Le Year In Review

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This is a presentation I did as a year-end review for my middle school life science students.

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Le Year In Review

  1. 1. The Living Environment the year so far ...
  2. 2. What does it mean to be alive?
  3. 3. Characteristics of Life M R L S T R N G R
  4. 4. Characteristics of Life Metabolism Regulation Locomotion Synthesis Transport Respiration Nutrition Growth Reproduction
  5. 5. Cells are the building blocks of life
  6. 6. Every organelle has a job to do
  7. 7. And they each help to maintain homeostasis
  8. 8. Ecology
  9. 9. Ecology is all about relationships
  10. 10. Biotic Factors depend upon Abiotic Factors
  11. 11. Everything eats everything else
  12. 12. Energy Flows Through the System
  13. 13. Things move from the simple to the complex
  14. 14. Nutrients Come and Go
  15. 15. and Biodiversity is King
  16. 16. Genetics
  17. 17. 4 Parts of Genetics
  18. 18. Inheritance
  19. 19. Rules of Inheritance There are different versions of each trait. Traits are inherited from your parents. You inherit one version of each trait from each of your parents. You need both versions of the trait to show (express) the trait* (*except not always). Not all versions of a trait are equal.
  20. 20. Inheritance Concepts Dominant - only one version of the gene needs to be present for the trait to be expressed. Recessive - both versions of the gene need to be present for the trait to be expressed. Incomplete dominance - a blending of the two versions of the trait. Co-dominance - both versions of the traits are expressed.
  21. 21. Genes and Chromosomes Chromosomes are made of DNA. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes. Genes are sections of a particular chromosome. Each gene is a recipe for a specific protein. The recipe is a string of nitrogenous bases. Any change to the recipe is called a mutation.
  22. 22. The structure of DNA DNA is a double helix or twisted ladder. Backbone - sugar (deoxyribose) and phosphate Rungs - nitrogenous basis (Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine)
  23. 23. RNA Structure RNA is a single-stranded molecule. Backbone - sugar (ribose) and phosphate Rungs - nitrogenous basis (Adenine, Uracil, Guanine, Cytosine)
  24. 24. DNA Replication The DNA molecule unzips (thanks to enzymes). Each strand builds a complimentary strand. One becomes two.
  25. 25. Protein Synthesis, part 1 A section of the DNA is unzipped (again thanks to enzyme action). A strand of mRNA makes a copy of the recipe for a particular protein. The mRNA leaves the nucleus and attaches to a ribosome.
  26. 26. Protein Synthesis, part 2 The mRNA is attached to the ribosome. Strands of tRNA (with only 3 bases) pair up with the strand of mRNA. tRNA carries amino acids, which bond together to form proteins. When complete, the mRNA and tRNA move on to make more proteins, the protein goes to do whatever it is supposed to do.
  27. 27. Mitosis Type of cell division used for growth and repair. One cell becomes two cells. The parent and offspring are genetically identical. Mitosis happens in phases (IPMAT).
  28. 28. Mitosis
  29. 29. Meiosis Type of cell division used to make sperm or egg cells (gametogenesis). One cell becomes four cells. The parent and offspring are genetically different, and the offspring cells have half the number of chromosomes as the parent (haploid). Meiosis happens in phases (IPMAT X 2).
  30. 30. Meiosis
  31. 31. Evolution
  32. 32. Species Change Over Time
  33. 33. Evidence for Evolution Fossil Record Homologous Structures Analogous Structures Vestigial Structures Embryonic Development
  34. 34. Fossil Record
  35. 35. Homologous and Analogous Structures
  36. 36. Vestigial Structures & Embryonic Development
  37. 37. Why it works
  38. 38. How it works
  39. 39. Reproduction
  40. 40. Asexual Reproduction Offspring and parents are genetically identical. Allows for the least amount of genetic variation. There are many types.
  41. 41. Sexual Reproduction Offspring and parents are genetically different. Allows for the most amount of genetic variation. Fertilization and embryonic development can occur inside or outside the body.
  42. 42. Embryonic Development The fertilized egg (zygote) develops into a mature organism. Typically has many stages. Involves cleavage, patterning, differentiation, growth.
  43. 43. Menstrual Cycle Prepares an egg for fertilization. Prepares the woman’s body for an embryo.
  44. 44. Human Body Systems
  45. 45. What to know The parts What the parts do How does this system help maintain homeostasis? How does this system work with others to maintain homeostasis? If the functions are interrupted, that’s a disease
  46. 46. The body systems work together to maintain homeostasis
  47. 47. Other important stuff
  48. 48. Diffusion Stuff moves from where there is more to where there is less ... until a balance is reached.
  49. 49. Surface Area to Volume Ratio A comparison between the amount of space on the surfaces of an object and the amount of space that object occupies
  50. 50. On the outside (make it as small as possible)
  51. 51. On the inside (make it as big as possible)
  52. 52. Enzymes Enzymes are proteins that make chemical reactions go faster. Enzymes are specific to one chemical reaction. Enzymes are not used up by the reactions in which they participate. Enzymes fit with the molecules they act on like a lock and key. Anything that changes the shape of an enzyme (like heat) changes what it does.
  53. 53. Enzymes
  54. 54. Feedback Mechanisms This is an important way that regulation happens in our bodies. Feedback mechanisms are like thermostats -- they manage an area of homeostasis around a certain set point. In order to work, there have to be receptors, set points, and controls.
  55. 55. Feedback Mechanisms
  56. 56. Hormones Hormones are chemical messengers that tell other parts of the body what to do and when. 9 endocrine glands make over 100 hormones. Cells have receptors for hormones. If they have receptors for a specific hormone, that hormone can effect the cell. Otherwise, it cannot.
  57. 57. Hormones
  58. 58. Some themes The more biodiversity, the healthier the ecosystem. The more genetic variation, the more ability organisms have to adapt and survive. Every part of a system is connected to every other part (cells/organelles, bodies/body systems, biotic/abiotic, genes/chromosomes). Humans can have positive or negative impacts on the rest of the world.
  59. 59. The End (for now....)

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