Child rights monitoring and enforcement mechanisms under ethiopian law january 2010
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  • 1. Child Rights Monitoring Framework under Ethiopian Law (Draft), January 2010Child Rights Monitoring Framework underEthiopian Law (1st Draft) Prepared for submission to the EHRC Ghetnet Metiku January 2010Ghetnet Metiku WoldegiorgisSocio-Legal ResearcherE-mail: gmgiorgis@gmail.com Page 1 of 12
  • 2. Child Rights Monitoring Framework under Ethiopian Law (Draft), January 2010Contents1 Context ................................................................................................................................................. 3 1.1 Basic Country Information........................................................................................................... 3 1.2 Socio-Economic Context.............................................................................................................. 3 1.3 Situation of Children .................................................................................................................... 42 Policy and Legislative Measures for the Implementation of Child Rights ........................................ 53 Actors in Child Rights Monitoring in Ethiopia (Stakeholder Analysis) .............................................. 7 3.1 Government Actors ..................................................................................................................... 7 3.2 Independent Monitoring Institutions ......................................................................................... 7 3.3 Civil Society Actors ....................................................................................................................... 84 Assessment of the Child Rights Monitoring Framework ................................................................... 9 4.1 Legal Issues ................................................................................................................................ 10 4.2 Policy Issues ............................................................................................................................... 10 4.3 Strengths and Opportunities...................................................................................................... 11 4.4 Gaps and Challenges ................................................................................................................... 11Ghetnet Metiku WoldegiorgisSocio-Legal ResearcherE-mail: gmgiorgis@gmail.com Page 2 of 12
  • 3. Child Rights Monitoring Framework under Ethiopian Law (Draft), January 20101 Context1.1 Basic Country InformationEthiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (FDRE), is a land-locked country innorth-eastern Africa. Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in theworld.1 The country is also noted for its pioneering role in the establishment of international andregional inter-governmental organizations. Ethiopia was a member of the League of Nations, afounding member of both the United Nations and the OAU. The headquarters of many regionalorganizations including the former OAU, current AU and the UNECA are located in the capital AddisAbaba.Geographically, the country covers a land area of 1,133,380 sq km (437,600 sq mi) of which 0.7% iscovered by water bodies. It shares international borders with Somalia and Djibouti in the east, Eritreaon the north, Kenya on the south, and Sudan in the west.2 Ethiopia’s climatic conditions vary fromcool temperate highlands over 2,500 meters above sea level, moderate warm lands lying between1500 to 2500 meters above sea level as well as hot lowlands lying below 1500 meters.The recent political history of Ethiopia covers a turbulent transition from a feudal state to a decadeand half of military rule finally culminating in an emerging democratic system in the last fifteen yearsor so. Currently, the country has a federal system of government consisting of a federal government,nine ethnically-based regions, and two federal cities, Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa.3 It is furthersubdivided into 550 woredas and six special woredas. Recently, the Addis Ababa City Administrationwas re-organized in ten Sub-City Administrations.1.2 Socio-Economic ContextEthiopia is a populous country with an estimated total population of around 77 million. It is thesecond most populous country in Africa next to Nigeria.4 Among the total number 62,895,000(83.8%) are estimated to be living in rural areas while 12,172,000 (16.2%) live in cities and towns.According to the latest official reports issued in 2006, an estimated 43.7% (male 16,373,718; female16,280,766) of the population is believed to be between 0-14 years, 53.6% (male 19,999,482; female20,077,014) 15-64 years, and 2.7% (male 929,349; female 1,117,652) 65 years and over. Currentestimates put the proportion of children in the population at a little more than half (more than 51%). 51 Pankhurst, Richard K.P. Addis Tribune, "Lets Look Across the Red Sea I", January 17, 2003.2 Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, Standard Edition, 20063 The status of Dire Dawa as a federal city administration is not confirmed in the Constitution.4 Central Statistical Authority, Statistical Abstract 2005, P. 20: The latest census for which figures are available was performed in 1994; this figure is the July 2006 official estimate. The CIA World Fact Book (2006) puts the population at 74,777,981 while UNICEF (mid-2005) estimates are 77,431,000.5 UNICEF, 2007: Around 39,792,000 of the estimated total population of 77,431,000 or around 51.4% are reported to be below 18 years.Ghetnet Metiku WoldegiorgisSocio-Legal ResearcherE-mail: gmgiorgis@gmail.com Page 3 of 12
  • 4. Child Rights Monitoring Framework under Ethiopian Law (Draft), January 2010The sex ratio at birth is 1.03 male(s)/female, 1.01 male(s)/female under 15 years, 1 male(s)/female for15-64 years, and 0.83 male(s)/female for 65 years and over.The population is growing at an estimated rate of 2.31% in 2006 with a birth rate of 37.98 births/1,000and a death rate of 14.86 deaths/1,000 population. The infant mortality rate is 93.62 deaths/1,000 livebirths while life expectancy at birth is 49.03 years for the total population, 47.86 years for male, and50.24 years for female.6 The total fertility rate is 5.22 children born per woman.Ethiopia is one of the poorest countries in the world today characterized by very low macro-economic, social and demographic indicators7. In 2003/2004 the country recorded an unprecedentedGDP Growth of 11.6% mainly because agricultural production improved significantly following twoconsecutive drought years (2001/02-2002/03).8 Official statistics released by the government as wellas international organizations show similarly high rates of growth in subsequent years. However,despite improvements in the economic situation in the country, a recent report indicated that 23% ofthe population of the country still lives on less than one US dollar a day.9 According to the samereport, income per capita in Ethiopia is also one of the lowest in the world at around 160 dollars.Moreover, the HIV/AIDS pandemic has had substantial negative impact on the already vulnerablesocio-economic condition of the country. Ethiopia ranks among most heavily affected countries interms of national adult prevalence rate and the number of people living with HIV/AIDS. The nationalHIV prevalence in 2005 is estimated 3 % among males and 4% among females while there are anestimated 1.32 million PLWHA.1.3 Situation of ChildrenThe situation of children in Ethiopia is very critical. Despite recent advances in coverage, theeducation system in the country still suffers from comparatively low enrolment ratios, genderdisparity in accessibility, disparity in regional distribution of facilities, lack of a sufficient number ofqualified teachers, and lack of adequate textbooks. While increases have been reported in grossenrollment ratios at the primary level, the net enrolment ratios (male 58 and female 55) as well asattendance ratios (male 33 and female 28) are still very low.10Similarly, while access to primary health care services has shown some increase over the pastdecade, health care delivery has been adversely affected by regional and rural-urban disparity as wellas inadequacy of primary health care facilities due to lack of skilled man power and finance. The mostcritical health problems of Ethiopian children are caused by inadequate to immunization,inaccessibility of clean water, inadequate sanitation facilities and malnutrition resulting in high infantand under-five mortality rates.6 45.5 UNDP 2004 and 46 UNICIEF 20037 UNICEF ranked Ethiopia 169th among 192 countries on the basis of under-five mortality rates in 2005.8 Ministry of Finance and Economic Development (MOFED), Development Planning and Research Department (DPRD), Annual Progress Report (2003/04), Addis Ababa, March 2005.9 UNICEF, The State of the World’s Children, 200710 UNICEF, 2007Ghetnet Metiku WoldegiorgisSocio-Legal ResearcherE-mail: gmgiorgis@gmail.com Page 4 of 12
  • 5. Child Rights Monitoring Framework under Ethiopian Law (Draft), January 2010As a result, infant mortality in Ethiopia for the most-recent year, i.e. 2005, is reported as 109 per 1000births and under-five mortality for the same year is 164 per 1000 births.11 The report also notes that38% of children were underweight while 11% and 47% of children suffer from moderate and severewasting and stunting respectively. The HIV/AIDS pandemic has also affected a large number ofchildren both directly and indirectly. In addition to the large number of infected children, more thanhalf a million children were orphaned due to AIDS.Furthermore, due to the poor socio-economic condition in the country, attitudes about childhoodand the existence of numerous harmful traditional practices, Ethiopian children are vulnerable to allforms of physical, psychological and sexual violence, abuse and exploitation. For instance, thepercentage of children affected by the worst forms of child labor, child marriage, and FGM havebeen reported as 43%, 49% and 74% respectively.2 Policy and Legislative Measures for the Implementation of Child RightsEthiopia ratified the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the African Charter on the Rights andWelfare of the Child.12 However, neither the Convention nor the Charter has yet been published inthe Official Gazette as previously recommended by the CRC Committee. General human rightsinstruments ratified by Ethiopia include the Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Personsand the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others, the International Covenant on Economic, Socialand Cultural Rights, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the Convention onthe Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). The Ethiopian governmenthas also ratified the ILO Conventions No. 29 (Forced Labour), No. 182 (Prohibition and ImmediateAction for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour),13 No.138 (Minimum Age Convention),No. 181 (The Private Employment Agencies Convention), No. 105 (The Abolition of Forced LabourConvention), and No. 111 (Discrimination in Employment and Occupation).Important child rights instruments that have not been ratified to date include the two OptionalProtocols to the CRC on Armed Conflict and the Sale of Children, the Convention AgainstTransnational Organized Crime, the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Person,Especially of Women and Children, the Conventions on Migrant Workers14, and the HagueConvention on Inter-country Adoption. During the examination of the third report of the Ethiopiangovernment to the Committee on the Rights of the child the Ethiopian delegation responded thatthe two optional protocols to the CRC were under review while one of the Protocols to the UN11 UNICEF, 200712 Ethiopia acceded to the Convention on May 14, 1991 and it came into force in June 13, 1991.13 Both on 2 September 2003 according to the third report to the Child Rights Committee.14 Ethiopia has not ratified the Convention on Migrant for Employment Convention (revised), 1949 (No. 97); the Migrant Workers (Supplementary Provisions) Convention, 1975 (No. 143), The Convention on the Promotion of Equality of Opportunity and Treatment of Migrant Workers, 1975, and the UN International Convention on the Rights of Migrant Workers and their Families, 1990.Ghetnet Metiku WoldegiorgisSocio-Legal ResearcherE-mail: gmgiorgis@gmail.com Page 5 of 12
  • 6. Child Rights Monitoring Framework under Ethiopian Law (Draft), January 2010Convention against Transnational Organised Crime was submitted to Parliament.15 The HagueConvention on Inter-country Adoption is also under review.The FDRE Constitution reflects express commitment to realize the rights of children as recognized inthe international child rights framework in Ethiopia. The Constitution, under articles 9 and 13, makesinternational agreements ratified by Ethiopia part of the law of the land and makes them standardsfor the interpretation of its human rights principles. In particular, Article 36 enshrines the rights ofthe child to life, name and nationality, to know and be cared for by parents or legal guardians, to beprotected from labor exploitation and not to be forced to undertake work that may harm his or hereducation, health and well-being, to be free from harsh or inhuman punishment that may be inflictedon his body, in schools or child care institutions.In accordance with these provisions of the Constitution and its obligations under the CRC, ACRWCand other relevant international instruments, the government of Ethiopia has been revising domesticlegislation. Notably, the government has revised the 1957 Penal Code and replaced it with a newCriminal Code which entered into force as of May 2005, replaced the family law provisions of the1960 Civil Code with a new Family Code in 2000, revised the Labour Law and issued a number of newlegislations like the Private Employment Agency Proclamation (Proclamation No. 104/1998).Legislations that are on the pipeline include a draft legislation concerning Vital Registrationsubmitted to the parliament and a refugee proclamation already approved by the Ethiopianparliament16. Yet, notwithstanding these positive legislative measures, the lack of a systematiclegislative review and adoption of a comprehensive Children’s Code was expressed as a concern bythe CRC Committee in its 2006 Concluding Observations on the report submitted by the Ethiopiangovernment.Though Ethiopia does not yet have a single comprehensive policy dealing with the rights of children,child rights concerns are addressed in the various policy documents on related matters. Theseinclude the Developmental and Social Welfare Policy (1996), the Cultural Policy, the National YouthPolicy, National Education Policy, and the National Health Policy.In addition to these policy documents, a set of national action plans relevant to the promotion andprotection of rights of children are in existence. These include the National Programme of Action forChildren and Women (1996 - 2000), the National Plan of Action on Orphans and Vulnerable Children(2004 – 2006), the National Plan of Action for Children (2003 – 2010) and the National Action Plan onSexual Abuse and Exploitation of Children (2006 - 2010). Similar action plans on child labor and CivilRegistration and Vital Statistics Systems are reportedly being developed.15 NGO Group for the Convention on the Rights of the Child, State Party Examination of Ethiopias Third Periodic Report, Session 43 of the Committee on the Rights of the Child.16 The Refugee Proclamation was approved by the House of Peoples’ Representatives in 2004.Ghetnet Metiku WoldegiorgisSocio-Legal ResearcherE-mail: gmgiorgis@gmail.com Page 6 of 12
  • 7. Child Rights Monitoring Framework under Ethiopian Law (Draft), January 20103 Actors in Child Rights Monitoring in Ethiopia (Stakeholder Analysis)Monitoring human rights in general and the rights of children in particular is new to Ethiopia. Theengagement of both government and non-government child rights actors in monitoring activities isgenerally limited to the reporting mechanisms under the UN CRC with a few localized assessments inbetween. Thus, with the exception of those outputs from international human rights organizations,there are very few national child rights monitoring reports.3.1 Government ActorsThe mandate and responsibility for child rights in general and the implementation of the UN CRC inparticular rested with the Ministry of Women Affairs (MoWA). Other key government bodiesestablished for the implementation of the rights of the child include the National Inter-MinisterialCommittees at Federal Level, and Childrens Rights Committees at regional, zonal, wereda andkebele levels.The National Inter-Ministerial Committee on the CRC, which was established in 1994 with the overallmandate of monitoring and guiding the implementation of the CRC, is composed of the ministries ofHealth, Education, Information, Justice, Finance and Economic Development, Culture and Sports aswell as the Police Commission and the Prime Minister’s Office, and chaired by the Children, Youthand Family Affairs Department of the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs. Subsequently, MOLSA alsoestablished a National CRC Committee wherein government ministries, international organizationsand national NGOs are members with mandate to follow-up the implementation of the CRC by themember organizations. CRC Committees were also formed at regional and local levels with similarmandates. As per the most recent official government report to the Child Rights Committee (April2005), 396 local level CRCs were formed between 2002 -2004.This implementation and monitoring structure established from the zonal to the federal level wasresponsible for the development of the initial government report to the CRC Committee as well astwo periodic reports. In addition to these reports, the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs hasproduced a number of reports on the situation of children in Ethiopia. These include: Survey on thePrevalence and Characteristics of AIDS Orphans in Ethiopia (2003,) the Orphans and VulnerableChildren Rapid Assessment, Analysis and Action Planning Report (OVC-RAAAP).17 MoLSA has alsoprepared the Government Response to Questionnaire on Violence against Children (2005) preparedby the UN to assess the situation of VAC in Ethiopia.3.2 Independent Monitoring InstitutionsIn addition to the above implementation and monitoring structure, two independent monitoringinstitutions with mandates and responsibilities inclusive of monitoring the rights of children havebeen established by the Ethiopian government. These are the Human Rights Commission and theOmbudsman. The Ethiopian Human Rights Commission and Ombudsman institution were establishedby law in 2000 and the Human Rights Commissioner and Ombudsman have been appointed in 2004.17 MoLSA, Government Response to Questionnaire on Violence against Children, 2005, pp. 37-38.Ghetnet Metiku WoldegiorgisSocio-Legal ResearcherE-mail: gmgiorgis@gmail.com Page 7 of 12
  • 8. Child Rights Monitoring Framework under Ethiopian Law (Draft), January 2010Similarly, the Parliament has established a Women’s and Children’s Affairs sub-committee under theSocial Affairs Standing Committee.Despite their mandates, the role of the Human Rights Commission and the Ombudsman inmonitoring child rights has so far been minimal. The limited role of these independent monitoringinstitutions has been attributed to delays in becoming operational as well as budgetary andinstitutional capacity limitations.3.3 Civil Society ActorsThe UN CRC is unique among international human rights treaties in that it gives non-governmentalorganizations a major role in raising public awareness about the Convention and specifically invitestheir participation in the reporting and monitoring process. Governments are urged to involve allsectors of society in the preparation of reports. While a few consult non-governmental organizationsextensively in the reporting process and incorporate their contributions into reports to theCommittee, individual non-governmental organizations or coalitions can prepare alternative reportsfor the Committees consideration.However, the engagement of Ethiopian CSOs in human rights monitoring has generally been limited.Yet, there are some child rights monitoring activities undertaken by indigenous and internationalnon-government organizations. Chief among these are the complementary reports prepared byCSOs to accompany the official government reports submitted so far to the CRC Committee. The firstreport (initial report) was prepared by a coalition of NGOs coordinated by ANNPCAN while thesecond complementary report was prepared with the coordinating role of the Save the Childrenalliance. The final and most recent complementary/alternative report was prepared within theframework of the CRDA Children and Youth Forum.Non-government actors have also contributed to child rights monitoring through more limitedreports. The following are just a few among the list of such reports; The various child rights situation analysis reports including a duty bearer profile and a child rights actors’ directory produced by the Save the Children Alliance CRC – Advocacy task- group and member organizations; The study on violence against children conducted by the African Child Policy Forum and Save the Children Sweden; The report of the study on HTPs conducted by Ye Ethiopia Goji Limadawi Dirgitoch Aswogaj Mahaber (EGLDAM), formerly known as National Committee on Traditional Practices of Ethiopia (NCTPE); and Research reports produced by Forum on Street Children, ANPPCAN, EWLA, and other indigenous NGOs on child prostitution, abuse and exploitation of children, trafficking in children, and other themes.Ghetnet Metiku WoldegiorgisSocio-Legal ResearcherE-mail: gmgiorgis@gmail.com Page 8 of 12
  • 9. Child Rights Monitoring Framework under Ethiopian Law (Draft), January 2010These non-government child rights actors have also successfully undertaken collaborative effortswith key government actors including child rights monitoring initiatives. Prominent among theseefforts are the National Steering Committee against Sexual Abuse and Exploitation of Children whichcoordinated the development of the National Action Plan on Sexual Abuse and Exploitation ofChildren and the establishment of Child Protection Units (CPUs) and Community Based CorrectionCentres (CBCC) through collaborative efforts involving Save the Children Sweden, Forum for StreetChildren, ANPPCAN, and city level and regional police commissions4 Assessment of the Child Rights Monitoring FrameworkAccording to Child-watch International,18 monitoring children’s rights have two objectives: to fulfillthe government’s obligations as a state party to show the progressive achievement of children’srights; and to maintain systematic information systems on the national conditions of children’s livesin order to plan, implement and evaluate interventions for their welfare. The Committee on theRights of the Child19 has also prioritized the need for a monitoring system at national, local andregional level that can gather all qualitative and quantitative information on children. These goalsand aims require a monitoring mechanism that is sustainable, applicable to the situation and needsof a country and that inputs into the policy, programmes and advocacy strategies of a country.Therefore, monitoring involves the following specific measures: – Collection of sufficient and reliable data on children, disaggregated to enable identification of discrimination and/or disparities in the realization of rights; – The development of a unifying, comprehensive and rights-based national strategy or national plan of action for children that is relevant to the situation of children, covering all the rights of children and developed through a process of consultation; – Ensuring that the best interests of the child are a primary consideration in all actions concerning children and that all the rights of children are respected in legislation and policy development and delivery at all levels of government through a continuous process of child impact assessment20 and child impact evaluation21. – The establishment of independent human rights institutions to monitor independently the State’s compliance and progress towards implementation and to do all it can to ensure full respect for children’s rights; – Coordination among central government departments, among different provinces and regions, between central and other levels of government and between Government and civil18 Judith Ennew, Monitoring Children’s Rights: Indicators for Children’s Rights Project, 199719 UNICEF, Implementation Handbook for the Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1998, p. 6720 Predicting the impact of any proposed law, policy or budgetary allocation which affects children and the enjoyment of their rights21 Evaluating the actual impact of implementationGhetnet Metiku WoldegiorgisSocio-Legal ResearcherE-mail: gmgiorgis@gmail.com Page 9 of 12
  • 10. Child Rights Monitoring Framework under Ethiopian Law (Draft), January 2010 society to ensure respect for all of the principles and standards of child rights for all children within the State jurisdiction and to ensure that the obligations inherent in the Convention are recognized across government agencies.Relating to the effective enforcement of the law facilities should be made available to accommodatethe services provided for in the law and complaint handling mechanisms should be established. Tothis end, reviewing the impact of laws on a regular basis aims at strengthen and improve servicesdelivery from public authorities to OVC in practice.4.1 Legal IssuesPolicies and laws need institutions with human and financial resources, political support andspecialized technical expertise to give them effect. The role of legislation in the creation of amonitoring and enforcement framework for the situation and rights of the child mainly relates to theestablishment and mandating of institutions and arrangements. To this end, the law should typicallyprovide for: – A central/focal body responsible for the implementation of child rights; – Institutions with the authority and resources for law enforcement, regulation, social protection and/or promotional purposes; – Distribution of mandates across sectors and levels of administration, including provisions for the involvement of non-government actors; and, – Establishment and mandating of national human rights institutions (such as children’s commissioners and ombudsmen with monitoring and advocacy responsibilities along with a mandate to see to it that national laws and statutory instruments are in line with international conventions).The core mandate for the implementation of the child rights framework in Ethiopia resides with theMinistry of Women’s Affairs (now the Ministry of Women’s, Youth and Children’s Affairs) with theMinistry of Labor and Social Affairs having specific mandates on child labor issues. The Ministries ofEducation, Health and Justice as well as the Judiciary also have key roles in the monitoringframework deriving from their generic mandates within their respective areas of responsibility.Finally, overall human rights monitoring mandates reside with the Ethiopian Human RightsCommission.4.2 Policy IssuesThe core role of policies in the monitoring framework can be seen in the development of acomprehensive national action plan for children. Such a document would address all relevant aspectsGhetnet Metiku WoldegiorgisSocio-Legal ResearcherE-mail: gmgiorgis@gmail.com Page 10 of 12
  • 11. Child Rights Monitoring Framework under Ethiopian Law (Draft), January 2010of monitoring including data collection, impact assessment and coordination. In the absence of sucha document, the following arrangements are apparent from the relevant policy documents: – The national, regional and local CRC committees established to follow up on the implementation of the UNCRC; – Multi-sector arrangements on legal reform and enforcement of laws on violence against children coordinated by the MoJ; and, – The Children’s Affairs Department of the MoWA responsible for the coordination of children’s affairs across sectors, including the National Steering Committee on Sexual Abuse and Exploitation of Children.Though their functionality is not clear, similar multi-level arrangements have also been establishedthrough the National Action Plan on OVCs and the National Action Plan on Children.4.3 Strengths and OpportunitiesThe above described monitoring framework benefits from the involvement of multi-sector and multi-level actors and stakeholders including non-government institutions. These actors and stakeholders,which often come together through formal coordination structures, bring relevant mandates andexpertise to the overall national response to the situation of children vulnerable to and affected byHIV/AIDS. The establishment and role of national human rights institutions, especially the EthiopianHuman Rights Commission, is also an important strength in the framework.4.4 Gaps and ChallengesGaps and challenges that may be identified in the legislation and policy on monitoring andenforcement include: – The existence of multiple and overlapping coordination and monitoring arrangements, which is a likely result of the multiplicity of national action plans, poses some challenges to clarity. Ideally, two core institutions for implementation and enforcement aspects and multi-actor arrangements for specific issues (such as child labor or sexual exploitation of children) would be more appropriate. – The consolidation of women’s rights and child rights mandates within MoWA may be both an opportunity and a challenge. From one perspective, there are important cross cutting issues equally relevant to the two areas of engagement such as gender-based discrimination and violence, which are even more important in the context of HIV/AIDS. On the other hand, the consolidation of the mandates creates a risk of consolidation of responses which would result in undue aggregation and decreased visibility of both women and children.Ghetnet Metiku WoldegiorgisSocio-Legal ResearcherE-mail: gmgiorgis@gmail.com Page 11 of 12
  • 12. Child Rights Monitoring Framework under Ethiopian Law (Draft), January 2010 – The current monitoring arrangement also poses challenges in determining the respective mandates of some key institutions. This is particularly true for the comparative responsibilities of the MoWA, the MoLSA, and the Ethiopian Human Rights Commission in monitoring and evaluation. For instance, the MoWA is mandated to “follow up the implementation of treaties concerning women and children and submit periodical reports to the concerned organs” making it the focal child rights monitoring institution. The EHRC, on the other hand, is responsible for ensuring compliance of legislation with “the human rights of citizens guaranteed by the Constitution” and making recommendations for legislative and policy revision. The issue becomes more complicated in connection with child labor where the MoLSA also has relevant mandates.Ghetnet Metiku WoldegiorgisSocio-Legal ResearcherE-mail: gmgiorgis@gmail.com Page 12 of 12