L. 2007. Dealing with Data: Roles, Rights, Responsibilities and Relationships http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/ukoln/staff/e.j.lyon/reports/dealing with data report-final.pdf 66 / 79
  • Research Lifecycle Some definitions Where is the researcher in the lifecycle? Data Sharing Research & Research Data Lifecycle Research Data Complexity Data Archiving Data Management Roles Next Modules 67 / 79
  • Interagency Working Group on Digital Data. 2009. Harnessing the Power of Digital Data for Science and Society http://www.whitehouse.gov/files/documents/ostp/opengov inbox/harnessing power web.pdf
  • Research Lifecycle Some definitions The Research Lifecycle needs to evolve to support Data Management... Data Sharing Research & Research Data Lifecycle Research Data Complexity Data Archiving Data Management Roles Next Modules 69 / 79
  • Lord, P. & A. Macdonald. 2003. e-Science Curation Report: Data curation for e-Science in the UK: an audit to establish requirements for future curation and provision http://www.jisc.ac.uk/uploaded documents/e-ScienceReportFinal.pdf
  • Lord, P. & A. Macdonald. 2003. e-Science Curation Report: Data curation for e-Science in the UK: an audit to establish requirements for future curation and provision http://www.jisc.ac.uk/uploaded documents/e-ScienceReportFinal.pdf
  • Lord, P. & A. Macdonald. 2003. e-Science Curation Report: Data curation for e-Science in the UK: an audit to establish requirements for future curation and provision http://www.jisc.ac.uk/uploaded documents/e-ScienceReportFinal.pdf
  • Diepenbroek, M., Schindler, U., Grobe, H. 2008. PANGAEA - An ICSU World Data Center as a Networked Publication and Library System for Geoscientific Data http://hdl.handle.net/10013/epic.28613
  • Research Data Commons Some definitions The future suggested by the Australian National Data Service is perhaps Data Sharing the most complete vision, as it includes in the greater societal context. Research & Research Data Lifecycle Research Data Complexity Data Archiving Data Management Roles Next Modules 74 / 79
  • ANDS Technical Working Group. 2007. Towards the Australian Data Commons: A proposal for an Australian National Data Service http://pfc.org.au/pub/Main/Data/TowardstheAustralianDataCommons.pdf
  • Some definitions Data Sharing Research & Research Data Lifecycle Research Data Complexity Data Archiving Data Management Roles Next Modules Next Modules 76 / 79
  • Next Modules Some definitions Not covered (brief introduction to...): Data Sharing Research & Research s Module 2: More hands on Data Lifecycle x Barriers to sharing Research Data Complexity x In–depth data and metadata examples Data Archiving x Research Data Plan Data Management Roles x Data formats Next Modules s Module 3: Canadian and International Research Data Activities and Organizations x CNC/CODATA x National Consultation Access to Scientific Research Data (2004) x Research Data Canada x International 77 / 79
  • Acknowledgments Some definitions CNC/CODATA Committee; Margaret Haines, Carleton University; Data Sharing NRC/CISTI; Research Data Canada; Larry Speers. Research & Research Data Lifecycle Research Data Complexity Data Archiving Data Management Roles Next Modules 78 / 79
  • Contact and license Some definitions s Contact: Glen Newton glen.newton@gmail.com Data Sharing s License: Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike Research & Research Data Lifecycle 2.5 Canada License; Research Data Paternit-Pas d’Utilisation Commerciale-Partage des Conditions Initiales Complexity l’Identique 2.5 Canada Data Archiving s Copyright: c 2009-2010 National Research Council, Natural Data Management Roles Next Modules Resources Canada, Glen Newton s Note: Various components copyright their respective owners 79 / 79