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# Syntactic Relations

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• 1. SYNTACTIC RELATIONS  Adri Budi Setiawan  Dina M Sitorus  Gloria Grace Yohana  Meylisah Siagian
• 2. SYNTACTIC RELATION DEFINITION  Learning Syntactic Relation is learning about the relationship among constituents at the same tree. PURPOSE  It is useful to develop some terminology to describe the syntactic relations between constituents, since these relations turn to be central to syntactic description.
• 3.  Tree diagram A B E DC F G H J
• 4. TREE DIAGRAM Here are the explanations of this tree diagram: •A, B, E, and G are the non-terminal nodes because they branch down the other nodes. •C, D, F, H, and J are the terminal nodes because they don’t have any other nodes to be branched. •A immediately contains B and E. we can also say that A contains B, C, D, E, F, G, H, and J. •B contains C and D (C and D are the constituents of B). •E immediately contains F and G. we can also say that E contains F, G, H, and J. •G immediately contains H and J. H and J are the two constituents immediately contained within G. Using equivalent kinship terminology, we can say that A is the mother of B and E (B and E are the two daughters of A). B is the mother of C and D. E is the mother of F and G. G is the mother of H and J. Likewise, B and E are sisters as are C and D, F and G, H and J.
• 5. C-COMMANDS  C-command is a particularly important syntactic relation which provides us with a useful way of determining the relative position of two different constituents within the same tree.  In the light of definition of c-commands given above let’s consider with constituents each of the nodes in this tree diagram.
• 6. C-COMMANDS  Tree Diagram A B E C D F G H J
• 7.  A doesn’t c-command any of the other nodes since A has no sisters.  B c-commands A,F,G,H, and J because B’s sister is E (E contains F,G,H, and J)  C c-commands only D because, C’s sister is D (D doesn’t contain any other constituents)  D c-commands only C.  E c-commands B, C, and D because, E’s sister is B (B contains C and D).  F c-commands G, H, and J.  G c-commands only F.  H c-commands J.
• 8. POLARITY EXPRESSION A polarity expression is a distribution of a class expression. These are expressions which have an inherent ‘polarity’ in the sense that they are restricted to occurring in certain types of sentence.  For example is any .Any has 2 different uses. One is as universal quantifier (anyone, anything). The second use of any is as partitive quantifier (any money, any sugar) 
• 9. Examples of negative expression:  I don’t know about anything.  She doesn’t write any letter to him.  Examples of interrogative expression:  Do you have any comic?  Does she have any pen?  Examples of conditional expression:  If there is anyone who wants to borrow my money, I will not lend him.  If anyone should ask where I am, say I’ve gone to lunch. As the sentences above illustrate, partitive quantifier any can occur in certain polarity condition. It happens only in negative, interrogative and conditional condition.
• 10. ANAPHOR & BINDING CONDITION Anaphor includes reflexives pronoun (i.e. self/selves forms like myself/yourself etc.) and reciprocal pronoun (i.e. each other and another. They must be bound by antecedent in the sentence. When the anaphor has no suitable antecedent to bind it, it becomes ungrammatical structure. 
• 11.  EXAMPLE of grammatical structure: He blamed himself  The third masculine singular anaphor himself is bound by a suitable third person masculine singular antecedent (he) They are proud of themselves.  The third plural anaphor themselves is bound by a suitable third person plural antecedent (they) They help each other.  Each other must be bound by a plural antecedent ( they)  The point is that we have to be able to identify the antecedent then we can identify the right anaphor.  Moreover, we have to be able to place the right position for the antecedent so that we can identify the sentence in the tree diagram correctly.
• 12.  A bound Constituent must be c-commanded by an appropriate antecedent.   For Example:  The boy had blamed himself TP DP T’ T VPND V PRN The boy had blamed himself
• 13.  Here is an example of the ungrammatical structure: Followers of the leader may blame himself TP NP T’ N PP T VP P DP V PRN D N Followers of the leader may blame himself
• 14.  NOTE: This is ungrammatical because DP node containing the leader doesn’t c-command the PRN node containing himself. Although the NP followers of the leader c-commands himself, it is not a suitable antecedent because it’s plural expression, and himself requires a singular antecedent. So, the anaphor himsef remains unbound.