open source, open data,  open innovation <ul>glyn moody </ul>
<ul>once in a lifetime? </ul><ul><li>global society is passing through a major transition
transition from analogue to digital </li><ul><li>vinyl LPs to CDs
video tapes to DVDs
books to ebooks </li></ul><li>*not* once in a lifetime
once in a *civilisation* </li></ul>
the digital world <ul><li>the passage from analogue to digital touches most facets of modern life
most evident in the realm of content – music, film, text
but also touches science, business and government
brings need to move from approaches based on scarcity to those based on abundance </li></ul>
digital abundance <ul><li>marginal cost of a digital copy is close to zero
today:  €50 USB memory stick, capacity 32 Gbytes, stores 5,000 songs
tomorrow: €50 USB memory stick, capacity 32 Tbytes = 32,000 Gbytes, stores 5,000,000 songs </li><ul><li>Spotify: 15,000,00...
digital knowledge <ul><li>day after tomorrow: able to put all recorded knowledge – text, sounds, pictures, video - on a me...
selective updates via Internet
everyone with a smartphone can collaborate as equal
innovation becomes democratised and hyperconnected </li></ul>
”analogue” innovation <ul><li>traditional innovation in an analogue (pre-Web) world </li><ul><li>centralised
top-down
collaboration hard
not scalable </li></ul><li>*closed* innovation </li></ul>
” digital” innovation <ul><li>*open* innovation </li><ul><li>de-centralised
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Glyn Moody - open data, open innovation

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presentation given at South Tyrol Free Software Conference on November 18, 2011. It explores how the new world of abundance creates and requires new kinds of open, digital innovation. It also looks at some of the possible business models for companies based around open data.

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Glyn Moody - open data, open innovation

  1. 1. open source, open data, open innovation <ul>glyn moody </ul>
  2. 2. <ul>once in a lifetime? </ul><ul><li>global society is passing through a major transition
  3. 3. transition from analogue to digital </li><ul><li>vinyl LPs to CDs
  4. 4. video tapes to DVDs
  5. 5. books to ebooks </li></ul><li>*not* once in a lifetime
  6. 6. once in a *civilisation* </li></ul>
  7. 7. the digital world <ul><li>the passage from analogue to digital touches most facets of modern life
  8. 8. most evident in the realm of content – music, film, text
  9. 9. but also touches science, business and government
  10. 10. brings need to move from approaches based on scarcity to those based on abundance </li></ul>
  11. 11. digital abundance <ul><li>marginal cost of a digital copy is close to zero
  12. 12. today: €50 USB memory stick, capacity 32 Gbytes, stores 5,000 songs
  13. 13. tomorrow: €50 USB memory stick, capacity 32 Tbytes = 32,000 Gbytes, stores 5,000,000 songs </li><ul><li>Spotify: 15,000,000 tracks </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. digital knowledge <ul><li>day after tomorrow: able to put all recorded knowledge – text, sounds, pictures, video - on a memory stick, or in a smartphone
  15. 15. selective updates via Internet
  16. 16. everyone with a smartphone can collaborate as equal
  17. 17. innovation becomes democratised and hyperconnected </li></ul>
  18. 18. ”analogue” innovation <ul><li>traditional innovation in an analogue (pre-Web) world </li><ul><li>centralised
  19. 19. top-down
  20. 20. collaboration hard
  21. 21. not scalable </li></ul><li>*closed* innovation </li></ul>
  22. 22. ” digital” innovation <ul><li>*open* innovation </li><ul><li>de-centralised
  23. 23. bottom-up
  24. 24. collaboration easy
  25. 25. scalable </li></ul><li>first appeared in the earliest digital domain: software
  26. 26. its birth and characteristics can be observed in the story of GNU/Linux </li></ul>
  27. 27. what's GNU? <ul><li>GNU born in 1984 at MIT
  28. 28. GNU is ”GNU's Not Unix” - a recursive acronym
  29. 29. one man's attempt to create a free version of the leading Unix operating system
  30. 30. singular vision </li></ul>
  31. 31. a change of heart <ul><li>by 1991, GNU was still unfinished: it lacked a ”kernel” - the heart of the operating system
  32. 32. in March 1991, 21-year-old student Linus Torvalds started writing one ”just for fun” – in his Helsinki bedroom
  33. 33. key inflection was August 1991, when he opened up his ”Linux” project using the Internet </li></ul>
  34. 34. open innovation <ul><li>decentralised </li><ul><li>anyone, anywhere, could join in </li></ul><li>bottom-up </li><ul><li>people fed suggestions, problems and solutions to Linus </li></ul><li>collaboration easy </li><ul><li>Internet was more affordable </li></ul><li>scalable </li><ul><li>no formal training required – everything is out in the open </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Linus' Law <ul><li>Eric Raymond: ”given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow”
  36. 36. adding more people to a project increases the probability that someone’s approach will match the problem in such a way that the solution is obvious (”shallow”) to that person
  37. 37. power of open innovation </li></ul>
  38. 38. fruits of open innovation <ul><li>91% of top 500 supercomputers run Linux </li><ul><li>0.2% run Microsoft Windows </li></ul><li>Google runs its services on millions of servers running Linux </li><ul><li>so does Facebook, Twitter etc. </li></ul><li>Android mobile phone system runs on Linux </li><ul><li>600,000 handsets activated daily
  39. 39. launched November 2007 </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. open innovation projects <ul><li>open content
  41. 41. open access
  42. 42. open data </li></ul>
  43. 43. open content <ul><li>10 million articles on Wikipedia
  44. 44. 100 million blogs
  45. 45. ” hundreds of millions” videos on YouTube
  46. 46. 5 billion pictures on Flickr
  47. 47. one trillion URLs (2008) </li></ul>
  48. 48. open access <ul><li>scientific method based on sharing knowledge originated 17th century
  49. 49. undermined in later 20th century </li><ul><li>US Bayh-Dole Act (1980)
  50. 50. scientific publishing </li></ul><li>open access – free online access to research </li><ul><li>arXiv.org - 713,177 e-prints (1991)
  51. 51. Public Library of Science (2001) </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. open data - HGP <ul><li>Human Genome Project </li><ul><li>started 1991, budget of $3.8 billion
  53. 53. first &quot;complete&quot; human genome published 2001
  54. 54. first and biggest open data project
  55. 55. Bermuda Agreement (1996) </li><ul><li>all human genomic data placed in public domain immediately, no restrictions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  56. 56. open data today <ul><li>scientific data
  57. 57. business data
  58. 58. government data </li><ul><li>open government/transparency
  59. 59. non-personal </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. the economics of open data <ul><li>Human Genome Project </li><ul><li>cost: $3.8 billion
  61. 61. benefit: $796 billion economic impact, created 310,000 jobs </li></ul><li>EU government data (closed) </li><ul><li>cost: €9.5bn
  62. 62. benefit: €68bn </li></ul><li>US government data (open) </li><ul><li>cost: €19bn
  63. 63. benefit: €750bn </li></ul></ul>
  64. 64. open source businesses <ul><li>direct </li><ul><li>Red Hat - makes money selling open source services </li></ul><li>indirect </li><ul><li>Facebook - making money from using a mixture of open source internally
  65. 65. Google/Android - building business ecosystem by releasing open source </li></ul></ul>
  66. 66. open data businesses <ul><li>direct </li><ul><li>OpenCorporates.com - &quot;a URL for every company in the world&quot;; 20 territories and 13 million companies </li></ul><li>indirect </li><ul><li>making money from a mixture of open data: mashup
  67. 67. building business ecosystem by releasing open data </li></ul></ul>
  68. 68. open businesses <ul><li>open source </li><ul><li>using free software to save money, increase independence </li></ul><li>open data </li><ul><li>using free information to save money, increase independence </li></ul><li>open innovation </li><ul><li>sharing open source tools, open data with partners, customers and competitors </li></ul></ul>
  69. 69. open source, open data, open innovation <ul>[email_address] @glynmoody on Twitter/identi.ca opendotdotdot.blogspot.com </ul>

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