Grammar Book
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  • 1. Grammar book Gerardo Metropol
  • 2. Table of Contents 1. Present (-ar, -er, -ir) 2. Stem Changers 3. Irregular “yo” 4. Saber vs. Conocer 5. Reflexives 6. Se impersonal 7. Dipthongs with accents 8. ger/gir, uir/guir, and cer/cir 9. Hace___+Que+___ 10. Imperfecto 11. Preterite 12. Regular Conj. 13. Irregular Conj. 14. Compartives 15. Superlatives. 16. Future tense
  • 3. Present Tense ( -ar, -er, -ir) -ar verbs change toO amosAs aisA an -er and -ir verbs change to O emos/imos Es eis E en
  • 4. Stem Changers When you conjugate Some verbs the undergo stem changes There are three kinds of stem changes  o:ue  e:ie  e:I Example: cerrar (The e changes to ie inside the boot) cierro cerramos cierras cerráis cierra cierran
  • 5. Irregular “yo” When some verbs are conjugated only the yo form is irregular.Example:Tener TengoVenir VengoHacer Hago
  • 6. Saber vs. Conocer To talk about whether someone knows a fact or information use the verb saber. To talk about whether somone knows a person or place use the verb conocer. Example: Eduardo sabe mucha información de México. Example: Yo conozco a Juan.
  • 7. Reflexives A reflexive verb reflects the action of the verb back to the subject of the sentence. Example: lavarse Example in a sentence: Jose se lava. “Jose washed himself”
  • 8. “Se” Impersonal Se is a pronoun that refers to an undefined group of people. Example: Se habla ingles. (They speak english)
  • 9. Dipthongs with accents Dipthongs are when two vowels are next to each other in a word so the second vowel is changed. Example: oi oy ui uy The stress is placed on the strong vowel. If the diphthong has two weak vowels, the second one receives the stress
  • 10. ger/gir, uir/guir, and cer/cir ger/gir, uir/guir, and cer/cir verbs change in the yo from when conjugated into the present.  -ger/-gir verbs change the g to j  -uir/-giur verbs change the gu to g  -cer/-cer verbs with a vowel in front of it change c to zc  -cer/-cer verbs with a consonant in front of it change c to z
  • 11. Hace___+Que+___ Hace + time + que + present tense form of the verb. Example: Hace seis días que corro un maratón.
  • 12. Imperfecto To conjugate regular -ar verbs in the imperfect tensed drop the –ar and add the appropriate ending. aba ábamos abas abais aba aban To conjugate regular -er and -ir verbs in the imperfect tense drop the –er or –ir ending and add the apropriate ending. ía íamos ías, íais ía ían
  • 13. Preterite Past tense Known beginning/ and or ending “ Snapshot “ of time. Trigger words  Ayer  Anoche  Anteayer  La semana pasada…
  • 14. Regular Conj. A majority of spanish verbs use a regular conjugation in the preterite.  -ir -ar o imos a amos es en as an e en- a an  -er o emos es en e en-
  • 15. Car, Gar, Czar (IrregularConjugations) Car – que Gar – gue Zar - ce
  • 16. Spock (Irregular Conjugations)IR/SER DAR/VER HACER•Fui •I •Hice•Fuiste •Iste •Hiciste•Fue •Io •Hizo•Fuimos •Imos •Hicimos•Fueron •ieron •hicieron
  • 17. Cucaracha Verbs (Irregular Conjugations) The base of the verb changes and you add the appropriate ending  Andar-Anduv  Estar-Estuv  Poder-Pud  Poner-Pus  Quere-Quis  Saber-Sup  Tener-Tuv  Vener-Vin  Conducir-Conduj  Producir-Produj  Traducir-Traduj  Decir-Dij  Traer-Traj
  • 18. Snake/Snakey (IrregularConjugations) Snake Snakey Stem changers Y changers Change in third person Change in third person Dormir Leer Creer Contruir
  • 19. Comparatives Comparatives compare to things. Mas que Morethan Menos que Less than or fewerthan Tan the same Tanto como As much or as many as
  • 20. Superlatives Superlatives say that something is the best/most or worst/least at something Example : Juan es mas alto. (Juan is the tallest.) Juanita es la menos juegador de beisbol. (Juanita is the worst baseball player)
  • 21. Future Tense Verb Endings é emos ás án á án Irregular future verbs.  Examples-  Decir-dir sabedr –sabr  haber – habr salir –saldr  poder- podr tener-tendr  poner- pondr valer-valdr  querer-querr venir-vendr Future tense expresses something that hasn’t occurred yet..  Ex.