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Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009/Orlando<br />Jussi Impiö/NRC/BeijingLab/Africa<br /> NRC? 1 min<br /> Nokia Research Africa 9 min<b...
Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />Nokia Research Africa<br />Nokia Research Center:<br />Helsinki Lab<br />Tampere Lab<br />Euro...
Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />Nokia Research Africa<br />Nokia Research Africa studies the people in low-income communities ...
Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />Nokia Research Africa<br />New approach to total cost of ownership, business models<br />Servi...
Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />Nokia Research Africa: 2 Focus Areas:<br /><ul><li>1.) Micro economics:
Micro entrepreneurship and trade
Informal banking
Mobile payment
Mobile Banking
TCO
2.) Social  / Media:
Relevance
Trust
Control (Peer, NGO, Governmental, etc)
Medium
2way (creation, consumption)</li></ul>    Research projects intersecting various areas simultaneously<br />5<br />Jussi Im...
Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />Nokia Research Africa: Who:<br /><ul><li>Engineering: 6
Usability: 1
UI Design: 2
Social Sciences: 2
Development Economy:1
+ one more this year… </li></ul>    Mokeira, Lucy, Pauline Imelda, Moses, Emmanuel, Billy, Tito, Brian, Wendy, Shihui, Jus...
VISION: Bright Visions & Dark Visions: AnalogyA: Biology<br />Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />Introducing new species in to th...
VISION: Bright Visions & Dark Visions: Analogy B: History (human evolution)<br />Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />“All human ne...
VISION: Bright Visions & Dark Visions<br />Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />Education (children)<br />Active citizenship (M-Dem...
VISION 1: Mobile Education: Current Problem areas<br />Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />Problems:<br /> school fees + other exp...
11<br />© 2008  Nokia 	 V1-Filename.ppt / YYYY-MM-DD / Initials<br />VISION 1: Mobile Education: The Bright Vision<br /><u...
Eductional content timely and relevant for the location and society to the individuals devices
Teachers receiving educational content:
Access to free/affrodable educational material with individual mobile devices
Eductional content timely and relevant for the location and society to individual devices
Information about educational opportunities available
Youth empowerment trough participation and active citizenship</li></li></ul><li>VISION 1: Mobile Education: The Dark Visio...
Resistance from governements
Systems too expensive: devices, services inaccesible
Content not understandable to the teachers: no cultural relevance, language
Content not understandable to the children: no cultural relevance, language</li></li></ul><li>VISION1: Mobile Education: T...
VISION 2: M-Democracy (social /media):Current Problem areas<br />Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />Communal/individual Ignorance...
Language
Lack of access to government data/officials
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  1. 1. Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009/Orlando<br />Jussi Impiö/NRC/BeijingLab/Africa<br /> NRC? 1 min<br /> Nokia Research Africa 9 min<br /> Bright and Dark Visions 30 min<br /> Conclusions 5 min<br /> Discussion 15 min<br />
  2. 2. Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />Nokia Research Africa<br />Nokia Research Center:<br />Helsinki Lab<br />Tampere Lab<br />Euro Lab (Cambridge UK, Lausanne)<br />Palo Alto (Cambridge, Berkley, Hollywood)<br />Beijing Lab (Beijing, Bangalore (India), Nairobi (Sub-Saharan Africa)<br />2<br />
  3. 3. Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />Nokia Research Africa<br />Nokia Research Africa studies the people in low-income communities in Sub-Saharan Africa<br />To develop services and devices to best suit the needs of African users<br />Focus: 2-6 years ahead<br />Economical and socio-cultural<br />SUSTAINABILITY<br />Field research in and with the communities<br />Concept design and prototyping<br />Field trialing and further development<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />Nokia Research Africa<br />New approach to total cost of ownership, business models<br />Services and devices which can spark and accelerate the growth of the grassroots economy and active citizenship<br />Economical and socio-cultural<br />SUSTAINABILITY<br />Affordable devices<br />Beneficiary and profitable services<br />Local content for the local needs<br />4<br />Jussi Impiö / National Museum Nairobi / 30.09.2008<br />
  5. 5. Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />Nokia Research Africa: 2 Focus Areas:<br /><ul><li>1.) Micro economics:
  6. 6. Micro entrepreneurship and trade
  7. 7. Informal banking
  8. 8. Mobile payment
  9. 9. Mobile Banking
  10. 10. TCO
  11. 11. 2.) Social / Media:
  12. 12. Relevance
  13. 13. Trust
  14. 14. Control (Peer, NGO, Governmental, etc)
  15. 15. Medium
  16. 16. 2way (creation, consumption)</li></ul> Research projects intersecting various areas simultaneously<br />5<br />Jussi Impiö / National Museum Nairobi / 30.09.2008<br />
  17. 17. Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />Nokia Research Africa: Who:<br /><ul><li>Engineering: 6
  18. 18. Usability: 1
  19. 19. UI Design: 2
  20. 20. Social Sciences: 2
  21. 21. Development Economy:1
  22. 22. + one more this year… </li></ul> Mokeira, Lucy, Pauline Imelda, Moses, Emmanuel, Billy, Tito, Brian, Wendy, Shihui, Jussi<br />6<br />Jussi Impiö / National Museum Nairobi / 30.09.2008<br />
  23. 23. VISION: Bright Visions & Dark Visions: AnalogyA: Biology<br />Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />Introducing new species in to the new habitat:<br /> Why? What is the benefit of the introduction?<br />What are the potential effects to the environment?<br />Which endemic/localized species are in that same ecological niche?<br />Will they be endangered? How?<br />Attracting and supporting harmful species?<br />Resources: water, nutrition<br />Can the benefits and harmful effects be measured and weighted?<br />Can the harmful effects be controlled?<br />How to make it survive?<br />Is this the only question R&D ever asks?<br />
  24. 24. VISION: Bright Visions & Dark Visions: Analogy B: History (human evolution)<br />Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />“All human networks are mixture of co-operation and competition. In the end the communities and their strength is all about communication. Communication allows co-operation between individuals. Because of communication, group of individuals can set and try to achieve common goals and it allows individuals to specialize in what they know best and are most motivated to. The co-operation, created by the improved communication, can make communities much stronger and richer than they otherwise would be. In time, the improved communication leads eventually also towards greater inequality between the communities and within the communities.”<br />Historians J.R. MC Neill, William H. Mc Neill in their book:Human Web<br />
  25. 25. VISION: Bright Visions & Dark Visions<br />Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />Education (children)<br />Active citizenship (M-Democracy and Social /Media)<br />Agriculture<br />Health care<br />Micro business<br />Mobile banking<br />Gender equality (empowering of women)<br />
  26. 26. VISION 1: Mobile Education: Current Problem areas<br />Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />Problems:<br /> school fees + other expences<br />large class sizes (125)<br />Teachers (language /other skills)<br />Outdated educational material<br />Inequality in school: gender, family, tribe, social/economical status + corruption<br />Malnutrition <br />
  27. 27. 11<br />© 2008 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / YYYY-MM-DD / Initials<br />VISION 1: Mobile Education: The Bright Vision<br /><ul><li>Access to free/affrodable educational material with individual mobile devices:
  28. 28. Eductional content timely and relevant for the location and society to the individuals devices
  29. 29. Teachers receiving educational content:
  30. 30. Access to free/affrodable educational material with individual mobile devices
  31. 31. Eductional content timely and relevant for the location and society to individual devices
  32. 32. Information about educational opportunities available
  33. 33. Youth empowerment trough participation and active citizenship</li></li></ul><li>VISION 1: Mobile Education: The Dark Vision: <br />Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />Why would it not happen:<br /><ul><li>Systems too expensive for the govenments
  34. 34. Resistance from governements
  35. 35. Systems too expensive: devices, services inaccesible
  36. 36. Content not understandable to the teachers: no cultural relevance, language
  37. 37. Content not understandable to the children: no cultural relevance, language</li></li></ul><li>VISION1: Mobile Education: The Dark Vision<br />Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />If it happens, then it could lead to:<br /> Incrasing inequality between, areas, schools, and individuals<br />Treath of theft (children carrying expensive devices) and physical damage<br />Systems used for delivering government propaganda<br />Systems used for delivering commercial propaganda<br />
  38. 38. VISION 2: M-Democracy (social /media):Current Problem areas<br />Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />Communal/individual Ignorance and passivity: <br /><ul><li>Isolation and hyper locality
  39. 39. Language
  40. 40. Lack of access to government data/officials
  41. 41. Low media exposure: 1 copy of newspaper to 20 000 people</li></ul>Neglected by the governance:<br /><ul><li>Corruption, Nepotism, Tribalism
  42. 42. language
  43. 43. Lack of resources</li></li></ul><li>Tools: Effective and affordable 2 way information delivery:<br />Free/affordable platform for citizen journalism and dialogue:<br />Isolated same minded marginalized groups and individuals have possibility to unite for greater influence<br />Corruption, nepotism and tribalism can be controlled trough social control by open and equal dialogue and free and objective press.<br /> Access to government information: rights and responsibilities<br />NGO´s have better access to the communities with their projects<br />Access to media: understanding own position in local, country, continent and global context<br />VISION 2: M-Democracy:The Bright Vision<br />Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />
  44. 44. VISION 2: M-Democracy:The Dark Vision<br />Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />Why would it not happen:<br />No business model to sustain the mobile citizen platform in low-income communities <br />No network coverage everywhere<br />Governments resisting expanding of civic rights and open word to secure their position<br />
  45. 45. VISION 2: M-Democracy:The Dark Vision<br />Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />If it happens, then it could lead to:<br /><ul><li>Areas without access become even more marginalized and vulnerable
  46. 46. Local cultures and languages are overwritten with more powerful cultures and languages:
  47. 47. Monoculture, dominated by English/French and commercial culture influenced by the west
  48. 48. Aid dependency increases. Help is not necessary development.
  49. 49. Open uncontrolled media platform for the heterogeneous audience with no/limited previous exposure to media or social media:
  50. 50. Propaganda: religious, political, tribal
  51. 51. Agitation to violent/criminal activity
  52. 52. Rumors become truth</li></li></ul><li>VISION 3: Agriculture: Problems<br />Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br /><ul><li>Overpopulation
  53. 53. Fragmentation of farming area (heritage of land)
  54. 54. Climate change: Draught, floods
  55. 55. Access to farming land: landownership
  56. 56. Lack of information:
  57. 57. Weather
  58. 58. New crops adjustable to the climate
  59. 59. New cash crops to meet the market needs
  60. 60. Market data: channels, prices
  61. 61. International trade regulations (and subsidies) making food goods export to international markets difficult + also competing against international brands locally is difficult> small scale local agribusiness </li></li></ul><li>VISION 3: Agriculture: The Bright Vision<br />Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br /><ul><li>Free / affordable access to timely farming related data:
  62. 62. Weather
  63. 63. New crops adjustable to the climate
  64. 64. New cash crops to meet the market needs
  65. 65. Market data: channels, prices
  66. 66. Network of individuals with mobiles creating networks of accurate weather, crop, market prices prediction
  67. 67. Direct sales from farmer to the consumer
  68. 68. Financed by combination of businesses, governments, NGOs and users.</li></ul>19<br />© 2008 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / YYYY-MM-DD / Initials<br />
  69. 69. VISION 3: Agriculture: The Dark Vision<br />Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />Why would it not happen:<br /><ul><li>Costly as the localization need of the information is gigantic task.
  70. 70. No realistic business model to sustain the agricultural platform in low-income communities.
  71. 71. No locally relevant information available (conditions vary greatly within short distances)
  72. 72. Understandability and relevance of the farming related data</li></ul>20 © 2008 Nokia Innovation Summit Africa 2008<br />
  73. 73. VISION 3: Agriculture: The Grim Vision<br />Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />If it happens, then it could lead to:<br /><ul><li>Tighter competition: marginalized farmers get more marginalized
  74. 74. Prices eventually get lower as competition gets tighter and faster: More work needed to gain same income
  75. 75. Changes in the structure of commerce as middleman and retail bypassed: changes in social hierarchies and communal dynamics
  76. 76. Large corporations able to utilize small scale producers and local food shortages caused</li></li></ul><li>VISION 4: M-Health: Problems<br /><ul><li>Poor prevention, due lack of knowledge and resources
  77. 77. Low resources: lack of facilities, personnel, training, medication
  78. 78. Low access to health care due lack of money, long distances and knowledge
  79. 79. Reliance of traditional medication and beliefs </li></li></ul><li>VISION 4: M-Health: The Bright Vision<br />Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br /><ul><li>Affordable / free access to health information trough mobile phone:
  80. 80. Early diagnose > early treatment > good results > low cost
  81. 81. Low costs: access to health insurance systems
  82. 82. Data gathering and analyzing: more effective prevention of epidemics, targeting the medical resources effectively for prevention and treatment
  83. 83. Registration of births, deaths and personal health profiles
  84. 84. Family planning: controlled population growth
  85. 85. Financed by combination of businesses, governments, NGOs and users.</li></li></ul><li>VISION 4: M-Health: The Dark Vision<br />Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />Why would it not happen:<br /><ul><li>Modern medical techniques in conflict with traditional conventions and religious values
  86. 86. No realistic business model to sustain the health care platform in low-income communities.
  87. 87. Localized health data too expensive to produce
  88. 88. Governments resisting due costs
  89. 89. Inexperienced and low in numbers healthcare personnel resisting</li></ul>24<br />
  90. 90. VISION 4: M-Health: The Dark Vision<br />If it happens, then it could lead to:<br /><ul><li>Marginalized groups marginalize more
  91. 91. Messages not understood > more people die
  92. 92. Tools used in marketing medical products
  93. 93. Increase in population growth</li></ul>25<br />
  94. 94. VISION 5: M-Entrepreneur: Problems<br />Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />Low income due:<br /><ul><li>Small markets, tight competition, Greedy middleman
  95. 95. Lack of specialization > Multitasking
  96. 96. Lack of training: book keeping, planning, marketing
  97. 97. Access to loans and lack of vision
  98. 98. Lack of motivation for expansion: social pressures by fellow business man
  99. 99. No taxes paid (+/- ?)</li></li></ul><li>VISION 5: M-Entrepreneur: The Bright Vision<br />Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />Effective mobile tools for:<br /><ul><li>Stock management
  100. 100. Book keeping
  101. 101. Business training
  102. 102. Bank access
  103. 103. Marketing and sales
  104. 104. Customer relations
  105. 105. Time saving = more time for doing the business or expanding and streamlining it
  106. 106. Social networking tools allow pooling and specializing</li></li></ul><li>VISION 5: M-Entrepreneur: The Dark Vision<br />Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />Why would it not happen:<br /><ul><li>No realistic business model to sustain the health care platform in low-income communities.
  107. 107. Entrepreneurs afraid of government control (licenses, taxes)</li></li></ul><li>VISION 5: M-Entrepreneur: The Dark Vision<br />Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />If it happens, then it could lead to:<br /><ul><li>Effective, timesaving tools for everyone = tighter competition same resources still shared more work needed
  108. 108. Social support mechanisms of micro e´s broken with a direct competition: hierarchies within communities and families challenged > conflicts</li></ul>29<br />© 2008 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / YYYY-MM-DD / Initials<br />
  109. 109. VISION 6: M-Banking: Problems<br />Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />Traditional, branch based banking:<br /><ul><li>Problems in reaching the unbanked (80% -97%) for:
  110. 110. Savings: Financial security
  111. 111. Loans: local development and investment
  112. 112. Lack of bank office networks: long distances
  113. 113. Banking expenses too high for most
  114. 114. ID and address needed
  115. 115. Difficult to get loans</li></ul>Mobile banking:<br /><ul><li>Mobile money transfer doesn´t allow micro payments
  116. 116. No interest paid to the user (but to Safaricom in Kenya)
  117. 117. High expenses in maintaining the agent network (12500 in Kenya)
  118. 118. No network coverage
  119. 119. One operator network keeps the cost high
  120. 120. Doesn't really reach the BOP</li></li></ul><li>VISION 6: M-Banking: The Bright Vision<br />Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br /><ul><li>Cashless economy: all payments from phone to phone
  121. 121. Safety in money handling
  122. 122. Direct access to bank
  123. 123. More active grassroots economy >more income, wealthier societies</li></ul>31<br />IMS 16.09.2008<br />
  124. 124. VISION 6: M-Banking: The Dark Vision<br />Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />Why would it not happen:<br /><ul><li>Regulatory officials don´t want to open banking for new parties
  125. 125. Security aspects too difficult to overcome
  126. 126. No realistic business model to sustain the ladies platform in low-income communities.
  127. 127. Systems cannot be made trustworthy</li></li></ul><li>VISION 6: M-Banking: The Bright Vision<br />Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />If it happens, then it could lead to:<br /><ul><li>Completely new forms of crime appear > paralysing the cashless economy
  128. 128. Lack of competition keeps the costs high and bop is not reached</li></ul>33<br />
  129. 129. VISION 7: M-Empowerment of women: Problems<br />Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br /><ul><li>Patriarchal traditions:
  130. 130. Women have no role in decision making in the family or in the community
  131. 131. Sexual violence towards women
  132. 132. Less education
  133. 133. Difficulties in progressing in careers
  134. 134. FGM
  135. 135. Child marriage
  136. 136. Structural changes in societies has diminished the role of men in agriculture:
  137. 137. No hunting, smaller fields, less cattle, no warrior status
  138. 138. Women's jobs are left and increased
  139. 139. Men have social problems: alcohol</li></li></ul><li>VISION 7: M-Empowerment: The Bright Vision<br />Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br /><ul><li>Powerful emancipator movement, sparked by ability of self expression on mobile internet platform.
  140. 140. Mobile education and services to empower female in entrepreneurship
  141. 141. Training and platform for educating women in the issues of governance to involve more women in decision making: “When you educate a women, you educate whole village”</li></li></ul><li>VISION 7: M-Empowerment: The Dark Vision<br />Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />Why would it not happen:<br /><ul><li>Cultural tradition and social hierarchies too rigid
  142. 142. Difficult to get male leaders to get interested
  143. 143. No realistic business model to sustain the ladies platform in low-income communities.</li></li></ul><li>VISION 7: M-Empowerment: The Dark Vision<br />Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />If it happens, then it could lead to:<br /><ul><li>Emancipator movement shakes the social structures and values of patriarchal communities and more extreme measures are taken to take back the control: sharia
  144. 144. As a response: similar systems used in controlling women
  145. 145. Active women cause frustration and anger among men which comes out in unconstructive manner within families</li></li></ul><li>VISION: Conclusions:<br />Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />Local R&D Ecosystem<br />Lets not make it too complicated either...<br />We don&apos;t know Africa<br />56 countries, governments, legislations, histories, national identities<br />1000 languages, LOCAL cultures, cultural practices and identities<br />Coast, islands, great lakes, great rivers, jungle, deserts, rich farming land, mountains, valleys, cities, villages <br />
  146. 146. VISION: Bright and Dark Rules of Thumb:<br />Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />Do enough deep enough research<br />Do cross cultural research<br />Consult local organizations<br />Ask the government<br />Ask journalists<br />Make large, long and controlled pilots<br />Always introduce new features with the most relevant (and politically neutral?) content<br />Educate the users with the (media) skills needed<br />Don&apos;t trust your intuition too much<br />“EXPECT the worst”<br /> Be real(ideal)istic!<br />39<br />© 2008 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / YYYY-MM-DD / Initials<br />
  147. 147. jussi.impio@nokia.com<br />Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009<br />(Thanks, any questions?)<br />
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