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  • 1. Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009/Orlando
    Jussi Impiö/NRC/BeijingLab/Africa
    NRC? 1 min
    Nokia Research Africa 9 min
    Bright and Dark Visions 30 min
    Conclusions 5 min
    Discussion 15 min
  • 2. Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009
    Nokia Research Africa
    Nokia Research Center:
    Helsinki Lab
    Tampere Lab
    Euro Lab (Cambridge UK, Lausanne)
    Palo Alto (Cambridge, Berkley, Hollywood)
    Beijing Lab (Beijing, Bangalore (India), Nairobi (Sub-Saharan Africa)
    2
  • 3. Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009
    Nokia Research Africa
    Nokia Research Africa studies the people in low-income communities in Sub-Saharan Africa
    To develop services and devices to best suit the needs of African users
    Focus: 2-6 years ahead
    Economical and socio-cultural
    SUSTAINABILITY
    Field research in and with the communities
    Concept design and prototyping
    Field trialing and further development
    3
  • 4. Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009
    Nokia Research Africa
    New approach to total cost of ownership, business models
    Services and devices which can spark and accelerate the growth of the grassroots economy and active citizenship
    Economical and socio-cultural
    SUSTAINABILITY
    Affordable devices
    Beneficiary and profitable services
    Local content for the local needs
    4
    Jussi Impiö / National Museum Nairobi / 30.09.2008
  • 5. Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009
    Nokia Research Africa: 2 Focus Areas:
    • 1.) Micro economics:
    • 6. Micro entrepreneurship and trade
    • 7. Informal banking
    • 8. Mobile payment
    • 9. Mobile Banking
    • 10. TCO
    • 11. 2.) Social / Media:
    • 12. Relevance
    • 13. Trust
    • 14. Control (Peer, NGO, Governmental, etc)
    • 15. Medium
    • 16. 2way (creation, consumption)
    Research projects intersecting various areas simultaneously
    5
    Jussi Impiö / National Museum Nairobi / 30.09.2008
  • 17. Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009
    Nokia Research Africa: Who:
    • Engineering: 6
    • 18. Usability: 1
    • 19. UI Design: 2
    • 20. Social Sciences: 2
    • 21. Development Economy:1
    • 22. + one more this year…
    Mokeira, Lucy, Pauline Imelda, Moses, Emmanuel, Billy, Tito, Brian, Wendy, Shihui, Jussi
    6
    Jussi Impiö / National Museum Nairobi / 30.09.2008
  • 23. VISION: Bright Visions & Dark Visions: AnalogyA: Biology
    Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009
    Introducing new species in to the new habitat:
    Why? What is the benefit of the introduction?
    What are the potential effects to the environment?
    Which endemic/localized species are in that same ecological niche?
    Will they be endangered? How?
    Attracting and supporting harmful species?
    Resources: water, nutrition
    Can the benefits and harmful effects be measured and weighted?
    Can the harmful effects be controlled?
    How to make it survive?
    Is this the only question R&D ever asks?
  • 24. VISION: Bright Visions & Dark Visions: Analogy B: History (human evolution)
    Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009
    “All human networks are mixture of co-operation and competition. In the end the communities and their strength is all about communication. Communication allows co-operation between individuals. Because of communication, group of individuals can set and try to achieve common goals and it allows individuals to specialize in what they know best and are most motivated to. The co-operation, created by the improved communication, can make communities much stronger and richer than they otherwise would be. In time, the improved communication leads eventually also towards greater inequality between the communities and within the communities.”
    Historians J.R. MC Neill, William H. Mc Neill in their book:Human Web
  • 25. VISION: Bright Visions & Dark Visions
    Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009
    Education (children)
    Active citizenship (M-Democracy and Social /Media)
    Agriculture
    Health care
    Micro business
    Mobile banking
    Gender equality (empowering of women)
  • 26. VISION 1: Mobile Education: Current Problem areas
    Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009
    Problems:
    school fees + other expences
    large class sizes (125)
    Teachers (language /other skills)
    Outdated educational material
    Inequality in school: gender, family, tribe, social/economical status + corruption
    Malnutrition
  • 27. 11
    © 2008 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / YYYY-MM-DD / Initials
    VISION 1: Mobile Education: The Bright Vision
    • Access to free/affrodable educational material with individual mobile devices:
    • 28. Eductional content timely and relevant for the location and society to the individuals devices
    • 29. Teachers receiving educational content:
    • 30. Access to free/affrodable educational material with individual mobile devices
    • 31. Eductional content timely and relevant for the location and society to individual devices
    • 32. Information about educational opportunities available
    • 33. Youth empowerment trough participation and active citizenship
  • VISION 1: Mobile Education: The Dark Vision:
    Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009
    Why would it not happen:
    • Systems too expensive for the govenments
    • 34. Resistance from governements
    • 35. Systems too expensive: devices, services inaccesible
    • 36. Content not understandable to the teachers: no cultural relevance, language
    • 37. Content not understandable to the children: no cultural relevance, language
  • VISION1: Mobile Education: The Dark Vision
    Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009
    If it happens, then it could lead to:
    Incrasing inequality between, areas, schools, and individuals
    Treath of theft (children carrying expensive devices) and physical damage
    Systems used for delivering government propaganda
    Systems used for delivering commercial propaganda
  • 38. VISION 2: M-Democracy (social /media):Current Problem areas
    Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009
    Communal/individual Ignorance and passivity:
    • Isolation and hyper locality
    • 39. Language
    • 40. Lack of access to government data/officials
    • 41. Low media exposure: 1 copy of newspaper to 20 000 people
    Neglected by the governance:
    • Corruption, Nepotism, Tribalism
    • 42. language
    • 43. Lack of resources
  • Tools: Effective and affordable 2 way information delivery:
    Free/affordable platform for citizen journalism and dialogue:
    Isolated same minded marginalized groups and individuals have possibility to unite for greater influence
    Corruption, nepotism and tribalism can be controlled trough social control by open and equal dialogue and free and objective press.
    Access to government information: rights and responsibilities
    NGO´s have better access to the communities with their projects
    Access to media: understanding own position in local, country, continent and global context
    VISION 2: M-Democracy:The Bright Vision
    Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009
  • 44. VISION 2: M-Democracy:The Dark Vision
    Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009
    Why would it not happen:
    No business model to sustain the mobile citizen platform in low-income communities
    No network coverage everywhere
    Governments resisting expanding of civic rights and open word to secure their position
  • 45. VISION 2: M-Democracy:The Dark Vision
    Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009
    If it happens, then it could lead to:
    • Areas without access become even more marginalized and vulnerable
    • 46. Local cultures and languages are overwritten with more powerful cultures and languages:
    • 47. Monoculture, dominated by English/French and commercial culture influenced by the west
    • 48. Aid dependency increases. Help is not necessary development.
    • 49. Open uncontrolled media platform for the heterogeneous audience with no/limited previous exposure to media or social media:
    • 50. Propaganda: religious, political, tribal
    • 51. Agitation to violent/criminal activity
    • 52. Rumors become truth
  • VISION 3: Agriculture: Problems
    Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009
    • Overpopulation
    • 53. Fragmentation of farming area (heritage of land)
    • 54. Climate change: Draught, floods
    • 55. Access to farming land: landownership
    • 56. Lack of information:
    • 57. Weather
    • 58. New crops adjustable to the climate
    • 59. New cash crops to meet the market needs
    • 60. Market data: channels, prices
    • 61. International trade regulations (and subsidies) making food goods export to international markets difficult + also competing against international brands locally is difficult> small scale local agribusiness
  • VISION 3: Agriculture: The Bright Vision
    Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009
    • Free / affordable access to timely farming related data:
    • 62. Weather
    • 63. New crops adjustable to the climate
    • 64. New cash crops to meet the market needs
    • 65. Market data: channels, prices
    • 66. Network of individuals with mobiles creating networks of accurate weather, crop, market prices prediction
    • 67. Direct sales from farmer to the consumer
    • 68. Financed by combination of businesses, governments, NGOs and users.
    19
    © 2008 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / YYYY-MM-DD / Initials
  • 69. VISION 3: Agriculture: The Dark Vision
    Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009
    Why would it not happen:
    • Costly as the localization need of the information is gigantic task.
    • 70. No realistic business model to sustain the agricultural platform in low-income communities.
    • 71. No locally relevant information available (conditions vary greatly within short distances)
    • 72. Understandability and relevance of the farming related data
    20 © 2008 Nokia Innovation Summit Africa 2008
  • 73. VISION 3: Agriculture: The Grim Vision
    Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009
    If it happens, then it could lead to:
    • Tighter competition: marginalized farmers get more marginalized
    • 74. Prices eventually get lower as competition gets tighter and faster: More work needed to gain same income
    • 75. Changes in the structure of commerce as middleman and retail bypassed: changes in social hierarchies and communal dynamics
    • 76. Large corporations able to utilize small scale producers and local food shortages caused
  • VISION 4: M-Health: Problems
    • Poor prevention, due lack of knowledge and resources
    • 77. Low resources: lack of facilities, personnel, training, medication
    • 78. Low access to health care due lack of money, long distances and knowledge
    • 79. Reliance of traditional medication and beliefs
  • VISION 4: M-Health: The Bright Vision
    Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009
    • Affordable / free access to health information trough mobile phone:
    • 80. Early diagnose > early treatment > good results > low cost
    • 81. Low costs: access to health insurance systems
    • 82. Data gathering and analyzing: more effective prevention of epidemics, targeting the medical resources effectively for prevention and treatment
    • 83. Registration of births, deaths and personal health profiles
    • 84. Family planning: controlled population growth
    • 85. Financed by combination of businesses, governments, NGOs and users.
  • VISION 4: M-Health: The Dark Vision
    Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009
    Why would it not happen:
    • Modern medical techniques in conflict with traditional conventions and religious values
    • 86. No realistic business model to sustain the health care platform in low-income communities.
    • 87. Localized health data too expensive to produce
    • 88. Governments resisting due costs
    • 89. Inexperienced and low in numbers healthcare personnel resisting
    24
  • 90. VISION 4: M-Health: The Dark Vision
    If it happens, then it could lead to:
    • Marginalized groups marginalize more
    • 91. Messages not understood > more people die
    • 92. Tools used in marketing medical products
    • 93. Increase in population growth
    25
  • 94. VISION 5: M-Entrepreneur: Problems
    Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009
    Low income due:
    • Small markets, tight competition, Greedy middleman
    • 95. Lack of specialization > Multitasking
    • 96. Lack of training: book keeping, planning, marketing
    • 97. Access to loans and lack of vision
    • 98. Lack of motivation for expansion: social pressures by fellow business man
    • 99. No taxes paid (+/- ?)
  • VISION 5: M-Entrepreneur: The Bright Vision
    Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009
    Effective mobile tools for:
    • Stock management
    • 100. Book keeping
    • 101. Business training
    • 102. Bank access
    • 103. Marketing and sales
    • 104. Customer relations
    • 105. Time saving = more time for doing the business or expanding and streamlining it
    • 106. Social networking tools allow pooling and specializing
  • VISION 5: M-Entrepreneur: The Dark Vision
    Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009
    Why would it not happen:
    • No realistic business model to sustain the health care platform in low-income communities.
    • 107. Entrepreneurs afraid of government control (licenses, taxes)
  • VISION 5: M-Entrepreneur: The Dark Vision
    Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009
    If it happens, then it could lead to:
    • Effective, timesaving tools for everyone = tighter competition same resources still shared more work needed
    • 108. Social support mechanisms of micro e´s broken with a direct competition: hierarchies within communities and families challenged > conflicts
    29
    © 2008 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / YYYY-MM-DD / Initials
  • 109. VISION 6: M-Banking: Problems
    Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009
    Traditional, branch based banking:
    • Problems in reaching the unbanked (80% -97%) for:
    • 110. Savings: Financial security
    • 111. Loans: local development and investment
    • 112. Lack of bank office networks: long distances
    • 113. Banking expenses too high for most
    • 114. ID and address needed
    • 115. Difficult to get loans
    Mobile banking:
    • Mobile money transfer doesn´t allow micro payments
    • 116. No interest paid to the user (but to Safaricom in Kenya)
    • 117. High expenses in maintaining the agent network (12500 in Kenya)
    • 118. No network coverage
    • 119. One operator network keeps the cost high
    • 120. Doesn't really reach the BOP
  • VISION 6: M-Banking: The Bright Vision
    Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009
    • Cashless economy: all payments from phone to phone
    • 121. Safety in money handling
    • 122. Direct access to bank
    • 123. More active grassroots economy >more income, wealthier societies
    31
    IMS 16.09.2008
  • 124. VISION 6: M-Banking: The Dark Vision
    Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009
    Why would it not happen:
    • Regulatory officials don´t want to open banking for new parties
    • 125. Security aspects too difficult to overcome
    • 126. No realistic business model to sustain the ladies platform in low-income communities.
    • 127. Systems cannot be made trustworthy
  • VISION 6: M-Banking: The Bright Vision
    Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009
    If it happens, then it could lead to:
    • Completely new forms of crime appear > paralysing the cashless economy
    • 128. Lack of competition keeps the costs high and bop is not reached
    33
  • 129. VISION 7: M-Empowerment of women: Problems
    Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009
    • Patriarchal traditions:
    • 130. Women have no role in decision making in the family or in the community
    • 131. Sexual violence towards women
    • 132. Less education
    • 133. Difficulties in progressing in careers
    • 134. FGM
    • 135. Child marriage
    • 136. Structural changes in societies has diminished the role of men in agriculture:
    • 137. No hunting, smaller fields, less cattle, no warrior status
    • 138. Women's jobs are left and increased
    • 139. Men have social problems: alcohol
  • VISION 7: M-Empowerment: The Bright Vision
    Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009
    • Powerful emancipator movement, sparked by ability of self expression on mobile internet platform.
    • 140. Mobile education and services to empower female in entrepreneurship
    • 141. Training and platform for educating women in the issues of governance to involve more women in decision making: “When you educate a women, you educate whole village”
  • VISION 7: M-Empowerment: The Dark Vision
    Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009
    Why would it not happen:
    • Cultural tradition and social hierarchies too rigid
    • 142. Difficult to get male leaders to get interested
    • 143. No realistic business model to sustain the ladies platform in low-income communities.
  • VISION 7: M-Empowerment: The Dark Vision
    Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009
    If it happens, then it could lead to:
    • Emancipator movement shakes the social structures and values of patriarchal communities and more extreme measures are taken to take back the control: sharia
    • 144. As a response: similar systems used in controlling women
    • 145. Active women cause frustration and anger among men which comes out in unconstructive manner within families
  • VISION: Conclusions:
    Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009
    Local R&D Ecosystem
    Lets not make it too complicated either...
    We don't know Africa
    56 countries, governments, legislations, histories, national identities
    1000 languages, LOCAL cultures, cultural practices and identities
    Coast, islands, great lakes, great rivers, jungle, deserts, rich farming land, mountains, valleys, cities, villages
  • 146. VISION: Bright and Dark Rules of Thumb:
    Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009
    Do enough deep enough research
    Do cross cultural research
    Consult local organizations
    Ask the government
    Ask journalists
    Make large, long and controlled pilots
    Always introduce new features with the most relevant (and politically neutral?) content
    Educate the users with the (media) skills needed
    Don't trust your intuition too much
    “EXPECT the worst”
    Be real(ideal)istic!
    39
    © 2008 Nokia V1-Filename.ppt / YYYY-MM-DD / Initials
  • 147. jussi.impio@nokia.com
    Globicomp/Ubicomp/2009
    (Thanks, any questions?)