Luddites Opposed industrial development Took action by smashing industrial machinery Driven to opposition by moves to cut minimum wage and to forbid worker’s organizations (unions)
The Chartists A group centred around the working-class calling for political and social reform Universal suffrage for all men over 21 (deemed essential) Equal-sized electoral districts Voting by secret ballot An end to the need for property qualifications for Parliament Pay for Members of Parliament Annual elections Initially violently opposed, many of their policies later became mainstream
Socialism Resources should be controlled by the public, not by private businesses and investors. Co-operation is favoured over competition. In 19th-century society, great wealth existed, but fair and equal distribution of this wealth did not. Thus, socialists rejected the lack of equality and humanitarianism under classical liberalism.
Utopian Socialists Wanted to modify the Robert Owen and existing system New Lanark Humanitarians advocated an end to the appalling conditions of the average worker idealist rather than pragmatic
All socialists believed (more or less) Private ownership of the means of production permits exploitation The state should direct the economy to achieve economic equality for all citizens Society should be classless
Marxists Marxism is also called scientific socialism or communism Ideas were based primarily on the theory that history is the story of evolving class warfare The only way to overthrow capitalism was by means of a class struggle (revolution) between the proletariat (workers) and bourgeoisie (owners).
Socialists? Marxists? Socialism and Marxism ,while sharing common views, differed greatly in the ways that their goal of transforming liberal capitalist society should be achieved…one was peacefully (socialist) the other was violently (Marxist/Communist) As a result, Marxist thought was not as widely accepted in classical liberal society Socialism, which favoured reform, was more popular