Lowest LevelExample: Bucks County Courthouse AppealsExample: PA Court of AppealsState Supreme CourtExample: PA Supreme Court
Supreme Court JusticesPresident nominates and appoints with approval of Congress Concepts of judicial activism and judicial restraint affect the judicial selection process
Current (2009) salary for the Chief Justice is $217,400 per year, while the Associate Justices each make $208,100
Judicial Restraint Follow a strict interpretation of the ConstitutionBelieve judges should also follow precedent Judicial Activism Loosely interpret the Constitution Argue law should be interpreted and applied in the light of ongoing changes in conditions and valuesResults in the expansion of judicial powers
Inferior Courts = lower federal courts beneath the Supreme Court
The authority of a court to hear (to try and decide) a case Federal courts hear cases for two reasons: • Subject Matter Application of the U.S. Constitution • Parties Involved State v. State Citizen v. State
Types of Jurisdiction Exclusive JurisdictionThose cases that can only be heard in the federal courts Concurrent JurisdictionStates and Federal Courts share power to hear cases Original Jurisdiction A court in which a case is first heard Appellate JurisdictionA court that hears a case on appeal from a lower court
Define FederalismPower is split between the Federal government and state governments.Applying federalism to court jurisdictionAll cases not heard by Federal Courts are in the jurisdiction of State Courts…
Why do youWhat does think it might Highest rank the word be important and authority;“Supreme” to have a ultimate, final mean? “Supreme” Court?
Chief Justice and eightassociate judgesNominated and appointed byPresident, with Senateapproval.Concepts of judicial activismand judicial restrain affect thejudicial selection process
Maintain their neutrality Protect the rights of people to express unpopular views Promote consistent interpretations of laws
Supreme Court Justices can retire: • At age 70 Must have served 10 years to receive full salary for life • At age 65 Must have served 15 years to receive full salary for life Chief Justice Associate $217,400 Justices per year $208,100
Vary in their political and legal philosophies... Judicial Activism Judicial Restraint Loosely interpret and Follow a strict apply the interpretation of the Constitution based Constitution on ongoing changes Believe judges should and values. also follow precedent
Both original and appellate jurisdiction • Most cases come on appeal from the lower courts. Original jurisdiction exists when: 1. There are controversies involved 2+ states 2. The case involves ambassadors or other public ministers Marbury v. Madison • Supreme court case that established power of judicial review
Supreme Court has the power to decide the constitutionality of: • State and federal legislation • Actions of chief executives • Decisions of other courts Inother words, the Supreme Court has the final authority on the meaning of the Constitution They have the POWER to declare acts and laws unconstitutional
*Rule of Four: At least 4 of 9 justices must agree to hear a case in the S.C.