The View From the Tower:
         Thoughts on the Emergence
          of an Academic Discipline
         and Educational P...
“Intelligence Studies”: and “Intelligence
                 Education”

Often hear these terms used interchangeably

      ...
A “Journey of
                                        Discovery”

                                    Whither “intelligenc...
That is the essential research
       project that intelligence
 professionals and academics must
 undertake together in o...
How will Intelligence Studies evolve into a
          true academic discipline?
 Various issues need consideration in ord...
Basic Problem:
How does a functioning practice
become an academic discipline?
(there is precedent – people practiced medic...
What would the purpose of “intelligence
 studies” be? Preparation of scholars?
          Practitioners? Both?
Questions to consider:

•If intelligence studies became an academic discipline:

    Could it stand on its own?

    Wha...
2. What will it take to win recognition as an
                 academic discipline?

C.Doctorates in the field of intellig...
3. How to coordinate the views of the IC, law
      enforcement, and the private sector about
     intelligence studies wi...
4. Who will benefit most from earning a degree in
               intelligence studies?

 Analysts?

 Knowledge workers?
...
5. What problems must be overcome?

C.Faculty/administrative reluctance to support a program in
intelligence studies for m...
Should an academic discipline called
 intelligence studies come into being?
If the consensus is “yes”, than we have to sta...
Consensus on a model curriculum may be possible:
                       (or not)
 Theory
 History
 Policy & Administrat...
Ultimately, if “intelligence studies” does become an
 academic discipline these issues will have been resolved

 Definiti...
It may well be that intelligence studies as an academic
       discipline will most resemble political science

 Just as p...
However, it is entirely possible that
intelligence studies could develop in ways
      that we simply cannot anticipate

O...
Whether or not intelligence studies becomes an
 academic discipline, the IC, law enforcement, and
the private sector need ...
Does “Intelligence Education” require the
emergence of a new academic discipline
   that we’ve been calling “Intelligence
...
Intelligence professionals today hold degrees in a wide
             range of fields and disciplines
•   History          ...
Is there a specific body of knowledge about
   intelligence that students have to acquire?

  Can they simply be trained t...
Why shouldn’t future intelligence professionals
prepare for their careers the same way others do?

 Learn about the profe...
The education and training of teachers and nurses may
    offer a useful model for undergraduate intelligence
            ...
Education and nursing students must pass state
   licensing examinations once they earn their
undergraduate degrees – test...
Possible Model Undergraduate Program

     Intelligence Courses:                 General Knowledge:
•   Applied courses (w...
Intelligence education programs will reflect the
          capabilities of each institution

 Smaller schools may focus pr...
Intelligence education at the graduate level might
focus on more theoretical issues while building on
                    ...
Intelligence studies and intelligence education may be
                   two different things
Or is this a better model?
Gregory Moore, Ph.D.
Director, Center for Intelligence Studies
Notre Dame College: gmoore@ndc.edu
216.373.5346
Chair, IAFI...
Thoughts on the Emergence of Intelligence Studies as an Academic Discipline & Educational Process for the 21st Century
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  • Thoughts on the Emergence of Intelligence Studies as an Academic Discipline &amp; Educational Process for the 21st Century

    1. 1. The View From the Tower: Thoughts on the Emergence of an Academic Discipline and Educational Process for the 21st Century 10th Annual colloquium on intelligence August 6, 2008 Gregory Moore, Ph.D. Notre Dame College
    2. 2. “Intelligence Studies”: and “Intelligence Education” Often hear these terms used interchangeably Are they one and the same? Are they two different things?
    3. 3. A “Journey of Discovery” Whither “intelligence studies” and “intelligence education”? The Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog Caspar David Friedrich (1818)
    4. 4. That is the essential research project that intelligence professionals and academics must undertake together in order to find the answers to the questions about the nature and future of intelligence education and whether or not something called intelligence studies should be part of that future.
    5. 5. How will Intelligence Studies evolve into a true academic discipline?  Various issues need consideration in order to reach a conclusion What has been lacking is a truly focused discussion about how, exactly, this might come about (although conferences and colloquia such as these are helping further the discussion) The academic community and intelligence practitioners must come together in order to achieve consensus on the need for a new academic discipline
    6. 6. Basic Problem: How does a functioning practice become an academic discipline? (there is precedent – people practiced medicine, enforced laws, conducted business, educated the next generation, gathered intelligence long before colleges and universities took on the job of preparing students for professional careers)
    7. 7. What would the purpose of “intelligence studies” be? Preparation of scholars? Practitioners? Both?
    8. 8. Questions to consider: •If intelligence studies became an academic discipline:  Could it stand on its own?  What should an undergraduate curriculum look like? A graduate curriculum?  Should it be a subset of an existing discipline (i.e. Political Science, Criminal Justice, Business Administration)?  Most importantly, perhaps – what exactly constitutes “intelligence studies”?
    9. 9. 2. What will it take to win recognition as an academic discipline? C.Doctorates in the field of intelligence studies? D.A body of literature? E.Intelligence theory? F.Applied as well as theoretical concepts? G.The number of colleges/universities offering degrees (undergraduate or graduate) in intelligence studies? H.Emergence of recognized scholars/experts? I.Emergence of scholarly organizations devoted to intelligence studies as in other academic disciplines? J.Research, research, research… Probably all of the above
    10. 10. 3. How to coordinate the views of the IC, law enforcement, and the private sector about intelligence studies with those of academia?  Practitioners cannot dictate what an intelligence studies curriculum should look like – faculty control the curriculum and are very jealous of their academic freedom in that regard  Academia should consult and work with practitioners to assure that the discipline reflects the knowledge base essential for a student to become a successful intelligence professional, and for faculty to prepare them accordingly (as well as preparing the next generation of scholars)
    11. 11. 4. Who will benefit most from earning a degree in intelligence studies?  Analysts?  Knowledge workers?  Technical personnel?  Managers/administrators?  Scholars/educators?  All of the above?
    12. 12. 5. What problems must be overcome? C.Faculty/administrative reluctance to support a program in intelligence studies for moral/ethical reasons or political reasons E.The amount of material that remains classified which would be useful in developing courses G.Who is qualified to teach an intelligence studies curriculum? Where will the first generation of instructors come from? (scholar-practitioners) I.Defining “intelligence studies” (define “intelligence”)
    13. 13. Should an academic discipline called intelligence studies come into being? If the consensus is “yes”, than we have to start considering how such a discipline might emerge and what its curriculum might include But – we must also recognize that the discipline will evolve over time as institutions build their own programs reflective of their capabilities and faculty interests This is going to be a generational process!
    14. 14. Consensus on a model curriculum may be possible: (or not)  Theory  History  Policy & Administration  Ethics  Applied principles (skill sets)  Learn by doing (practicums, internships) Institutions of higher learning will ultimately design programs to the interests of the faculty (teaching & research), but some common features should be expected in every program
    15. 15. Ultimately, if “intelligence studies” does become an academic discipline these issues will have been resolved  Definition of intelligence studies (possible definition: the study of the theory and practice of applying information gathered by both open and clandestine methods for the purpose of strategic planning, criminal investigation, and policy implementation by governments, law enforcement agencies, and business)  A process of scholarship (research and publication) will have gotten underway  Graduate degrees will be awarded in the discipline; doctorates in particular – Ph.D.’s in order to give the discipline legitimacy  A trained faculty will have emerged to prepare future generations of scholars and practitioners
    16. 16. It may well be that intelligence studies as an academic discipline will most resemble political science Just as political science examines all of the elements that impact upon the practice of politics, not only nationally but globally, intelligence studies may eventually do the same • Comparative intelligence • Intelligence Policy and Administration • Intelligence and the Media • Ethics in Intelligence • Intelligence and the Law • Theory and Applied Intelligence Analysis • Intelligence and the Executive Branch A multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary curriculum may also be the norm
    17. 17. However, it is entirely possible that intelligence studies could develop in ways that we simply cannot anticipate Or, it may simply become a subset of one or more existing disciplines or fields of study
    18. 18. Whether or not intelligence studies becomes an academic discipline, the IC, law enforcement, and the private sector need talented and well educated young people to fill their needs Hence the growing interest among institutions of higher learning in intelligence education – preparing students for careers as intelligence practitioners, reflecting a growing educational focus on career oriented programs (especially within the traditional liberal arts curriculum)
    19. 19. Does “Intelligence Education” require the emergence of a new academic discipline that we’ve been calling “Intelligence Studies” to effectively prepare college students for careers in intelligence work? Or, can effective intelligence education programs be created from existing curricula?
    20. 20. Intelligence professionals today hold degrees in a wide range of fields and disciplines • History • Sociology • Philosophy • Economics • Political Science • Accounting • International Relations • Physics • Languages • Chemistry • Psychology • Engineering How many intelligence professionals today have degrees in intelligence studies? Is a degree in intelligence studies necessary in order to be a practitioner?
    21. 21. Is there a specific body of knowledge about intelligence that students have to acquire? Can they simply be trained to be intelligence practitioners? Is that sufficient? Can students acquire core skills and general knowledge through undergraduate and graduate programs as they are currently constructed and then receive the requisite training to become successful practitioners? Yes – but is that enough?
    22. 22. Why shouldn’t future intelligence professionals prepare for their careers the same way others do?  Learn about the profession they are entering (theory & practice)  Learn the history of their profession  Learn some basic (or more advanced ) skills they’ll need to be successful  Learn by doing (internships/practicums) Teachers, nurses, accountants, attorneys, physicians, for example, prepare this way – why not future intelligence professionals?
    23. 23. The education and training of teachers and nurses may offer a useful model for undergraduate intelligence education These programs offer 3 essential components: 5.Theoretical foundation/content knowledge 7.Acquisition of required skills 9.Practical application of skills through field work and practicums
    24. 24. Education and nursing students must pass state licensing examinations once they earn their undergraduate degrees – testing their knowledge of theoretical and applied principles as well as content knowledge Practical for intelligence students? Probably not That doesn’t negate the efficacy of educating and training undergraduate intelligence students in programs similar to the education and nursing programs offered in colleges and universities
    25. 25. Possible Model Undergraduate Program Intelligence Courses: General Knowledge: • Applied courses (writing & • Any major (if not intelligence) research) • Liberal Arts Core • Intelligence history • Strong interdisciplinary • Intelligence theory • Foreign language requirement • Internship/practicum • Effective communications skills • Capstone course (independent (writing & oral) project) • Computer (mastery of Word, • Can be major or minor field of Power Point, Excel, Access) study or a concentration • Non-Western history/culture • Study abroad Goal is to produce generalists with solid critical thinking and communications skills who have a basic understanding of the intelligence process and cycle
    26. 26. Intelligence education programs will reflect the capabilities of each institution Smaller schools may focus primarily on career oriented liberal arts intelligence education, while larger institutions may combine intelligence education with majors not commonly offered at the small institutions (i.e. engineering) Intelligence education programs may be best place for doctorates of practice
    27. 27. Intelligence education at the graduate level might focus on more theoretical issues while building on basic skills:  Policy  Administration and management  Intelligence theory and practice  Strategic planning/futures thinking  Risk and vulnerability assessment  Threat specific issues (terrorism, WMD proliferation)  Country/regional expertise  Foreign language proficiency  Advanced research, writing, briefing methods  Internships/practicums
    28. 28. Intelligence studies and intelligence education may be two different things
    29. 29. Or is this a better model?
    30. 30. Gregory Moore, Ph.D. Director, Center for Intelligence Studies Notre Dame College: gmoore@ndc.edu 216.373.5346 Chair, IAFIE Educational Practices Committee

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