Africans<br />Africans seemed to have it the worst out of all minority groups in the emerging Americas. Often captured by slave traders they were torn away from their known society and taken to foreign lands where many were subjected to harsh unruly torture.<br />Though not born into slavery Gurtudis de Escobar was sold into slavery by her family. She, like many slaves, worked on a harsh plantation where she was repeatedly punished for her actions.<br /> Whippings and floggings where the most common punishment for slaves. Slave owners would try to instill fear so slaves wouldn’t attempt escape. <br />
Africans cont.<br />It was very uncommon for a slave to become free. Even if an African slave was free they were subjected to harsh social standards which never allowed for them to prevail in class. Unlike Africans Mulattos were able to raise above social barriers.<br />Joseph Rachell is a good example of a Mulatto who was able to gain respect and high credibility. He was a tradesman who did exceptionally well business and became a highly regarded person in his community and was even thought of as the go to guy on pricing items for trade. <br />
Native Americans<br />The Native Americans were the civilization to see the most change and a very rapid change at that. With the first European expeditions into the America’s came germs and old world diseases. The Natives immune systems were not strong enough to fight the diseases that Europeans had become immune to from living in tight city like quarters and the domesticating animals such as pigs. <br />For those who survived the plagues they then had to fight the strong invading forces wich had much more powerful weapons than they did. <br />
Native Americans cont.<br />Making bonds with settling Europeans became essential for Indians. If connections were made new lines of trade would be opened and a much larger array of goods would be offered to both parties. <br />One Indian who became an expert in interacting with French and English military and traders was ShulushHoma, or Red Shoes. When war Erupted between his tribe and their rivals he was able to convince the French to trade his tribe guns in order to conquer their opposing tribe.<br />Red shoes was able to take advantage of what the French and English had to offer. While the French thought they were taking advantage of the savages it was the savage who took advantage of them. <br />
Spanish<br />The Spanish were some of the first to send military and missionaries into the new world to establish themselves amongst the barbarians. <br />With their arrival they found copious amounts of gold and other valuable metals. It was said that the easiest way to obtain large amounts of valuable metals was to capture a Spanish ship on its return voyage back to Spain. <br />The Spanish relied highly on conquistadors, private enterprises run by independent military contractors. Conquistadors used their power to force pagans to accept Christianity and Spanish rule. <br />Often Priest would offer shelter and safety from the conquistadors if they began practicing Christianity and follow the church. <br />
Portuguese<br />The Portuguese were major contenders in the sugar production business. By the eighteenth century they were producing over 20,000 tons of sugar. <br />With high production came a high demand for work, which meant a high demand for slaves.<br />The Portuguese were second when it came to transatlantic slave trade, trading an astonishing 1.8 million slaves annually. Most were sent to brazil where they worked on sugar plantations.<br /> The work at the plantations was dangerous and demanding. Due to the tropical heat and large machines fatal injuries were common. <br />
French<br />Though the French settlement in Canada was slowing the British expansion the French were in search of new land to colonize. They settled in the Mississippi Valley and called their new territory Louisiana. Louisiana was highly dependant on the local native tribes to help them when being attacked by the English or other intruding forces. <br />The French had the ability to be influence local tribal decisions but were never able to take full control over the Indians and the decisions they made<br />
Dutch <br />The Dutch had developed a far stretching empire. Being a military giant during the seventeenth century and were in a prime location geographically sitting on the mouth of the Rhine River, acting as the middle men for nearly all trade.<br />Once the Dutch were able to gain control over present day New Jersey, a crucial trading post was established along the Hudson River. Naming it New Netherlands the Dutch controlled one of the finest sea ports in the Atlantic enabling their fur trade to flourish. <br />Later Around 1664 the English conquered New Netherlands but not until the mid eighteenth century did the Dutch colonists begin to adopt the English ways.<br />
English<br />The English had two major settlement in the American colonies. One being Chesapeake and the other New England. <br />New England was a demanding place to live. The summers were hot and full of biting gnats and the winters were cold, with wolfs howling throughout the night. The land was plentiful but there was a high demand for workers to help develop the hilly forestry into usable farm land. <br />Most of new England's settlers were from the protestant faith. English farmers took pride in the demanding work it took to run their farms. <br />
English cont.<br />Land ownership was much more prevalent in New England than in England itself. In England few famers owned more than fifty acres of farmland whereas farmers in New England were given one hundred to two hundred acres of land per household.<br />Farming families usually consisted of an array of livestock and produced mostly small crops such as wheat, maize, potatoes and rye. Farmers seldom hired outside workers, they primarily relied on the labor of their son and daughters. Farm work was divided by gender, men would do the heavier work and women would make essentials like butter and preservatives, and watch over the numerous children.<br />
Sources<br />American Colonies, Allan Taylor<br />New Spain, 1500-1600<br />The Spanish Frontier, 1530-1700<br />New England, 1600-1700<br />The West Indies, 1600-1700<br />French America, 1650-1750<br />The Aztecs, Serge Gruzinski<br />IV The Clash of Two Worlds<br />Struggle & Survival<br />Red Shoes, Richard White<br />Gurtrudis de Escobar, SolangeAlberro<br />Squanto, Neal Salisbury<br />Jacob Young, Francis Jennings<br />JoesephRachell, Jerome S. Handler<br />The Jesuit Relations<br />Introduction: Native North America and the French Jesuits<br />Disease and Medicine <br />Exploring the Mississippi <br />
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