Reconstruction i
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Reconstruction i

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first lecture for US History II

first lecture for US History II

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Reconstruction i Reconstruction i Presentation Transcript

  • Planning for Peace: Reconstruction before surrender
  •  
  • Cause of the War
    • When tallying the Causes for the Civil War - slavery is among the chief causes
      • In 1861 when the war began - what was the stated cause for the war
      • “ A House divided against itself cannot stand….” 1858 speech by Abraham Lincoln
      • Lincoln’s first inaugural address aimed at keeping the union together:
      • “ I have no purpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with the institution of slavery in the States where it exists. I believe I have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so.”
      • Provisioning troops at forts within seceded territory - Fort Sumter…
  •  
  • Causes of the war
    • By Lincoln’s second inaugural address - he allowed that Slavery and its end was a key element to the war and a key to the future.
    • “ On the occasion corresponding to this four years ago, all thoughts were anxiously directed to an impending civil war. All dreaded it--all sought to avert it. While the inaugeral [sic] address was being delivered from this place, devoted altogether to saving the Union without war, insurgent agents were in the city seeking to destroy it without war--seeking to dissole [sic] the Union, and divide effects, by negotiation. Both parties deprecated war; but one of them would make war rather than let the nation survive; and the other would accept war rather than let it perish. And the war came.” Abraham Lincoln March 4, 1865
  • Territory held by Confederates at end of 1863
  • Reconstruction before surrender
    • What is the political purpose and effect of the Emancipation Proclamation
      • Signed January 1, 1863
      • Document frees slaves everywhere but:
        • Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri
        • Union occupied Tennessee, Louisiana and Virginia
    • What is the social and cultural effect? How many slaves are actually freed by this effort?
  •  
  • Conceptualizing Emancipation
    • Abraham Lincoln did not merely go to his office on January 1 and sign the emancipation proclamation into law - rather throughout 1862 he began to take steps toward the proclamation by…
      • Ending slavery in Washington DC
      • Supplementing the ending of slavery by paying damages
      • Writing a preliminary emancipation proclamation dated September 22, 1862
  • Ending Slavery in DC
    • Connects those who own slaves and are loyal US citizens to present to the government a petition in writing setting the names, ages and personal description of the freed slaves.
    • Within 90 days damages will be assess and awarded through the Secretary of the treasury
  • Emancipation of Slaves in DC
  • Supplement
    • On July 12, 1862, Congress passed a supplemental bill to the original DC Emancipation Act which allowed slaves whose masters had not filed for compensation to do so.
    • An important factor in deciding claims under this Act was that the testimony of both blacks and whites was accepted.
      • if an owner challenged a slave who petitioned for freedom, the testimony from both was given equal weight,
      • a sharp departure from the previous legal practice in which slaves or freed blacks could not testify against whites.
  • Supplemental Act
  • Preliminary Proclamation
    • On September 22, 1862 - Lincoln penned the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation which later was signed on January 1 1863
    • This document suggests that if the Confederate slave holding states persisted in rebellion that the slaves within the rebellious states would be freed.
    • This sets the stage for the phrasing of the later Emancipation proclamation by freeing slaves only in rebellious regions and states and not those under government control or border states.
  • Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation
  • Planning for Peace
    • Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction
      • Terms for accepting the Confederate states back in the union
      • Believed that reconstruction was a presidential rather than congressional responsibility
        • Magnanimous in victory
        • 10% - loyalty oath and acceptance of end of slavery
    • Problems with the Proclamation - those detailed in text and those you have thought of?
  •  
  • Wade Davis Bill
    • In July of 1864 Benjamin Wade of Ohio and Henry Davis of Maryland developed an alternative approach to reconstruction.
    • This alternative approach was stricter and more punitive of the Confederate states than was the president’s plan
    • It offers us an idea of the conflict between the Executive and the Legislative Branches of the government.
  • Wade Davis Bill, National Archives
  • Wade Davis Bill
    • Appointment of Provisional Governors
    • All white male citizens to take oath to support the constitution - need to get a majority of the population
    • Constitutional convention for the state to establish a government in support of the US
    • Elections held to elect qualified and loyal citizens to fill roles of necessary government offices
    • Limited those who could hold office
    • Prohibited slavery
  • Benjamin Franklin Wade, Senator for Ohio
  • Problems with the two Plans
    • Redistribution of land - Abandoned land or not?
    • Four million recently freed impoverished black laborers - should the government assist these people in becoming independent or not.
    • Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned lands (Freeman’s Bureau) created March 3, 1865
    • Surrender achieved - April 9, 1865
    • Lincoln Assassinated April 14, 1865
  •  
  • Surrender
    • Surrender signed on April 9th 1865 by Robert E. Lee
      • The Fall of Richmond - the capital of the Confederacy - April 3, 1865
      • A series of notes passed between Grant and Lee regarding details of the surrender
      • Meeting at the McLean House - where Grant wrote a brief document and it was signed by Lee after some consideration.
      • What is the impact of this historic event?
  • Surrender at Appomattox
  • Currier and Ives’ Assassination of Abraham Lincoln, Original in National Archives
  • Assassination and Impact
    • Lincoln’s assassination was not a single event but rather part of a much larger conspiracy
      • In addition to Lincoln, William H. Steward Secretary of State was also to be assassinated
      • The plan called also for the death of Andrew Johnson
      • The larger plot which was to create chaos and overthrow the government of the United States was not successful
      • In the end 8 coconspirators were tried for the plot - four of whom died by hanging, three were imprisoned for life, and Booth died during capture.
  •  
  • Impact of Assassination
    • First American President to be assassinated
    • Mourned throughout Nation
    • Attacks on those who supported Booth
    • Opinion of Lincoln increases after death - millions came to funeral procession in Washington
    • Train trip to Illinois for burial
    • Andrew Johnson - one of least liked Presidents
  •