Seminar on 7.03.12

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  • Separation of layers due to differences in temperature and variations in absorption of solar energy Most of our weather in the troposphere
  • Wet acid- acid rain reacting with water vapor in atmosphere; dry acid rain- particles that fall on the soil.—Together acid deposition
  • pH affects lake system and species can only tolerate so much pollution. Can kill fish or inhibit reproduction. Norway, Sweden 16,000 lakes have no fish; Canada 14,000 lakes acidic, Here in US 9000 lakes.
  • Figure 19.21 Individuals matter: ways to reduce your exposure to indoor air pollution. QUESTION: Which three of these actions do you think are the most important?
  • Seminar on 7.03.12

    1. 1. Air pollution and health Dr.Gururaj N A PG student,Dept of Community Medicine,AIMS,B G Nagar.
    2. 2. contents • Introduction • Air pollution definition • Magnitude of the problem due to indoor and out door pollution • Indicators of air pollution • Health effects of air pollution • Environmental effects of air pollltion • Air quality monitoring in India • Indoor air pollution and MDG’S • 03/06/12 Prevention and control 2
    3. 3. Introduction:Composition of air 03/06/12 3
    4. 4. The Atmosphere Atmospheric pressure (millibars) 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 120 75 Temperature 78% N, 21% O 110 Pressure 65 100 Thermosphere 90 55 Mesopause  Ozone layer Altitude (kilometers) 80 Heating via ozone Altitude (miles) Mesosphere 45 70 60 Stratopause 35 50 Greenhouse effect 40 Stratosphere 25 30 Tropopause 15 20 Ozone “layer” Heating from the earth 10 Troposphere 5 0 (Sea –80 –40 0 40 80 120 Pressure = 1,000 03/06/12 Temperature (˚C) 4 Level) millibars at ground level
    5. 5. AIR POLLUTIONAir pollution is ‘contaminationof the indoor or outdoorenvironment by any chemical,physical or biological agent thatmodifies the naturalcharacteristics of theatmosphere(WHO)’. 03/06/12 5
    6. 6. Definitions of Air Pollution: The Air (Prevention and control ofpollution) Act, 1981 • Air pollution is defined as "contamination of the air by noxious gases and minute particles of solid and liquid matter (particulates) in concentrations that endanger health” • Air pollutant is defined as “any solid, liquid or gaseous substance present in the atmosphere in such concentration or duration as may be or tend to be injurious to human beings or other living creatures or plants or property or environment.” 03/06/12 6
    7. 7. Indoor air pollution Out door air pollution03/06/12 7
    8. 8. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION• Indoor air pollution usually is a greater threat to human health than outdoor air pollution.• According to the EPA, the four most dangerous indoor air pollutants in developed countries are: – Tobacco smoke. – Formaldehyde. – Radioactive radon-222 gas. – Very small fine and ultrafine particles. 03/06/12 8
    9. 9. Burden due to indoor airpollution • Nearly 2 million people die prematurely from illness attributable to indoor air pollution from household solid fuel use. • Nearly 50% of pneumonia deaths among children under five are due to particulate matter inhaled from indoor air pollution. • More than 1 million people a year die from chronic obstructive respiratory disease (COPD) that develop due to exposure to such indoor air pollution. • Both women and men exposed to heavy indoor smoke are 2-3 times more likely to develop COPD. 03/06/12 9
    10. 10. 03/06/12 10
    11. 11. Global burden: 03/06/12 11
    12. 12. Regional burden: 03/06/12 12
    13. 13. National level: • Deaths and DALYs due to indoor air pollution are very unequally distributed: • Among the 20 worst-affected countries - Afghanistan, Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Niger, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Somalia and Tajikistan - approximately 5% or more of the total burden of disease is caused by indoor air pollution. • In 10 countries - Afghanistan, Angola, Bangladesh, China, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, and Pakistan - indoor air pollution is responsible for a total of more than 1.5 million deaths a year. 03/06/12 13
    14. 14. Burden due to out door airpollution: • Urban outdoor air pollution is estimated to cause 1.3 million deaths worldwide per year. (esp. in middle-income countries disproportionately experience this burden). • Worldwide, it is estimated to cause about 9% of lung cancer deaths, 5% of cardiopulmonary deaths and about 1% of respiratory infection deaths. 03/06/12 14
    15. 15. 03/06/12 15
    16. 16. Afr: Sub-Saharan Africa; Amr: Americas; Emr: Eastern Mediterranean; Eur:Europe; Sear: South-East Asia; Wpr: Western Pacific; HI: High income;LMI: Low and middle income.(WHO) 03/06/12 16
    17. 17. Air Pollutant• Air pollutant is defined as “any solid, liquid or gaseous substance present in the atmosphere in such concentration or duration as may be or tend to be injurious to human beings or other living creatures or plants or property or environment”(clean air act,1981).• It may originate from a natural or anthropogenic source (or both). 03/06/12 17
    18. 18. Some Important Indoor AirPollutants 03/06/12 18
    19. 19. 03/06/12 19
    20. 20. Pollutants considered for inclusion in the WHO indoor air quality guidelines bythe WHO working group in October 2006. • Group 1. Development of Group 2. Current evidence uncertain or guidelines recommended, not sufficient for guidelines, • Benzene Acetaldehyde • Carbon monoxide Asbestos • Formaldehyde Biocides, pesticides • Naphthalene Flame retardants Glycol ethers • Nitrogen dioxide Hexane • Particulate matter (PM2.5 and Nitric oxide PM10) Ozone • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Phthalates especially benzo-[a]-pyrene Styrene • Radon Toluene • Trichloroethylene Xylenes • Tetrachloroethylene Source: WHO Regional Office for Europe 03/06/12 20 (2010).
    21. 21. SUMMARY OF INDOOR QUALITY GUIDELINES FORSELECTED POLLUTANTS(WHO) Critical outcome(s) for guideline definition Pollutant• Benzene • Acute myeloid leukaemia (sufficient evidence on causality) • Genotoxicity• Carbon monoxide Acute exposure-related reduction of exercise tolerance and increase in symptom of ischaemic heart disease (e.g. ST-segment changes)• Formaldehyde Sensory irritation• Naphthalene Respiratory tract lesions leading to inflammation and malignancy in animal studies• Nitrogen dioxide Respiratory symptoms, bronchoconstriction, increased bronchial reactivity, airway inflammation and decreases in immune defence, leading to increased susceptibility to respiratory infection• Polycyclic aromatic Lung cancer hydrocarbons• Radon Lung cancer Suggestive evidence of an association with other cancers, in particular leukaemia and cancers of the extrathoracic airways• Carcinogenicity (liver, kidney, bile duct and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma), Trichloroethylene with the assumption of genotoxicity• Tetrachloroethylene Effects in the kidney indicative of early re nal disease and im paired p 03/06/12 21
    22. 22. Major Air Pollutants(out door); • Sulphur dioxide • Nitrogen oxides • Ammonia • Volatile organic compounds • Methane • Carbon monoxide • Dust particles • Ozone 03/06/12 22
    23. 23. Sulphur dioxide: • It is stinging gas • Emitted during combustion of sulphur contaning fossil fuels,such as crude oil and coal. • SO2 gets converted to sulphuric acid in moist environment,causing, smog and acidification. 03/06/12 23
    24. 24. Nitrogen oxides: • Emitted by traffic, power plants, and industries. • React with other gases in atmosphere helps in the formation of ozone in lower atmosphere. • Important role in smog formation, acidification and eutrophication. • Cause damage to lungs. 03/06/12 24
    25. 25. Ammonia: • Emitted during agricultural activities. • Important role in acidiication and eutrophication. 03/06/12 25
    26. 26. Volatile organic compounds(VOC). • Derived from petrol and gasoline reservoirs,industrial processes,traffic, paint and cleanser use or agricultural activities. • Imp role in formation of ozone in lower atmosphere, which is one of main cause of smog. 03/06/12 26
    27. 27. Carbon monoxide: • Emitted during incomplete combustion of fuels. • Imp rle in smog,green house effect and acidfication. • Forms carboxy Hb in blood , which reduces O2 carrying capacity of bllod. 03/06/12 27
    28. 28. Suspended particulate matter(SPM): – Consists of a variety of solid particles and liquid droplets small and light enough to remain suspended in the air. – The most harmful forms of SPM are fine particles (PM-10, with an average diameter < 10 micrometers) and ultrafine particles (PM-2.5). 03/06/12 28
    29. 29. 03/06/12 29
    30. 30. 03/06/12 30
    31. 31. Skip to main contentAccess• Home Alt+0•Navigation Alt+1•Content Alt+2Language•‫عربي‬•中文•English•FrançaisSearchSearch the WHO.int site Submit Advanced searchGlobal Health Observatory (GHO)Subnavigation• Global Health Observatory•Data repository•Reports•Country statistics•Map gallery 03/06/12 31•
    32. 32. Afr: Sub-Saharan Africa; Amr: Americas; Emr: Eastern Mediterranean; Eur: Europe; Sear: South-East Asia; Wpr: Western Pacific; HI: High income; LMI: Low and middle income; PM10: Fine particulate matter of 10 microns or less(WHO)03/06/12 32
    33. 33. Ozone (O3): • It is an aggressive gas. • Formed in the atmosphere by interaction between VOC,SO2 and NO2 and sun light(mainly in summer season) • Cause irritation of eyes / respiratory tracts. 03/06/12 33
    34. 34. Ozone (contd): – Is a highly reactive gas that is a major component of photochemical smog. – It can • Cause and aggravate respiratory illness. • Can aggravate heart disease. • Damage plants, rubber in tires, fabrics, and paints. 03/06/12 34
    35. 35. Sources of air pollution(out door): • Automobiles • Industrial sources • Domestic sources • Miscellaneous. 03/06/12 35
    36. 36. 03/06/12 36
    37. 37. Self cleansing mechanism:
    38. 38. Meteorological factors: • Level of atmospheric pollution at any one time depends upon , • Topography • air movement • climate 03/06/12 38
    39. 39. Air quality Guideline values(WHO 2005): • Particulate matter • Guideline values: • PM2.5 10 μg/m3--annual mean 25 μg/m3 24-hour mean PM10 20 μg/m3-- annual mean 50 μg/m3 24-hour mean 03/06/12 39
    40. 40. • Ozone (O3)• Guideline values• O3 100 μg/m3 8-hour mean• Nitrogen dioxide (NO2)• Guideline values• NO2 40 μg/m3 ---annual mean 200 μg/m3 ---1-hour mean 03/06/12 40
    41. 41. • Sulfur dioxide (SO2)• Guideline values:• SO2 20 μg/m3 24-hour mean 500 μg/m3 10-minute mean 03/06/12 41
    42. 42. Indicators of air pollution • Sulphur dioxide index(lead peroxide device) • Smoke index(photoelectric meter) • Suspended particles(midget impinger) • Air pollution index(in USA) • Coefficient of haze • Other parameters lead,CO,nitrogen dioxide. 03/06/12 42
    43. 43. Health effects of(out door) airpollution: • Immediate effects : irritation of eyes, nose, acute bronchitis, exacerbation of COPD, frequent respiratory infections • Delayed effects: • chronic bronchitis. • lung cancer • RISK GROUPS: • Children • Elderly age group • Smokers • Those with cardio pulmonary problems 03/06/12 43
    44. 44. Health effects due to indoorpollution: 03/06/12 44
    45. 45. BROADER IMPACTS OF INDOOR AIRPOLLUTION: 03/06/12 45
    46. 46. SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS•Destruction of plant and animal life•Corrosion of metals•Damage to buildings•Cost of cleaning and maintenance and repairs•Aesthetic nuisance•Decreased visibility in towns•Soiling of clothes 03/06/12 46
    47. 47. Monitoring of air pollution inindia: 03/06/12 47
    48. 48. Chronology of Air qualitymonitoring in India: • AQM was first adopted in 1982 under Air act 1981 (based on background concentration -classification) • AQM were revised by CPCB, Delhi in1994 with features: Confined to 6 major primary pollutants (SO2, NOx, SPM, RSPM, CO and Pb) • Based on land use classification.( Industrial Area, Residential, Rural and Sensitive Area) • Derived on international standards & health criteria. • For 24/8-hourly AQM to be met 98% of the year and should not exceed on 2 consecutive days. • For annual average, daily means of >104 measurements (twice a week at uniform intervals) is considered. • AQM were revised & revised by MoEF in 2009 with 6 more pollutants 03/06/12 48
    49. 49. Objectives of monitoring: • To determine the pollutants - nature, quality and quantity in the Ambient Air and emission generated at the source. • To measure and compare the efficiency of the pollution control equipments and calculate emission factors (Point source). • To determine the effect of changes in the raw material composition (Point source). 03/06/12 49
    50. 50. KARNATAKA STATE POLLUTION CONTROL BOARDAir Quality Standards(old)* Annual Arithmetic mean of minimum 104 measurements in a year taken twice a week 24 hourly at uniform interval.** 24 hourly/8 hourly values should be met 98% of the time in a year. However, 2% of the time, it may exceed but not on twoconsecutive days. Concentration in Ambient air Time Weighted Pollutant Residential, Rural average Industrial Area Sensitive Area & other areas 2 3 4 5 1 Annual Average* 80 µg/m3 60 µg/m3 15 µg/m3 Dioxide (SO2) 24 hours** 120 µg/m3 80 µg/m3 30 µg/m3 Annual Average* 80 µg/m3 60 µg/m3 15 µg/m3 Oxides of Nitrogen as NO2 24 hours** 120 µg/m3 80 µg/m3 30 µg/m3 Suspended Particulate Annual Average * 360 µg/m3 140 µg/m3 70 µg/m3 Matter (SPM) 24 hours** 500 µg/m3 200 µg/m3 100 µg/m3 Respirable Suspended Annual Average* 120 µg/m3 60 µg/m3 50 µg/m3 Particulate matter (RSPM) 24 hours** 150 µg/m3 100 µg/m3 75 µg/m3 (size less than 10 µm) Annual Average* 1.0 µg/m3 0.75 µg/m3 0.50 µg/m3 Lead (Pb) 24 hours** 1.5 µg/m3 1.00 µg/m3 0.75 µg/m3 03/06/12 50 8 hours** 5.0 mg/m3 2.0 mg/m3 1.0 mg/m3 Carbon Monoxide (CO) 1 hour 10.0 mg/m3 4.0 mg/m3 2.0 mg/m3
    51. 51. Revised Ambient Air Quality Standards (MoEF notification G.S.R 826(E) dated 16.11.2009 ) Time Concentration in Ambient air Pollutant Weighted Average Industrial, Residential, Ecologically Sensitive Area (TWA) Rural & other Areas (Notified by Central Govt)Sulphur dioxide (SO2) Annual Average* 50.0 µg/m3 20.0 µg/m3 24 hours** 80.0 µg/m3 80.0 µg/m3Oxides of Nitrogen as NO2 Annual Average* 40.0 µg/m3 30.0 µg/m3 24 hours** 80.0 µg/m3 80.0 µg/m3Particulate matter Annual Average 60.0 µg/m3 60.0 µg/m3( size < 10 µm) or PM10 24 hours** 100.0 µg/m3 100.0 µg/m3Particulate matter ( size < Annual Average* 40.0 µg/m3 40.0 µg/m32.5 µm) or PM2.5 24 hours** 60.0 µg/m3 60.0 µg/m3Ozone (O3) 8 hours** 100.0 µg/m3 100.0 µg/m3 1 hour 180.0 µg/m3 180.0 µg/m3Lead (Pb) Annual Average* 0.5 µg/m3 0.5 µg/m3 24 hours** 1.0 µg/m3 1.0 µg/m3Carbon Monoxide (CO) 8 hours** 2.0 mg/m3 2.0 mg/m3 1 hour 4.0 mg/m3 4.0 mg/m3Ammonia (NH3) Annual Average* 100.0 µg/m3 100.0 µg/m3 24 hours** 400.0 µg/m3 400.0 µg/m3Benzene C6H6) Annual Average* 5.0 µg/m3 5.0 µg/m3Benzo (a) pyrene (BaP) Annual * 1.0 ng/m3 1.0 ng/m3particulate phase onlyArsenic (As) Annual * 6.0 ng/m3 6.0 ng/m3Nickel (Ni) Annual * 20.0 ng/m3 20.0 ng/m31. Annual Arithmetic mean of minimum 104 measurements in a year at a particular site taken twice a week, 24 hourly at uniform intervals.2. 24 hourly/8 hourly /1 hourly monitored values as applicable shall be complied with 98 % of the time in a year. 2% of the time they may exceed the limits but not on two consecutive days of monitoring
    52. 52. National Air Quality Monitoring Programme(NAMP): • EXECUTED BY CPCB: • Net work consists of: 342 operating stations, covering 127 cities/towns,in 26 states and 4 union territories. • OBJECTIVES OF NAMP: • 1.To determine stations and trends of ambient air quality. • 2. To ascertain whether prescribed ambient air quality standards are violated • 3.To identify non attainment cities. • 4.To understand the natural cleaning process under going in environment through pollution dilution,dispersion,wind based movement, dry deposition, precipitation and chemical transformation of pollution generated. 03/06/12 52
    53. 53. .AIR POLLUTANTS MONITORED UNDER NAMP: • -Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), NO2,Suspended Particulate Matter,(SPM),Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter(RSPM/PM10) • -carried out for 24 hrs(4 hrly sampling for gaseous pollutants and 8 hrly sampling for particulate matter) with frequency of twice a year to have 102 observations per year. • -monitoring carried out by -CPCB, SPCB, Pollution Control Committees, and NEERI Nagpur. 03/06/12 53
    54. 54. OPERATING STATIONS UNDER NAMP IN KARNATAKA • Karnataka—14(Total) • Bangalore- 6 • Dharwad / Hubli- 2 • Mangalore- 1 • Hassan- 1 • Mysore- 2 • Gulbarga- 1 • Belgaum- 1 03/06/12 54
    55. 55. STATE POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD(SPSB): • KSPCB; it was constituted as Karnataka state board for the prevention and control of water pollution by govt of Karnataka on21.9.1974. under water act 1974. • Later, changed to KSPCB in 1988. 03/06/12 55
    56. 56. KSPCB; Responsibilities: • 1.Waste management • 2.Water and air pollution control • 3.Noise pollution • • Profile of KSPCB labs: has three tiered environmental labs: • central environmental lab :Bangalore • Divisional Lab- Mysore,’Dharwad, Mangalore, Davangere ,Raichur. • Regional environmental labs: Belgaum • -Hassan and Gulbarga 03/06/12 56
    57. 57. Source of Air pollutants : Two typesI) Point source and II) Non-point source I) Point Source Includes:- Industrial and non industrial stationary process, major industries, boilers, wood Stack and pulp processors, refinery, Monitoring chemical processing operations and petroleum storage tanks.
    58. 58. Air pollutants from stack emission • Particulate matter : Is a mixture of solid particles and liquid droplets in the air stream. • Gaseous pollutants : SO2, NO2, F, H2S, CS2 , acid mist and specific pollutants depending on process . • Thimbles: • Cellulose : up to 120 º C • Glass : above 120 º C
    59. 59. On- road mobile pollution• Vehicular monitoring - 3 parameters• Smoke density- Smoke meter (diesel driven vehicles)• CO and HC (CO/HC analyzer ,IR- equipment)-(Petrol driven vehicles)
    60. 60. Diesel smoke meter CO/HC ANALYSER(PETROL 03/06/12 ENGINES) 60
    61. 61. Non-point Source : Conventional AAQM: RespirableDust Sampler (RDS less than 10 µm)
    62. 62. 03/06/12 62
    63. 63. Air quality monitoring in Bangalore • 13 stations covering Industrial Area, Mixed Urban Area and Sensitive Area • Parameters SO2, NOx and RSPM and Frequency : Twice a week , 24 hrs.
    64. 64. CAAQMS at City Railway stationPollutants: SO2, NOX, CO and RSPM 03/06/12 64
    65. 65. Air Quality Data : Display to educate the general publics
    66. 66. CAAQMS data :Annaual avarage values of airpollutants at City Railway Station , CAAQMS data :Annual avarage values of CO at City Railway Station as per the as per revised standard during the years 2007-2011 revised standards during the years 2007-11 120 2.5 SO2 109.4 NOx 100 RSPM 2.0 83.4 2.0 83.0 79.5 80 CO 73.3 72.6 72.0 1.5 61.0 60.0 Concentration (µg/M3) 60 Concentration (mg/M3) 1.2 50 40.0 1.0 40 1.0 0.8 0.8 19.92 15.39 13.73 20 14.2 0.5 0 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 STD SO2 14.2 13.73 19.92 15.39 50 0.0 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 STD NOx 83.4 73.3 72.6 83.0 40.0 CO 1.2 0.8 0.8 1.0 2.0 RSPM 109.4 79.5 72.0 61.0 60.0 CAAQMS data :Annual avarage values air pollutnats at Regional Office Complex CAAQMS data : Annual avarage values of CO at Regional Office Complex, 70.0 S.G.Halli ,as per the revised standards during the years 2007-11 S.G.Halli during the years 2007-11 2.50 59.8 60.0 60.0 SO2 2.00 NOxConcentration(µg/M3) 50.0 2.00 50.0 RSPM CO 40.9 40.0 Concentration (mg/M3) 40.0 37.1 38.0 1.50 30.0 28.0 26.9 25.5 24.0 1.00 20.0 0.7 9.5 0.55 0.53 10.0 0.50 6.5 4.1 4.8 0.50 0.0 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 STD SO2 4.1 4.8 9.5 6.5 50.0 0.00 NOx 28.0 24.0 26.9 25.5 40.0 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 STD RSPM 59.8 40.9 37.1 38.0 60.0 CO 0.50 0.55 0.53 0.7 2.00
    67. 67. 4. Non- attainment Areas The air quality terms are expressed in terms of low, moderate,high and critical for various cites/towns monitored. Theconcentration ranges for different levels have been calculatedbased on the Notification Standards for different pollutants and areaclasses by calculating Exceedence Factor ( the ratio of annual meanconcentration of pollutants with that of respective standards ) TheExceedence Factor (EF) is calculated as follows Observed annual mean concentration of a criterion pollutant Exceedence Factor = -------------------------------------------------------------------- Annual standard for the respective pollutant and area classThe four air quality categories are:Critical pollution ( C ): When EF is more than 1.5High pollution ( H ) : When EF is 1.0 to 1.5Moderate pollution ( M ) : When EF is 0.5 to 1.0 andLow pollution ( L ): When EF is less than 0.5
    68. 68. Non- attainment Areas Location Type Air Air Air Quality Air Quality of area Quality Quality 2007-10 with 2007-10 2007-10 2007-10 respect to RSPM with respect with with to SPM respect to respect to SO2 NOxB Graphite India I L M H ME Limited KHB Indl Area I L L M MNG Peenya Industrial I L L M M areaA Victoria Hospital S H C H CLO Amco batteries R L M H HOR Yeshwanthpur R L M M HU
    69. 69. Indoor air pollution andMDG”s: • The importance of interventions to reduce exposure to indoor air pollution is reflected in the Millennium Development Goals in many ways: • As most of the disease burden due to indoor air pollution falls on children under five years of age, interventions will help achieve a significant reduction in child mortality (Goal 4). • The collection of fuel imposes a serious time burden on women and children and alleviating this drudgery will contribute to promoting gender equality and empowering women (Goal 3). 03/06/12 69
    70. 70. • With less time spent on fuel collection, people will have more time available for education and income generation activities that are likely to contribute to eradicating extreme poverty (Goal 1).• The proportion of the population relying on solid fuels constitutes one of the indicators to monitor progress towards ensuring environmental sustainability (Goal 7).a 03/06/12 70
    71. 71. Environmental effects of airpollution • Smog formation • Acid rain • Global warming • climate change 03/06/12 71
    72. 72. Temperature Inversions• Cold, cloudy weather in a valley surrounded by mountains can trap air pollutants (left).• Areas with sunny climate, light winds, mountains on three sides and an ocean on the other (right) are susceptible to inversions. 03/06/12 72 Figure 18-11
    73. 73. 03/06/12 73
    74. 74. 03/06/12 74
    75. 75. Acid Deposition and Humans Respiratory diseases Toxic metal leaching Decreased visibility Damage to structures, especially containing limestone Decreased productivity of fisheries, forests, and farms 03/06/12 75
    76. 76. ACID DEPOSITION• Acid deposition consists of rain, snow, dust, or gas with a pH lower than 5.6. 03/06/12 76 Figure 18-12
    77. 77. Acid Deposition and Aquatic Systems Water Fish declines boatman Whirligig Undesirable Yellow perch species Lake trout Brown trout Acid shock Salamander (embryonic) Mayfly Smallmouth bass Mussel 6.5 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 4.0 3.5 03/06/12 pH 77
    78. 78. Air Pollution Damage to Trees 03/06/12 78
    79. 79. Green house effect;•Green house gases:•Water vapour•Carbon dioxide•Methane•Nitrous oxide 03/06/12 79
    80. 80. contribution to the greenhouse effect onEarth the four major gases are: • water vapor, 36–70% • carbon dioxide, 9–26% • methane, 4–9% • ozone, 3–7% • Nitrous oxide 1-2%. • The major non-gas contributor to the Earths greenhouse effect, clouds,. 03/06/12 80
    81. 81. 03/06/12 81
    82. 82. Effects: • Land and ocean temperatures rise (heat waves, droughts, wild fires, cyclones, hurricanes, tornadoes, flooding) • North and South Poles (Arctic and Antarctic) melt • Glaciers melt • Ocean currents change • Weather patterns change • Sea levels rise (due to oceans warming the water swells and from increased water as polar regions melt 03/06/12 82
    83. 83. Effects: • heatwaves associated with land temperature increase. • Droughts will become more prolonged. • more wildfires. Agriculture and food crops will be devastated in some regions . • diseases like malaria and dengue fever will increase as conditions favourable to these diseases spread. 03/06/12 83
    84. 84. Contd.. • Higher ocean temperature: increase the power in cyclones and hurricanes, (stimulating more tornadoes ) ,a higher frequency of severe storms (like Hurricane Katrina)and associated flooding that will do extraordinary damage to infrastructure, and destroy houses, towns and villages, driving up more insurance cost. • Rising sea levels : displace millions of people, (already on some Islands people are being moved off due to rising seas) and • Change in the geography of the land, with millions needing to be relocated along with loss of buildings 03/06/12 84
    85. 85. 03/06/12 85
    86. 86. 03/06/12 86
    87. 87. Kyoto Protocol • The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Ch (UNFCCC or FCCC), aimed at fighting global warming. • The UNFCCC is an international environmental treaty with the goal of achieving the "stabilisation of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the ."
    88. 88. Kyoto protocol:• The Protocol was initially adopted on 11 December 1997 in Kyoto, Japan, and entered into force on 16 February 2005. As of September 2011, 191 states have signed and ratified the protocol. The only remaining signatory not to have ratified the protocol is the United States.• Other United Nations member states which did not ratify the protocol are Afghanistan, Andorra and South Sudan. In December 2011, Canada denounced the Protocol. 03/06/12 88
    89. 89. The Kyoto mechanisms • Under the Treaty, countries must meet their targets primarily through national measures. However, the Kyoto Protocol offers them an additional means of meeting their targets by way of three market-based mechanisms. • The Kyoto mechanisms are: • Emissions trading – known as “the carbon market" • Clean development mechanism (CDM) • Joint implementation (JI). • The mechanisms help stimulate green investment and help Parties meet their emission targets in a cost- effective way
    90. 90. Montreal protocol • 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the O . 03/06/12 91
    91. 91. OZONE DEPLETING GASTRENDS:
    92. 92. THE HINDU news:India has the worldsmost toxic air.In a study by Yale andColumbia Universities,India holds the very lastrank among 132 nationsin terms of air qualitywith regard to its effecton human health. 03/06/12 93
    93. 93. Prevention and control: • 1.Containment • 2.Replacement • 3.Dilution • 4.Legislation • 5.International Action. 03/06/12 94
    94. 94. PREVENTION AND CONTROL:1.Containment : prevention of escape of toxicsubstances into ambient air achieved by enclosure , ventilation, air cleaning2.Replacement : replacing a technological processcausing air pollution by a new process that does not.Coal replaced by electricity, natural gas3.Dilution : it is valid so long as it is with in selfcleansing capacity of the environmentAttempt at this is establishment of ‘greenbelts’ b/windustrial and residential areas 03/06/12 95
    95. 95. 4.Legislation : Air pollution is controlled in manycountries by suitable legislations.e.g., Clean Air Acts- Govt. of India enacted “The Air (Prevention andControl of Pollution )Act” in 1981 to decrease the nuisance of air pollution5.International action : WHO has established aninternational network of laboratories for monitoringAnd study of air pollution . 03/06/12 96
    96. 96. Interventions to reduce indoor airpollution(WHO): • interventions on the source of pollution • Alternative fuels • The largest reductions in indoor air pollution can be achieved by switching from solid fuels (biomass, coal) to cleaner and more efficient fuels and energy technologies such as: • liquid petroleum gas (LPG) • biogas • producer gas • electricity • solar power 03/06/12 97
    97. 97. • Improved stoves• Interventions to the living environment• Improved ventilation of the cooking and living area can contribute significantly to reducing exposure to smoke. There are a number of ways to achieve better ventilation of the living environment including:• chimneys• smoke hoods (with flues)• eaves spaces• enlarged and repositioned windows (cooking window) 03/06/12 98
    98. 98. • Interventions to user behaviour• Changes in user behaviour can also play a role in reducing pollution and exposure levels. For example, drying fuel wood before use improves combustion and decreases smoke production. Keeping young children away from smoke reduces exposure of this most vulnerable age group to health- damaging pollutants.• Such changes in user behaviour are unlikely to bring about reductions as large as those expected from a fuel switch or the installation of a hood or chimney. However, they should be seen as important supporting measures for other interventions. 03/06/12 99
    99. 99. What Can You Do? Indoor Air Pollution• Test for radon and formaldehyde inside your home and take corrective measures as needed.• Do not buy furniture and other products containing formaldehyde.• Remove your shoes before entering your house to reduce inputs of dust, lead, and pesticides.• Test your house or workplace for asbestos fiber levels and for any crumbling asbestos materials if it was built before 1980.• Dont live in a pre-1980 house without having its indoor air tested for asbestos and lead.• Do not store gasoline, solvents, or other volatile hazardous chemicals inside a home or attached garage.• If you smoke, do it outside or in a closed room vented to the outside.• Make sure that wood-burning stoves, fireplaces, and kerosene- and gas-burning heaters are properly installed, vented, and maintained.• Install03/06/12 carbon monoxide detectors in all sleeping areas. 100
    100. 100. references • Park’s text book of preventive and social medicine,21st edition. • Maxcy –rosenaue text book of public health. • http://www.who.int(accessed on 20/2/2012) • http://en.wikipedia.org • Climate change and health, WHO publication. • Air quality guidelines by WHO ,2005. • WHO guidelines for indoor air quality ,2010 • http/www.kspcb web site. • 03/06/12 Hindu news. . The 101
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