Before we get started with this course, I thought it would be best to share some concepts with you at this beginning point of the course, to give you a glimpse of some of the content we will be exploring.
Evaluation is the process of systematically collecting and analyzing data that has been gathered through various measurement methods in order to determine the merit or value of an action or activity, and rendering a judgment about the product. Assessment is the process of obtaining information about students, faculty, programs or institutions. More specifically, this inv0olves setting standards and criteria for learning, using this information to improve actions as needed to provide the best quality of education possible. These standards and criteria help with the evaluation of activities.These terms are often used interchangeably, even though they are different in nature. Evaluation relies on assessment to have criteria/standards to measure an action or activity against. The criteria/standards help to make the decision whether revision is needed or not.
Read SlideI believe that we as educators are aware of why we conduct evaluative processes. Hopefully, we do these actions on a regular basis, keep track of decisions made through actions taken with these processes, and truly follow-up with any actions in order to provide the best measures for our students. Deciding at the end of one year to make changes in a course, and not having any documentation of these suggestions for the next faculty member to follow-up with ( unless they are major curricular changes that need to go through committees for approval) would not help the next groups of students as they study and work through the course when offered.In addition, after changes are made in a course it is important for faculty to re-evaluate the course. If changes to a course do not improve the problem initially noted, then further evaluation of the course needs to take place.
Practice Orientation: In this orientation, practice goals are reflected in course objectives. Performance achieved at the end of the course is based on theory and clinical evaluation, the most important aspects of the program.Service Orientation This perspective is based on a values approach to evaluation. This takes on a more global or holistic view of the goals of the educational process and beyond the course objectives. Instructors view evaluation process as a means to identify students strengths and weaknesses in various components of the course. The perspective here has a representation of the typical or ideal student for the course that is used to measure this progress.Judgment Orientation: This perspective reflects a focus on the determination of acceptability of a student performance and the value or grade that should be assigned based on performance. Often used with clinical grading P/FConstructivist Orientation: Assigns the heaviest consideration to the stakeholders (employers of graduates, or clients they care for) who will be affected by the success or failure of the program and this process involves input from these individuals ( ie. Preceptors) or anyone who may contribute in some way with the grade.
Models are useful for explaining the process used for the evaluation. It helps to provide a plan or framework for the evaluation process. These are some that have been used in nursing.Logic Model: Useful to design a program evaluation. It helps to conceptualize, plan, and communicate with others. Uses flowcharts to help- clarify concepts and key elements. Inputs: resources to run the program Educational Strategies/Teaching Outputs: student demographics, contact hours, assignments, tests Initial Outcomes: Students response to learning activities, early changes Intermediate Outcomes: Changes should be noted, quite noticeable from the start of the program Ultimate Outcomes: Vision of the final product once the student has completed the program.Decision -Oriented Models: CIPP Provides information on which decisions can be made. Can measure the strengths and weaknesses of a program. Uses context evaluation to identify target population and assess needs Uses input evaluation to assess capabilities of the system, alternate program strategies, and procedural design Process evaluation detects defects in the design or implementation/ satisfaction of the strategy Product evaluation reflects the outcomes and results of the programAccreditation Model Determines the extent to which a program achieves its mission, goals, and outcomes Focus is on ongoing self-evaluation and the achievement of outcomes to support quality improvement of the programNLNAC, CCNE
Multiple methods are often used since learning is evaluated in the three domains of learning: cognitive, affective, and psychomotor.Using a single evaluative method does not adequately measure the domains.Students must be informed of the evaluative method to be used for assessment. Grading rubrics including rating scales are often used for all of the items listed here.
The Evaluation/Assessment Process: <br />An Overview<br />
What is this Process?<br />Systematic collection and analysis of data gathered through various measurement methods in order to determine it’s merit and render a judgment about the data<br />The terms assessment and evaluation used interchangeably.<br />
Evaluation used to Determine<br />Effectiveness of process to support learning<br />Student progress<br />Accomplishment of the mission of the institution to prepare nurses for entry level of practice. <br /> (O’Connor, 2006)<br />
Purposes of Evaluation<br />Identify learning<br />Diagnose problems<br />Decision making related to assignments or grades<br />Improvement of the product<br />Judgment of the effectiveness of student foal achievement<br />Formative – ongoing<br />Summative – at the end<br />(O’Connor, 2006)<br />
Evaluation Methods<br />Tests<br />Written Work<br />Audio or Videotapes<br />Role-Playing<br />Oral Presentations<br />Simulations<br />Observations by the Instructor<br />Rating Scales/Rubrics<br />Skills Checklists<br />
References<br />O’Connor, A.B. (2006). Clinical instruction and evaluation: A teaching resource. (2nd ed.). Boston,: Jones and Bartlett Publications<br />Wittmann-Price, E. and Godshall, M. eds. (2009). Certified nurse educator (CNE) review manual. New York: Springer Publications.<br />