Stuttering <ul><li>By: Grace M. Morrison </li></ul>
What is stuttering exactly? <ul><li>"Stuttering is a communication disorder characterized by excessive involuntary disruptions in the smooth and rhythmic flow of speech, particularly when such disruptions consist of repetitions or prolongations of a sound or syllable, and when they are accompanied by emotions such as fear and anxiety, and behaviors such as avoidance and struggle." (Hood) </li></ul>
Different Forms of the Disability <ul><li>Some examples of stuttering: </li></ul><ul><li>Part-word repetition: “ W- W- W- Where are you going?" (The person is having difficulty moving from the "w" in "where" to the remaining sounds in the word. On the fourth attempt, he successfully completes the word.) </li></ul><ul><li>Sound Prolongation: “ SSSS ave me a seat." (The person is having difficulty moving from the "s" in "save" to the remaining sounds in the word. He continues to say the "s" sound until he is able to complete the word.) </li></ul><ul><li>Interjections: “I'll meet you - um um you know like - around six o'clock." (A series of interjections: The person expects to have difficulty smoothly joining the word "you" with the word "around." In response to the anticipated difficulty, he produces several interjections until he is able to say the word "around" smoothly.) </li></ul>
Facts about people who stutter <ul><li>Over three million Americans stutter. Stuttering affects four times as many males as females. </li></ul><ul><li>People who stutter are as intelligent and well-adjusted as non-stutterers. </li></ul><ul><li>People who stutter are self-conscious about their stuttering and often let the disability determine the vocation they choose. </li></ul><ul><li>There are no instant miracle cures for stuttering. Therapy is not an overnight process. </li></ul><ul><li>Some 25% of ALL children go through a stage of development during which they stutter </li></ul><ul><li>Stuttering becomes an increasingly formidable problem in the teen years as dating and social interaction begin. </li></ul><ul><li>A qualified speech pathologist can help not only children but also teenagers, young adults and even older adults make significant progress toward fluency. </li></ul>
Predicting Early Signs <ul><li>There are several factors that may cause an individual to be predisposed to stuttering. </li></ul><ul><li>These include... </li></ul><ul><li>A family history of stuttering </li></ul><ul><li>Delayed speech development that has continued for 6 months or longer </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of other speech or language disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Strong fears or concerns about stuttering on the part of the child or the family </li></ul>
The Cause of Stuttering <ul><li>Most brain scan studies have found no differences between stutterers’ and non-stutterers’ brain activity during silent rest and during ﬂuent speech. But during stuttering, cerebral activity changes dramatically. Changes include: </li></ul><ul><li>Left-hemisphere areas active during normal speech become less active, and areas in the right hemisphere not normally active during speech become active. </li></ul><ul><li>Underactivity in the central auditory processing area. </li></ul><ul><li>Overactivity in the speech motor control area. </li></ul>
Solutions <ul><li>Speech Therapy: Most children who develop a stutter grow out of the condition by adolescence. The 20% of individuals who carry the disability into adulthood usually undergo speech therapy with a licensed speech pathologist. Overtime these therapy sessions are 75% effective in “curing” the problem, though patients may experience the occasional disfluency. </li></ul>
Altered Auditory Feedback <ul><li>The Speech Easy device is a small, in-ear device designed to provide fluent speech to those who stutter by providing altered auditory feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>By hearing their altered sound of their own voice, the listener experiences improved fluency. This is done by: </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing your vocal fold vibration (phonation) without hearing the articulation of your lips, jaw, and tongue. </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing a synthesized sound mimicking your phonation (masking auditory feedback, or MAF). </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing your voice delayed a fraction of a second (delayed auditory feedback, or DAF). </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing your voice shifted higher or lower in pitch (frequency-shifted auditory feedback, or FAF). </li></ul>
Emotional Effects of Stuttering <ul><li>Children and adults are effected by and cope with stuttering across a wide spectrum. The most common emotional side effects of this disability are: </li></ul><ul><li>Teasing </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety/Fear of Speaking </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawal of Social Gatherings </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance of Participation in the Classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Circumlocution : pretending to forget what they wanted to say, or declining to speak </li></ul>
Tips for Teachers <ul><li>Calling on Students who Stutter </li></ul><ul><li>As you are asking questions in the classroom, you can do certain things to make it easier for a child who stutters. </li></ul><ul><li>Until the student adjusts to the class, ask him questions that can be answered with relatively few words. </li></ul><ul><li>If every child is going to be asked a question, call on the child who stutters fairly early. Tension and worry can build up the longer he has to wait his turn. </li></ul><ul><li>Assure the whole class that they will have as much time as they need to answer questions, and you are interested in having them take time and think through their answers, not just answer quickly. </li></ul>
Tips for Teachers Cont'd. <ul><li>Reading aloud in class: </li></ul><ul><li>Most children who stutter are fluent when reading in unison with someone else. Rather than not calling on the child who stutters, let him have his turn with one of the other children. Let the whole class read in pairs sometimes so that the child who stutters doesn't feel "special." Gradually he may become more confident and be able to manage reading out loud on his own. </li></ul>
References: <ul><li>"Stuttering." National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders [NIDCD]. 7 June 2010. Web. 01 Aug. 2010. <http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/voice/stutter.html>. </li></ul><ul><li>"Teachers." Stuttering Foundation of America. 15 Feb. 2008. Web. 01 Aug. 2010. <http://www.stuttersfa.org/Default.aspx?tabid=10>. </li></ul><ul><li>"Stuttering." 23 Sept. 2009. Web. 01 Aug. 2010. <http://www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/stuttering.htm>. </li></ul><ul><li>"Speecheasy." East Carolina University. 14 May 2010. Web. 01 Aug. 2010. <http://www.ecu.edu/cs-dhs/csd/speecheasy.cfm>. </li></ul>
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