0
Prepared by : GM
OUTLINES
• Learning theories
• Definition
• Transformative learning
• A brain-based learning
• Multiple intelligence
• Mul...
• Cognitive theories
 Definition
 Gestalt psychology
 Multi-stored theory
 Meaningful learning
 Cognitive structurali...
I AM AQSA RASHEED
ROLL NO. 2012-627
Asslamu Alaikum !!!
Prepared by : GM
Learning Theories
• Definition :
• learning theories are conceptual
framework that describes how
information is
absorbed, ...
Transformative Learning Theory
• Transformative learning is the cognitive
process of effective changes in a frame of
refer...
A brain-based learning
• Learning is the process by which neurons
join by developing the synapses between
them.
• Differen...
Multiple Learning
• Howard Gardener suggests that different kinds
of intelligent exists in human beings.
• It is the theor...
Multimedia Learning
• Multimedia learning used of visual and auditory
teaching materials that may include video
computer a...
Other Learning Theories
• Endragogical is the art and science to help adults
learning.
• Connectivism is a recent theory o...
Learning Style Theory
• Learning styles theory proposes that individual
learns in different ways.
• There are four learnin...
Saba Amin
Roll No. 2012-626
Islamic Education
Prepared by : GM
Cognitive theories
• Cognitive theories grew out of
Gestalt psychology , developed in
Germany in the early 1900s and
broug...
Cognitive theories
• The basic concept of learning is the main
viewpoint in the cognitive learning theory(CLT)
• This theo...
Gestalt psychology
the word gestalt in German literally means
“shape” or “figure”.
Gestalt is a perspective focus on the...
 This approach to the psychology was founded on
the concept of gestalt
 Gestalt's performed many researches on
human per...
Multi-stored memory
• Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) worked
on this. It is also known as Multi-
stored memory.
• One of the ...
• Transudation of Energy
• It is short memory
• It is less than ½ second for vision
and about 3 seconds for hearing.
• For...
• It is called working memory.
• It is also known as conscious memory.
• It lasts around 15 to 20 seconds.
• For Example :...
Ghazala Muhammad Ali
Roll No. 2012-612
Islamic Education
Prepared by : GM
• It lasts from minutes to lifetime.
• It is divided into three subtypes of
procedural, semantic and Episodic memory.
• Pr...
Long-Term Memory
• Episodic memory:
» is
the memory of autobiographical events
(times, places, associated emotions, an
d o...
Prepared by : GM
• Cognitive structuralism was founded by
Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
• According to Hinson : “For teachers to
promote more eff...
Meaningful Learning
 Meaningful learning is opposed to rote
learning.
 Meaningful learning refers to a learning way
wher...
Cognitive Theories in the Classroom
• The steps taken are discussed below :
 Meaningful learning: Teacher need to promote...
Prepared by : GM
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Transcript of "Learning theories and memory"

  1. 1. Prepared by : GM
  2. 2. OUTLINES • Learning theories • Definition • Transformative learning • A brain-based learning • Multiple intelligence • Multimedia learning • Other learning theories • Learning style theory Prepared by : GM
  3. 3. • Cognitive theories  Definition  Gestalt psychology  Multi-stored theory  Meaningful learning  Cognitive structuralism  Cognitive theories in classroom OUTLINES Prepared by : GM
  4. 4. I AM AQSA RASHEED ROLL NO. 2012-627 Asslamu Alaikum !!! Prepared by : GM
  5. 5. Learning Theories • Definition : • learning theories are conceptual framework that describes how information is absorbed, processed, and retained during learning. Prepared by : GM
  6. 6. Transformative Learning Theory • Transformative learning is the cognitive process of effective changes in a frame of reference. • A frame of reference defines our view of the word. • Our frame of reference is composed of two dimensions, habits of mind and point of view. Prepared by : GM
  7. 7. A brain-based learning • Learning is the process by which neurons join by developing the synapses between them. • Different types of intelligence result from different combination of well developed functional areas. Prepared by : GM
  8. 8. Multiple Learning • Howard Gardener suggests that different kinds of intelligent exists in human beings. • It is the theory that has been fashionable in continuous professional development CPD training course for teachers. Prepared by : GM
  9. 9. Multimedia Learning • Multimedia learning used of visual and auditory teaching materials that may include video computer and other information technology. • The auditory channel deals with information that are heard and the visual channel process information that are seen. Prepared by : GM
  10. 10. Other Learning Theories • Endragogical is the art and science to help adults learning. • Connectivism is a recent theory of networked learning which focuses on learning as making connections. Prepared by : GM
  11. 11. Learning Style Theory • Learning styles theory proposes that individual learns in different ways. • There are four learning styles – 1 Feelings 2. Watching – 3. Thinking 4. Doing • The knowledge of learner by getting from above styles will lead to faster and more satisfactory improvement. Prepared by : GM
  12. 12. Saba Amin Roll No. 2012-626 Islamic Education Prepared by : GM
  13. 13. Cognitive theories • Cognitive theories grew out of Gestalt psychology , developed in Germany in the early 1900s and brought to America in the 1920s. • Two key assumptions underline this cognitive approach:  The memory system is an active organized processor of information and that prior knowledge plays an important role in learning. t Prepared by : GM
  14. 14. Cognitive theories • The basic concept of learning is the main viewpoint in the cognitive learning theory(CLT) • This theory can be divided into two specific theories: • The social cognitive theory (SCT) • The cognitive behavioural theory(CBT) Prepared by : GM
  15. 15. Gestalt psychology the word gestalt in German literally means “shape” or “figure”. Gestalt is a perspective focus on the belief that human consciousness can not be broken down into its elements. Prepared by : GM
  16. 16.  This approach to the psychology was founded on the concept of gestalt  Gestalt's performed many researches on human perception and learning .  Later on they proposed the principals or law for perceptual organization. Prepared by : GM
  17. 17. Multi-stored memory • Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) worked on this. It is also known as Multi- stored memory. • One of the major issue in cognitive psychology is the study of memory. • Human memory involves three stages. • Sensory memory • Short-term memory • Long-term memory Prepared by : GM
  18. 18. • Transudation of Energy • It is short memory • It is less than ½ second for vision and about 3 seconds for hearing. • For example : We see and hear many things everyday and a few things remain in our memory. We forget them in very short time. Sensory memory Prepared by : GM
  19. 19. • It is called working memory. • It is also known as conscious memory. • It lasts around 15 to 20 seconds. • For Example : • Chunking • Chunk means piece of a thing • We group small bits of information into meaningful unit. Short-term memory Prepared by : GM
  20. 20. Ghazala Muhammad Ali Roll No. 2012-612 Islamic Education Prepared by : GM
  21. 21. • It lasts from minutes to lifetime. • It is divided into three subtypes of procedural, semantic and Episodic memory. • Procedural memory : It is memory for the performance of particular types of action. • Semantic memory: refers to the memory of meanings, understandings, and other concept-based knowledge, and underlies the conscious recollection of factual information and general knowledge about the world. long-term memory Prepared by : GM
  22. 22. Long-Term Memory • Episodic memory: » is the memory of autobiographical events (times, places, associated emotions, an d other contextual knowledge) that can be explicitly stated. It is the collection of past personal experiences that occurred at a particular time and place. Prepared by : GM
  23. 23. Prepared by : GM
  24. 24. • Cognitive structuralism was founded by Jean Piaget (1896-1980) • According to Hinson : “For teachers to promote more effective learning the teach needs to link new information to familiar in information selectively in as learner. Cognitive structuralism Prepared by : GM
  25. 25. Meaningful Learning  Meaningful learning is opposed to rote learning.  Meaningful learning refers to a learning way where the new knowledge is related with previous knowledge.  Rote learning is where you memorize something without full understanding you don’t know how new information relates to your other stored knowledge. Prepared by : GM
  26. 26. Cognitive Theories in the Classroom • The steps taken are discussed below :  Meaningful learning: Teacher need to promote more effective learning, the teacher need to link to familiar information.  Dual coding learning: It suggests that we remember better with VISUAL LEARNING and VERBAL LEARNING.  Schema theory: this theory suggested that our prior knowledge can facilitate or enhance transfer of learning.  Phase of learning: to translate the information processing model into an instructional model called phase of learning. Prepared by : GM
  27. 27. Prepared by : GM
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