ASSIGNMENTSubject : Educational Psychology and GuidanceTopic : CH#4. Learning TheoriesSubmitted to : Mam FarrukhMunirSubmitted by : Ghazala Muhammad AliRoll No. 2012-612Aqsa RasheedRoll No. 2012-627Saba AminRoll No. 2012-626Program : M.A Islamic Education2ndSemesterInstitute of Education and ResearchUniversity of the Punjab, Lahore.
Educational Psychology and GuidanceChapter No. 4 : Learning TheoriesOutlines :Learning theories What is learning ? Transformative learning theory A brain-based theory of learning Multiple intelligences Multimedia learning Other learning theories Learning style theoryCognitive theories Definition Introduction Gestalt Psychology Multi-Stored Theory Meaningful Learning Cognitive Structuralism Cognitive Theories in the Classroom
Learning theoriesLearning theories are conceptual frameworks that describe howinformation is absorbed, processed, and retained duringlearning.Cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences, as wellas prior experience, all play a part in how understanding, or a worldview, is acquired or changed, and knowledge and skills retained.Behaviorists look at learning as an aspect of conditioning andwill advocate a system of rewards and targets in education. Educatorswho embrace cognitive theory believe that the definition of learning asa change in behavior is too narrow and prefer to study the learnerrather than her environment, and in particular the complexities ofhuman memory. Those who advocate constructivism believe that alearners ability to learn relies to a large extent on what he alreadyknows and understands, and that the acquisition of knowledge shouldbe an individually tailored process of construction. Transformativelearning theory focuses upon the often-necessary change that isrequired in a learners preconceptions and world view.Transformative learning theoryTransformative learning theory seeks to explain how humansrevise and reinterpret meaning. Transformative learning is thecognitive process of effecting change in a frame of reference. A frameof reference defines our view of the world. The emotions are ofteninvolved. Adults have a tendency to reject any ideas that do notcorrespond to their particular values, associations and concepts.Our frames of reference are composed of two dimensions: habitsof mind and points of view. Habits of mind, such as ethnocentrism,are harder to change than points of view. Habits of mind influence ourpoint of view and the resulting thoughts or feelings associated withthem, but points of view may change over time as a result ofinfluences such as reflection, appropriation and feedback.Transformative learning takes place by discussing with others the“reasons presented in support of competing interpretations, bycritically examining evidence, arguments, and alternative points ofview.” When circumstances permit, transformative learners movetoward a frame of reference that is more inclusive, discriminating,self-reflective, and integrative of experience.A brain-based theory of learningThe differences of opinion and theory in psychology indicatethat the learning process is not yet understood. Neuroscience showsthat the brain can be modeled not with a central processor where„intelligence‟ lies, but in having perhaps 70 functional areas. Mentalactivity requires several areas to work together. What appearas different types of intelligence result from different combinations of
well-developed functional areas. Learning is a process by whichneurons join by developing the synapses between them. Knowledge isarranged hierarchically, with new knowledge being linked to existingneural networks.Multiple IntelligencesThe existence of multiple intelligences is proposed bypsychologist Howard Gardner, who suggests that different kinds ofintelligence exists in human beings. It is a theory that has beenfashionable in continuous professional development (CPD) trainingcourses for teachers.Multimedia learningMultimedia learning refers to the use of visual and auditoryteaching materials that may include video, computer andother information technology. Multimedia learning theory focuses onthe principles that determine the effective use of multimedia inlearning, with emphasis on using both the visual and auditorychannels for information processing.The auditory channel deals with information that is heard, andthe visual channel processes information that is seen. The visualchannel holds less information than the auditory channel. If both thevisual and auditory channels are presented with information, moreknowledge is retained. However, if too much information is delivered itis inadequately processed, and long term memory is not acquired.Multimedia learning seeks to give instructors the ability to stimulateboth the visual and auditory channels of the learner, resulting inbetter progress.Other learning theoriesOther learning theories have also been developed for morespecific purposes. For example, Endragogical is the art and science tohelp adults learn.Connectivism is a recent theory of networkedlearning which focuses on learning as making connections.Learning style theoryLearning style theory proposes that individuals learn in differentways, that there are four distinct learning styles – feeling, watching,thinking and doing – and that knowledge of a learners preferredlearning style will lead to faster and more satisfactory improvement. Cognitive theoriesCognitive theories grew out of Gestalt psychology, developed inGermany in the early 1900s and brought to America in the 1920s.Over the years, the Gestalt psychologists provided demonstrations and
described principles to explain the way we organize our sensationsinto perceptions.Gestalt psychologists criticize behavior for being too dependenton overt behavior to explain learning. Gestalt views of learning havebeen incorporated into what have come to be labeled cognitivetheories. Two key assumptions underlie this cognitive approach: thatthe memory system is an active organized processor of informationand that prior knowledge plays an important role in learning.Cognitive theories look beyond behavior to consider how humanmemory works to promote learning, and an understanding of shortterm memory and long term memory is important to educatorsinfluenced by cognitive theory. They view learning as an internalmental process (including insight, information processing, memoryand perception) where the educator focuses on building intelligenceand cognitive development. The individual learner is more importantthan the environment.The Cognitive Learning Theory explains why the brain is themost incredible network of information processing and interpretationin the body as we learn things. This theory can be divided into twospecific theories: the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), and the CognitiveBehavioral Theory (CBT).When we say the word “learning”, we usually mean “to thinkusing the brain”. This basic concept of learning is the main viewpointin the Cognitive Learning Theory (CLT). The theory has been used toexplain mental processes as they are influenced by both intrinsic andextrinsic factors, which eventually bring about learning in anindividual.Cognitive Learning Theory implies that the different processesconcerning learning can be explained by analyzing the mentalprocesses first. It posits that with effective cognitive processes,learning is easier and new information can be stored in the memoryfor a long time.Gestalt PsychologyGestalt is a perspective focuses on the belief that humanconsciousness cannot be broken down into its elements. Thisapproach to the psychology was founded on the concept of gestalt.The word gestalt in German literally means“shape” or“figure”.Gestaltists performed many researches on human perceptionand learning. They believe learning is the result from good perception,which enable an individual to form correct concept in their mind.Later on they proposed the principals or law for perceptualorganization.Multi-stored Memory
One of the major issue in cognitive psychology is the study ofmemory.The dominant view is labeled the “stage theory” and is basedon the work of Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968). Atkinson and Shiffrinmodel is also known as Multi-stored model of memory. It proposedthat human memory involves a sequence of three stages which aresensory memory, short-term memory and long term memory. TheMulti-stored Model of memory assuming that there are differenttypes of memory used for different tasks. It is an explanation of howmemory processes work. You hear, see and feel many things, but youremember a few.Sensory MemorySensory memory is affiliated with thetransudation of energy(change from one form of energy to another).The environment makes a variety of sources of information. In theprocess of transudation, a memory is created. This memory is veryshort(less than ½ sec for vision, about 3 sec for hearing.Short-term memoryShort-term memory is also called workingmemory and relates to what we are thinking about at any givenmoment time. According to Freudian: “Short-term memory isconscious memory. It is created by our paying attention to an externalstimulus, an internal thought, or both. It will initially last somewherearound 15 to 20 sec unless it is repeated.”For example there is a process that is sometimes used toexpand the capacity of short-term memory is called chunking.Chunking is a process by which we group individual bits ofinformation into some types of large, more meaningful unit.Long-term memoryLTM provides the lasting retention ofinformation from minutes to a lifetime. Long-term memory appears tohave an almost limitless capacity to retain information, but it couldnever be measured, as it would take too long. Contemporarypsychologist agree that long-term memory can be divided intosubtypes of declarative and procedural memory. Declarative memoryis subdivided into episodic memory and semantic memory.Cognitive StructuralismCognitive structralism was founded by Jean Piaget(1896-1980)and other cognoitive psychologist..According to Leinhardt : “The awareness of interrelationshipbetween simuli or the use of appropriate schemata are significantto cognitive learning and to teaching and classroom learning.”
According to Hinson : “For teachers to promote more effective learningthe teach needs to link new information to familiar informationselectively in as learner.”Meaningful learningMeaningful learning is opposed to rote learning and refers toa learning way where the new knowledge to acquire is related withprevious knowledge.(Ausubel 2000).Rote learning is where you memorize something without fullunderstanding and you dont know how the new information relates toyour other stored knowledge. For our example, lets say we learn 5facts in a math course during a full semester by rote learning. Thiscan be illustrated by the figure below. The 5 facts (labeled 1-5) arestored in memory as separate items although in real life they arerelated to each other. When the student rote learned these facts, thebrain stored them as distinct, unrelated knowledge that can only berecalled individually (one factat a time). When this studentrecalls one fact the other 4facts are not recalled (oractivated) at that moment. Inother words, thinking aboutfact #5 does not lead thestudent to think about facts#1-4. Contrast that to thebelow discussion on recallafter meaningful learning.When meaningful learning occurs (using our example of 5 mathfacts) the facts are stored in a relational manner (see figure below).That is, the brain stores them together because they are related toeach other. Now, when one fact is recalled, the other facts are alsorecalled at that moment (or shortly thereafter). In other words,recalling fact #5 activates the memory for facts #2 and #4, and this inturn leads to recalling facts #1 and #3. Thisphenomenon is called the spread ofactivation. This is the gist of meaningfullearning. Problem-solving for this studentwould be easier than for the student whorote learned the same 5 facts. Which one ofthese students would you like to hire foryour company? Some suggestions on how toensure meaningful learning appear belowthe figure.
Cognitive Theories in ClassroomTeachers can apply concepts from cognitivist in the classroomtp enhance their students understanding. The steps taken arediscussed below. Meaningful learning :Teachers need to promote more effective learning, the teacherneed to link to familiar information.Example : If teacher want to teach about rice plantation, ittrip to a place where rice are planted or show them videoshowing rice plantation. Dual coding theory :Guide students to process information using dual codingtheory.Dual coding theory suggests that we remember better whentwo processes are engage: visual learning and verballearning. Schema theory :Engage students in schema theory while teaching.This theory suggested that our prior knowledge can facilitateor enhance transfer of learning.Example : In teaching account, teacher may use priorknowledge or formula they have learned earlier inmathematics. Phase of learning :Gagne (1985) translated the information-processing modelinto an instructional model called phase of learning.