Today we’re exploring the career and models of Geary Rummler. In this presentation we will cover:Rummler’s background and accomplishmentsRummler’s Performance Improvement Model he developed with partner Alan BracheThe Nine Performance Variables relating to Rummler’s modelThe 14-step Performance Improvement Process Rummler developed to address performance gapsTools Rummler used in the Performance Improvement ProcessAnd finally, Rummler’s Model of the Human Performance Systems and the Factors that Affect itee Books: Improving Performance - How to Manage the White Space on the Organization Chart (co-authored with Alan P. Brache, 1990) Serious Performance Consulting - According to Rummler (2004).Image via http://www.geary.com/Geary_Rummler_-_Management_Consultant
Center for Programmed Learning for Business was formed at the University of Michigan and this was where he met and formed a collaborative relationship with Tom Gilbert.He formed Praxis Corporation with Gilbert in 1969, an innovator in the analysis and improvement of human performancePraxis was later purchased by Kepner-Tregoe, Inc. and he remained to serve as president of their strategy group.He left in 1981 to form his own consulting firmThis firm morphed into the Rummler-Brache Group in 1987, partnering with Alan BracheHe and Brache published Improving Performance, How to Manage the White Space on the Organization Chart in 1990He retired, then decided to re-enter the performance improvement field by founding the Performance Design Lab, where he remained until his death on Oct. 29, 2008http://www.isssp.com/index.asp?page=professional_profile&show=100033791
Rummler’s entire career focused on improving organizational outcomes by improving individual performance. Picturevia http://www.flickr.com/photos/mallady/3195255961/
Premium value on product and service quality and reliability, sensitivity to customer expectations, fiscal efficiency, and productivityNew high performance enterprise will have smaller workforce with more advanced multidisciplinary skills.Must have flexible management, labor, process and product capabilities to eliminate barriers and respond rapidly to changing opportunities.Unsuccessful attempts of improving competitiveness is failure to understand variables that influence organizational and individual performance.
Rummler developed this model with Alan Brache, their performance improvement modelOrganizational level must be examined first because it establishes the context for designing and improving the process and job levels of performance. Business is structured and managed at this level to direct the organization in meeting the business objectives.To get to performance, the cross functional processes that the organization’s work must be examined.Processes are the components that must work in harmony to produce results. Workers at the job/performer level drive the processes. Job performer level requirements must link to the process goals to ensure optimal performance.Rummlerpicture via: http://bdld.blogspot.com/2008/11/geary-rummler-workflow-harley-davidson.html
Rummler’s model shown here maps the three levels of performance with three primary performance needs. Organizations that don’t address each of these areas will achieve partial results.Rummler says that top management must do more than create a vision and set organizational goals. It must drive the establishment of an infrastructure for performance that will enable sustained performance improvement.
Rummler’s 14 step performance improvement process is broken into the 5 stages shown on this slide. We’ll go through each of the steps in the next few slides.
The first phase is Performance Improvement Planning. Step 1 is to define the project. What is the critical issue?Step 2 is to develop a project plan. Include events and dates for improvement processesThe products from this phase are a project definition worksheet and a project plan.
This is Rummler’s definition of a process. Using this definition, a process can be marketing, sales, customer service, or IT. So the process improvements are designed in Phase 1. The steps to improve the identified process are defined in Phase 2.Picture via: http://www.astd.org/TD/Archives/2008/Dec/0812_Rummler+Long+View.htmQuote via: http://astd2007.astd.org/PDFs/Handouts%20for%20Web/M217.pdf
The second phase of the performance improvement process is organizational improvement.Step 3 defines the organization’s system, Step 4 identifies organizational improvement opportunitiesStep 5 specifies improvement actions at the organizational level, and Step 6 identifies processes the affect this critical issue mostProducts that result from this phase are the relationship map, organizational analysis and improvement worksheet, and organizational analysis and improvement worksheets with actions and processes.
Defining the system and identifying , missing, unnecessary, confusing, or misdirected inputs or outputs that are causing the problem is managing the white space. Figuring out what happens during a process when the baton is passed, not the official transactional view of the organization, is how performance can be improved on all three levels.Quote via http://www.daveswhiteboard.com/archives/976, from Improving Performance: How to Manage the White Space on the Organization Chart.
The third phase of the performance improvement process is Process Improvement.In this phase, Step 7 defines the process. Methods include mapping and developing flowcharts. Indicate what is and what should be.Step 8 identifies process improvement opportunities. Gaps are identified between what is and what should be.Step 9 specifies improvement actions at the process level.Step 10 idenfies the job that most affects the process. The largest gaps are identified.Products from this phase include process maps, process improvement and analysis worksheets, and process improvement and analysis worksheets with actions and with jobs.
Training may not be the solution to the performance problem. The next slide shows Phase 4, Job Improvement and Phase 5, Process Management. The solution Picture and quote via: http://www.astd.org/TD/Archives/2008/Dec/0812_Rummler+Long+View.htm
The fourth phase in the performance improvement process is Job Improvement.Step 11 creates job specifications to support improved processes. Step 12 identifies job performance opportunities and the gaps between what is and what should be.Step 13 specifies improvement actions at the job level.Products associated with this phase are job models, job analysis, and performance system design worksheet.The fifth and final phase is Process Management. Step 14 implements and evaluates performance action at all three performance levels. The product for this phase is action planning worksheets.Rummler said that implementation was not just carrying out the plan, that the organization’s culture and resistance to change must be addressed to ensure success. The process management phase lays the groundwork for infrastructure to avoid a gradual decline in the process.
Put screenshots of the diagrams hereRummler picture via http://pursuingperformanceblog.blogspot.com/2008/10/yesterday-was-day-of-great-sadness-dr.html
Rummler emphasizes clear links between the measures at the three performance levels, called “Performance Logic.” It starts with the highest level of measure most important to the organization and moves down to the next level that influences it. He stresses that measurements should not be used to punish, but to ask WHY when there is a performance issue.
Rummler identified six factors that affect the human performance system:Performance specificationsTask supportConsequencesFeedbackSkills and knowledgeIndividual capacityPerformance specifications are the outputs and standards that comprise the job goalsTask support easily recognizes high quality inputs, minimal interference, and logical proceduresConsequences are reactions to performance that support efficient goal achievementFeedback is methods of telling a performer to change performance or keep on performing the same waySkills and knowledge are basics required the job and Individual capacity are performers’ internal capabilities – their capacity to do the job.
Rummler was well-loved in the world of corporate training and development. These are some of the memorials that were posted online at the news of his passing in 2008.Picture via http://pursuingperformanceblog.blogspot.com/2008/10/yesterday-was-day-of-great-sadness-dr.html
Geary A. Rummler, PhD <br />What we will cover:<br /><ul><li>Geary’s Background
Manage the White Space<br />Manage the white spaces<br />“A primary contribution of a manager at the second level or above is to manage interfaces. The boxes already have managers; the Senior manager adds value by managing the white space between the boxes.”<br />