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Week One Lecture for Northeastern University Course in Adult Learning

Week One Lecture for Northeastern University Course in Adult Learning

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  • Piaget: Infant and child development Eysenck: The biological basis for personality and learning Maslow: Hierarchy of needs, and the adaptive, survival value of learning Kolb: Cycles of learning, learning preferences
  • Piaget: Infant and child development Eysenck: The biological basis for personality and learning Maslow: Hierarchy of needs, and the adaptive, survival value of learning Kolb: Cycles of learning, learning preferences
  • Piaget: Infant and child development Eysenck: The biological basis for personality and learning Maslow: Hierarchy of needs, and the adaptive, survival value of learning Kolb: Cycles of learning, learning preferences
  • Piaget: Infant and child development Eysenck: The biological basis for personality and learning Maslow: Hierarchy of needs, and the adaptive, survival value of learning Kolb: Cycles of learning, learning preferences
  • Piaget: Infant and child development Eysenck: The biological basis for personality and learning Maslow: Hierarchy of needs, and the adaptive, survival value of learning Kolb: Cycles of learning, learning preferences
  • Piaget: Infant and child development Eysenck: The biological basis for personality and learning Maslow: Hierarchy of needs, and the adaptive, survival value of learning Kolb: Cycles of learning, learning preferences
  • Piaget: Infant and child development Eysenck: The biological basis for personality and learning Maslow: Hierarchy of needs, and the adaptive, survival value of learning Kolb: Cycles of learning, learning preferences
  • Piaget examined the development of children, noting that stages of ability correlated with age. Implications for Education: learning needs to be tailored to the stage of development of the student. The curriculum (content) and the instruction (approach) need to be developmentally appropriate. There is a question about the relevance of Piaget’s theories to adult learners. Are adults fully developed, or do we continue to have phases of development as we age? Some also argue that the theories of Piaget have been misapplied to education. For example, infants may not be old enough to fully understand the languages that their parents are speaking, but that doesn’t mean that parents shouldn’t be talking to their babies. Exposure to learning is important, even if a child hasn’t developed enough to fully understand what they are learning. But it may make sense to revisit content, ideas, and concepts so that learners can get something new out of it each time.
  • Maslow posited that basic needs must be satisfied before a person or group can progress to higher, more complex levels. Also, when low-level needs are satisfied, individuals are no longer motivated by them. All the needs are always present, but when resources are limited people will attend to their basic needs first. Implications for education: A person who is focused on basic survival will have difficulty achieving higher order learning goals. Institutions of education need to be cognitive and responsive to learners’ needs. Image Source: Small Business Bites
  • Kolb lays out a four-stage learning cycle that ideally takes place in a spiral, with each cycle generating the next in an upward journey of learning Concrete Experience - (CE) Reflective Observation - (RO) Abstract Conceptualization - (AC) Active Experimentation - (AE) Implications for Education. If the cycle is productive, it can continue to spiral upward. Educational learning sequences should be structured (designed) in a way that supports this cycle. Image Source: UNSW Faculties of Excellence Initiative
  • Kolb used his cycle to develop a framework of learning styles, a matrix that is based on two dimensions: how you prefer to take info in (do vs. watch) what do you do once you have taken info in (think vs. feel) These two interact to create four learning style “types” Diverging (CE/RO) – (feel, watch) Assimilating (AC/RO) – (think, watch) Converging (AC/AE) – (do, think) Accommodating (CE/AE) (feel, do) Unlike Eysenck, this framework is not scientific and does approach personality as biologically-driven. Note that Kolb approaches learning style in terms of preference and interest . We have the capacity for everything in Kolb’s matrix, but we tend to prefer some modes over others. Different professions tend to select for certain learning style preferences. For example, university professors tend to prefer assimilation (reflective observation and abstract conceptualization), whereas firefighters tend to prefer accommodating (active experimentation and concrete experience).
  • Compare Kolb’s cycle of learning (process) to learning styles (individual preference) to see how the two conceptual frameworks overlap. Take a moment to consider where you would fall along these two dimensions. When you are learning something new, how do you approach the situation? It may help to think back on things you learned in the past (like how to drive) or how you approach a challenge (an argument or problem at work). Educational Implication: Learning should be designed as a sequence or cycle that includes a variety of types of experience. This approach to instructional design makes learning engaging for everyone, regardless of stylistic preference.
  • In 1980 educational theorist Malcolm Knowles published a seminal work entitled The Modern Practice of Adult Education: From Pedagogy to Andragogy . He made a distinction between pedagogy and andragogy Peda = relating to children Andra =relating to men or adults Knowles' theory includes six assumptions about the motivation of adult learning: Adults need to know the reason for learning something (Need to Know) Experience (including error) provides the basis for learning activities (Foundation). Adults need to be responsible for their decisions on education; involvement in the planning and evaluation of their instruction (Self-concept). Adults are most interested in learning subjects that have immediate relevance to their work and/or personal lives (Readiness). Adult learning is problem-centered rather than content-oriented (Orientation). Adults respond better to internal versus external motivators (Motivation). In intervening years, many educators have come to believe that these assumptions should apply to all learners.
  • Knowles’ assumptions about adult learners have tremendous implications for teaching. One Caveat -- Even though adults are more likely to be intrinsically motivated, the learner may be resistant in a mandated setting, such as workplace training. Mandatory learning situations often also involve power or status differentials (social roles), such as when a manager requires all employees to participate in a workshop. In mandatory settings, it is all the more important to create a conducive context – particularly one that builds upon the knowledge and considerable experience of the learners.
  • In mandatory settings, it is all the more important to create a conducive context – particularly one that builds upon the knowledge and considerable experience of the learners.

About learning About learning Presentation Transcript

  • Unit One: Week One Adult Learning
  • Agenda
    • Introductions
    • When We Last Left Our Heroes
    • Syllabus
    • Memorable Learning -- Break –
    • Mini-Lecture: Ideas About Learning
    • Student Profiling
  • Introductions
    • The Two Breath Rule
  • When We Last Left Our Heroes
    • Take Up Where We Left Off
    • What Do You (Need to, Want to) Learn?
    • What Matters Most?
  • Syllabus
    • How This Course Connects
  • Memorable Learning Experience
    • Did the experience take place inside or outside of "school"?
    • Who was involved? Was there a designated "teacher," were you on your own, or were you with a group?
    • What happened? What did you learn, and how?
    • Were the things that you learned different from what you expected?
    • Why has the memory stuck with you all these years?
  • My Story: Weaving with Dr. Wilson
    • Firsthand Experience
    • If Possible, Start From Scratch
    • Understand How Parts Relate to Whole
    • Build the Tools with Which You Learn
    • Make Something Real and Useful – That’s Nicer Than It Has To Be
  • Ideas About Learning (In General, and Adults In Particular)
  • Six Theories
    • Piaget: Development
    • Maslow: Hierarchy
    • Kolb: Cycles and Preferences
    • ELLI: Learning Indicators
    • Knowles: Andragogy
    • Fink: Taxonomy of Significant Learning
  • Theorists
    • Piaget: Infant and child development
        • Sensory Motor – birth to 2
        • Preoperational – 2 to 7
        • Concrete operations – 7 to11
        • Formal operations – 11 to 15
      • Does development continue in adulthood? If so, how?
  • Theorists
    • Maslow’s
    • Hierarchy
  • Theorists Kolb’s Learning Cycle
  • Kolb’s Learning Preferences Diverging Accommodating Converging Assimilating
  • Diverging Accommodating Converging Assimilating
  • ELLI: Learning Characteristics Changing & Growing Stuck & Static Making Meaning Can't Analyze Data or Extrapolate Curious & Critical Passive, Takes things at Face Value Creative Rule-Bound, Doesn't Add or Build Upon Self-Motivated & Collaborative Isolated & Dependent Strategic Lacks Vision, Decide What's Important Resilient Fragile, Easily Discouraged
  • ELLI: Effective Learning Inventory
  • ELLI: Effective Learning Inventory
  • Adult Learners
    • Malcolm Knowles (The Father of Adult Learning)
    • Andragogy (Characteristics of Adult Learners)
  • Adult as Learners - Knowles Autonomous & Self-Directed Facilitate (Not Preach-Teach) Goal-Oriented Elicit Motivation Seek Relevance Clarify the Rationale Practical Relate & Apply to “Real Life” Accumulated Experience & Knowledge Build Upon Assets Expect Respect Respect
  • Fink’s Taxonomy
  • “ Worst Student” Profile
    • How old was the student, and of what gender? What were his/her regional/cultural affiliations?
    • Did this student appear to be different from others in the class?
    • What made this person challenging to teach? How would you describe this student's behavior and attitudes?
    • What was most difficult for this student to learn?
    • What impact did this person have on the rest of the group or class?