Brian Simulator
  (a draft)
               Speaker : Tony Tseng, Jimmy Lu
                    Advisor : Hsing Mei

       ...
Outline
 Graph Theoretical Analysis in AD
 Disconnection Syndrome
 Brain Simulator—a draft
           Purpose
       ...
Graph Theoretical
            Analysis in AD


              WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU
2010/5/28                          ...
Introduction
 AD as a Disconnection Syndrome
 Two problems need further attention
      Assessment of functional connec...
Graph Analysis
 Brain disease or aging gives rise to a
  deviation from the small world
  configuration of brain network
...
Network Damage Models
 The Random Failure Model
      Network changes are due to a random decrease
       in strength of...
Damage modeling procedure

                WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU
2010/5/28                                   7
       ...
Result analysis - weighted MEG graphs

                     WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU
2010/5/28                           ...
Result analysis - Comparison of normalized weighted clustering coefficient (left
                         panel) and path ...
Disconnection
            Syndrome


              WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU
2010/5/28                                 10
...
Disconnection Syndrome
 The classical associationist era
      Karl Wernicke’s school: associationism
      Fundamental...
The Classical Disconnection Syndrome

                     WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU
2010/5/28                            ...
Disconnection Syndrome
 Geschwind’s neo-associationism
      Shift away from pure holism
      Flechsig’s rule: associa...
Geschwind’s view of the evolution of cross-modality associations

                                  WECO Lab, CSIE dept., ...
Geschwind’s disconnection syndromes

                     WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU
2010/5/28                             ...
Disconnection Syndrome
 Disconnection syndromes after Geschwind
      Weakness of Geschwind’s theory
             Exten...
A hodotopic framwork for clinicopathological correlations

                               WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU
2010/5...
Brain simulator
            (a draft)


              WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU
2010/5/28                                 ...
What is the purpose?
 Short term: Provide an information about
  how the Alzheimer’s disease effects brain
  structural a...
It is based on...
   Three types of brain network (structure)
   Neural Darwin selection (development)
   Hodotopic fra...
Selection of brain features
   Self-organized
   Degeneracy
   Parallel distributed processing (PDP)
   Small-world, s...
How does it work?

  fMRI




  EEG/
  MEG




psycho-                                  Proposed Brain
metrics            ...
Thalamo-            Polysynaptic                 Diffuse
       cortical motif       loop structure              ascending...
Reference
 [1] C. J. Stam, W. de Haan, A. Daffertshofer, B. F. Jones, I. Manshanden,
  A. M. van Cappellen van Walsum, T....
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Brian Simulator (a draft)

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Speaker: Tony Tseng, Jimmy Lu
Topics: Exploring Complex Networks
Date: 2010.05.29

WECO Lab, CSIE, FJU

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Brian Simulator (a draft)

  1. 1. Brian Simulator (a draft) Speaker : Tony Tseng, Jimmy Lu Advisor : Hsing Mei Web Computing Laboratory(WECO Lab) Computer Science and Information Engineering Department Fu Jen Catholic University
  2. 2. Outline  Graph Theoretical Analysis in AD  Disconnection Syndrome  Brain Simulator—a draft  Purpose  Basic structure  Brain features  Proposed brain simulator WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/5/28 2 http://www.weco.net
  3. 3. Graph Theoretical Analysis in AD WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/5/28 3 http://www.weco.net
  4. 4. Introduction  AD as a Disconnection Syndrome  Two problems need further attention  Assessment of functional connectivity with EEG and MEG can be biased by volume conduction  Lack a framework to discriminate between normal and abnormal networks in the brain  Today’s talk will focus on the theoretical framework WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/5/28 4 http://www.weco.net
  5. 5. Graph Analysis  Brain disease or aging gives rise to a deviation from the small world configuration of brain network  Weighted graph reflects the strength of the relation between two vertices. WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/5/28 5 http://www.weco.net
  6. 6. Network Damage Models  The Random Failure Model  Network changes are due to a random decrease in strength of edges  The Targeted Attack Model  Edges connecting hubs will be more vulnerable to attack  Our proposed Model  Aging Model  Disease-specific network change model WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/5/28 6 http://www.weco.net
  7. 7. Damage modeling procedure WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/5/28 7 http://www.weco.net
  8. 8. Result analysis - weighted MEG graphs WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/5/28 8 http://www.weco.net
  9. 9. Result analysis - Comparison of normalized weighted clustering coefficient (left panel) and path length (right panel) WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/5/28 9 http://www.weco.net
  10. 10. Disconnection Syndrome WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/5/28 10 http://www.weco.net
  11. 11. Disconnection Syndrome  The classical associationist era  Karl Wernicke’s school: associationism  Fundamental psychic elements or memory images  Higher functions were not localized in specific regions but were the result of associative connections between motor and sensory memory image area  No cortical specializations WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/5/28 11 http://www.weco.net
  12. 12. The Classical Disconnection Syndrome WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/5/28 12 http://www.weco.net
  13. 13. Disconnection Syndrome  Geschwind’s neo-associationism  Shift away from pure holism  Flechsig’s rule: association cortex acted, in effect, as an obligatory relay between different brain regions and that a lesion to it would serve to disconnect them  A comparative phylogenetic perspective to the development of associations WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/5/28 13 http://www.weco.net
  14. 14. Geschwind’s view of the evolution of cross-modality associations WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/5/28 14 http://www.weco.net
  15. 15. Geschwind’s disconnection syndromes WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/5/28 15 http://www.weco.net
  16. 16. Disconnection Syndrome  Disconnection syndromes after Geschwind  Weakness of Geschwind’s theory  Extended territories composed of many specialized cortical subregions serving different but related functions  Feed-back and parallel pathways  Hodotopic framwork  Topological mechanism (place)  Hodological mechanism (road or path)  Hyperconnection and cortical hyperfunction WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/5/28 16 http://www.weco.net
  17. 17. A hodotopic framwork for clinicopathological correlations WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/5/28 17 http://www.weco.net
  18. 18. Brain simulator (a draft) WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/5/28 18 http://www.weco.net
  19. 19. What is the purpose?  Short term: Provide an information about how the Alzheimer’s disease effects brain structural and functional connectivity  Medium term: extend the models to brain diseases  Long term: whole brain models including sleep WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/5/28 19 http://www.weco.net
  20. 20. It is based on...  Three types of brain network (structure)  Neural Darwin selection (development)  Hodotopic framwork (syndrome/function)  Default-mode network/resting state (state)  Four stage of Alzheimer’s disease (time)  Hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease  Damage model (topology) WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/5/28 20 http://www.weco.net
  21. 21. Selection of brain features  Self-organized  Degeneracy  Parallel distributed processing (PDP)  Small-world, scale free, random topology  Feed forward and back  Reconfigurations toward damages  Balance and Dynamics WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/5/28 21 http://www.weco.net
  22. 22. How does it work? fMRI EEG/ MEG psycho- Proposed Brain metrics Simulator WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/5/28 22 http://www.weco.net
  23. 23. Thalamo- Polysynaptic Diffuse cortical motif loop structure ascending Space projections Network Development Model Developmental Experiential Reentrant Selection Selection Mapping Time Network Aging Network Model Damage Model Decision Making Model Balance & Dynamics Proposed brain simulator WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/5/28 23 http://www.weco.net
  24. 24. Reference  [1] C. J. Stam, W. de Haan, A. Daffertshofer, B. F. Jones, I. Manshanden, A. M. van Cappellen van Walsum, T. Montez, J. P. A. Verbunt, J. C. de Munck, B. W. van Dijk, H. W. Berendse and P. Scheltens, “Graph theoretical analysis of magnetoencephalographic functional connectivity in Alzheimer’s disease”, Brain 2009: 132; 213–224  [2] Marco Catani, Dominic H. ffytche, “The rises and falls of disconnection syndromes”, Brain 2005: 128, 2224–2239  [3] “Alzheimer's disease ”, Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alzheimer's_disease  [4] Gerald M. Edelman, “Wider than the Sky: The Phenomenal Gift of Consciousness”, Yale University Press (March 10, 2004) WECO Lab, CSIE dept., FJU 2010/5/28 24 http://www.weco.net

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