The Transformation of Christianity: an interpretation of the 20th Century An Inaugural Professorial Lecture <br />Professo...
1900					   2000<br />Orthodox<br />Syrian Orthodox, Russian Orthodox, Greek Orthodox...<br />Roman Catholic<br />Protesta...
A statistical Comparison<br />3<br />33<br />
44<br />Liturgical<br />Roman Catholic<br />Greek Orthodox<br />Protestant <br />4<br />
Europe 1900<br />Main line Denomination<br />Sundays<br />Ordained clergy<br />5<br />5<br />Baptismal font:<br />65% of b...
Europe 1900<br />Extempore Protestantism<br />D L Moody and Ira Sankey, 1872-5 <br />Salvation Army<br />6<br />6<br />
The Welsh revival 1904<br />77<br />Evan Robert’s travelling evangelistic bands: 100,000 commitments to Christ<br />Social...
America & revival<br />William Seymour<br />1906 Azusa Street mission<br />broke the social mould –all races <br />Extempo...
9<br />Edinburgh 1910<br /><ul><li>1215 delegates from the larger missionary societies –all men, few from Asia/less from A...
Assumption: Christian West to the non-Christian East
Failure to see: the increasing flow of the Pentecostal movement and the impact of the two world wars</li></ul>9<br />
World War 1<br />The moral authority of Christianity was enormously diminished<br />The habit of churchgoing was disrupted...
Europe: Communism<br />11<br />The Persecuted Church in the Communist bloc<br />Destruction<br />Imprisonment<br />Gulags<...
Fascism<br />The evils of communism on one side and fascism on the other seemed a pincer movement made in hell<br />Fascis...
Issues in the European church<br />Mission slows down<br />Anglican reform falters<br />Ecumenism begins<br />BUT the Revi...
Growth of pentecostalism<br />Missionaries...<br />European national leaders- <br />T.B. Barrett, Lewi Pethrus, Karl Fix, ...
15#<br />World War 2<br />Nazis attempted to control the church in Germany and use it to promote their racist message. <br...
16#<br />World War 2<br />In UK Archbishop William Temple acknowledged pacifism as a legitimate Christian witness. <br />F...
World War 2’s effects on Christianity<br />Bombed out churches – to rebuild<br />Humanitarian work of the Vatican and othe...
18<br />18<br />Church growth<br /><ul><li> Billy Graham:
LA  London  global
Yet nuclear fears...</li></li></ul><li>19<br />Growth... Technology in usa<br />Oral Roberts, T.L Osborn ... Many other he...
Transition: 1950s to 1960s<br />20<br />Conformist 1950s<br />Nonconformist<br />1960s<br />
The Charismatic Movement<br />Religious experience prioritised (an outpouring of the Holy Spirit)<br />Catholic <br />Lay ...
Vatican 2 (1962-65)<br />22<br />The Church is much more than an organization: it is the organism of the Holy Spirit, some...
The Charismatic Movement<br />Women leaders<br />Home groups<br />Modernised worship<br />23<br />23<br />
New Churches (1970s)<br />The Network structures<br />24<br />Structure:<br />Congregation[s] and their apostle, <br />-gl...
Mega Churches<br />Global scene – Korea – Latin America – Africa<br />entire set of social and spiritual activities availa...
26<br />Mega Churches in Asia<br />City Harvest church, Singapore<br />Band, orchestras, big show style...<br />26<br />
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The Transformation of Christianity? Glyndŵr University professorial lecture, 11 January 2011

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Theology professor William Kay charts the development of 20th Century Christianity, looking in particular at the growth in Pentecostalism. An mp3 of this lecture is available at http://glyndwruni.posterous.com

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The Transformation of Christianity? Glyndŵr University professorial lecture, 11 January 2011

  1. 1. The Transformation of Christianity: an interpretation of the 20th Century An Inaugural Professorial Lecture <br />Professor William K. Kay<br />Catrin Finch Centre, Glyndŵr University, 11 Jan 2011<br />1<br />
  2. 2. 1900 2000<br />Orthodox<br />Syrian Orthodox, Russian Orthodox, Greek Orthodox...<br />Roman Catholic<br />Protestant <br />Anglican, old Protestant (i.e. Congregational, Baptist, Presbyterian) and Independent (including classical Pentecostal and neo-Pentecostal)...<br />Marginals<br />2<br />22<br />
  3. 3. A statistical Comparison<br />3<br />33<br />
  4. 4. 44<br />Liturgical<br />Roman Catholic<br />Greek Orthodox<br />Protestant <br />4<br />
  5. 5. Europe 1900<br />Main line Denomination<br />Sundays<br />Ordained clergy<br />5<br />5<br />Baptismal font:<br />65% of births <br />baptised in CofE<br />in 1902<br />Bishop Charles<br />Gore<br />
  6. 6. Europe 1900<br />Extempore Protestantism<br />D L Moody and Ira Sankey, 1872-5 <br />Salvation Army<br />6<br />6<br />
  7. 7. The Welsh revival 1904<br />77<br />Evan Robert’s travelling evangelistic bands: 100,000 commitments to Christ<br />Social impact - crime figures all over the Principality dropped. <br />The meetings -informal, lengthy and spontaneous <br />Any member of the congregation, including women or children, might suddenly lead the rest in prayer or start with the singing of a hymn. <br />Roberts himself convened the meetings and presided over them [but was not ordained]<br />7<br />
  8. 8. America & revival<br />William Seymour<br />1906 Azusa Street mission<br />broke the social mould –all races <br />Extempore yet biblical teaching<br />power and presence of the Holy Spirit in prophecy, speaking in tongues, miracles and healings <br />Its own Newspaper- The Apostolic Faith spread the news<br />-1912<br />8<br />8<br />
  9. 9. 9<br />Edinburgh 1910<br /><ul><li>1215 delegates from the larger missionary societies –all men, few from Asia/less from Africa / Latin America
  10. 10. Assumption: Christian West to the non-Christian East
  11. 11. Failure to see: the increasing flow of the Pentecostal movement and the impact of the two world wars</li></ul>9<br />
  12. 12. World War 1<br />The moral authority of Christianity was enormously diminished<br />The habit of churchgoing was disrupted by war.<br />The political authority of Christianity was diminished.<br />In defeat Germany lost its colonies and therefore its missionary work in Africa and elsewhere.<br />Russia became Soviet Russia, the first state to be governed by militant atheists.<br />10<br />10<br />
  13. 13. Europe: Communism<br />11<br />The Persecuted Church in the Communist bloc<br />Destruction<br />Imprisonment<br />Gulags<br />Yet Baptists, Pentecostals kept going!<br />11<br />
  14. 14. Fascism<br />The evils of communism on one side and fascism on the other seemed a pincer movement made in hell<br />Fascism covered Spain, Italy and Germany and sought to incorporate the church into its ruling philosophy<br />12<br />
  15. 15. Issues in the European church<br />Mission slows down<br />Anglican reform falters<br />Ecumenism begins<br />BUT the Revivalistic stream <br />Pentecostalism grew <br />UK- George Jeffreys conducted his revival and divine healing crusades<br />13<br />13<br />
  16. 16. Growth of pentecostalism<br />Missionaries...<br />European national leaders- <br />T.B. Barrett, Lewi Pethrus, Karl Fix, G. Polman, Donald Gee<br />American revivalism... <br />Pentecostals went worldwide while building at home<br />14<br />
  17. 17. 15#<br />World War 2<br />Nazis attempted to control the church in Germany and use it to promote their racist message. <br />The Confessing Church was formed to oppose this.<br />Karl Barth from Switzerland castigated Lutheran surrender to Hitler’s demands<br />Dietrich Bonhoeffer dies in a plot against Hitler. <br />Some Pentecostal churches in Germany were small enough to be left alone.<br />In Asia, you will recall The Bridge on the River Kwai and prisoner of war speaking the Lord’s Prayer before being shot.<br />15<br />
  18. 18. 16#<br />World War 2<br />In UK Archbishop William Temple acknowledged pacifism as a legitimate Christian witness. <br />From the Vatican, Pope Pius XII always considered communism to be a greater threat than fascism and tried to resolve the threats to his flock by concordats with Hitler.<br />Church attendance was again disrupted <br />In Belgium and the Netherlands Nazi rule was imposed upon the population. <br />In Soviet Russia the situation was dire <br />Orthodox Church in 1943 -Stalin sought the Russian patriarch’s aid for morale. Others were persecuted.<br />Normal church activity was hampered. Sunday school, evening services, no rallies. <br />Churches were bombed out on both sides.<br />16<br />
  19. 19. World War 2’s effects on Christianity<br />Bombed out churches – to rebuild<br />Humanitarian work of the Vatican and other Christian groups  respect<br />1948 World Council of Churches –ecumenism preferred<br />NB First World Pentecostal Conference 1947 Zurich<br />England: <br />in 1944 Education Act insisted on the teaching of Christianity within all maintained schools as an antidote to fascist and Nazi values.<br />Coventry Cathedral<br />17<br />
  20. 20. 18<br />18<br />Church growth<br /><ul><li> Billy Graham:
  21. 21. LA  London  global
  22. 22. Yet nuclear fears...</li></li></ul><li>19<br />Growth... Technology in usa<br />Oral Roberts, T.L Osborn ... Many other healing evangelists go global – Magazines, Radio, TV, <br />From Poverty to health and prosperity theology<br />1960s ‘social revolution’<br />1960s saw a breaking down of moral and intellectual barriers. <br />Christian ideals -maintained by godly women - were now jettisoned<br />19<br />
  23. 23. Transition: 1950s to 1960s<br />20<br />Conformist 1950s<br />Nonconformist<br />1960s<br />
  24. 24. The Charismatic Movement<br />Religious experience prioritised (an outpouring of the Holy Spirit)<br />Catholic <br />Lay academics at Duquesne University 1967<br />The Second Vatican Council, 1962<br />David du Plessis <br />Mainline Protestant affected<br />Renewal, Restoration, Radical Christianity<br />New Churches = ? neo-Pentecostal or neo-charismatic or ‘Third Wave’[1980s] though they prefer now ‘Apostolic’ [2000s]<br />21<br />21<br />
  25. 25. Vatican 2 (1962-65)<br />22<br />The Church is much more than an organization: it is the organism of the Holy Spirit, something that is alive, that takes hold of our inmost being (2001)<br />Joseph Ratzinger = the current Pope<br />
  26. 26. The Charismatic Movement<br />Women leaders<br />Home groups<br />Modernised worship<br />23<br />23<br />
  27. 27. New Churches (1970s)<br />The Network structures<br />24<br />Structure:<br />Congregation[s] and their apostle, <br />-global travel, networks<br />management consultants, constructed networks of churches bonded with personal relationship<br />Holy Spirit led by spiritual gifts - not committees or constitutions<br />mega-networks or mini-networks and interaction between networks<br />24<br />
  28. 28. Mega Churches<br />Global scene – Korea – Latin America – Africa<br />entire set of social and spiritual activities available<br />website, multi-purpose building, specialist staff and, often, broadcasting capability.<br />Dangers<br />Permeated with culture<br />musical directors, worship teams – pop concert?!<br />Yet biblical exposition included<br />25<br />Yoido Pentecostal Church Seoul, S. Korea<br />25<br />
  29. 29. 26<br />Mega Churches in Asia<br />City Harvest church, Singapore<br />Band, orchestras, big show style...<br />26<br />
  30. 30. A statistical comparison<br />27<br />
  31. 31. results<br />Decline in Orthodoxy<br />Protestant and Roman Catholic parity with world population<br />Renewalists become the second largest group<br />Moreover Renewalists cross boundaries between Protestant and Roman Catholic<br />28<br />
  32. 32. Shift in Geographic Centre of Christianity<br />29<br />Examples of 1900s movement , and 2000s movement of ‘mission’<br />29<br />
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