0
The water security and energy nexus in Southeastern Europe  from a WWF perspective Angela Klauschen,  WWF Mediterranean GW...
1. Some global facts on  freshwater ecosystems
<ul><li>“ Freshwater ecosystems tend to have the highest proportion of species threatened with extinction.”  [pg 19] ; </l...
Water for energy <ul><li>Hydropower: the major threat </li></ul><ul><li>Biofuels:  1 litre biofuel = 2500 litres of water ...
Fragmentation by dams
Over-abstraction and agriculture <ul><li>54% diverted for human use of which: </li></ul><ul><li>70% agriculture </li></ul>...
2. WWF’s approach to water security
Water Stewardship Promoting Water Stewardship to Reduce Water Footprint Impacts Water Security Promoting Responsible Water...
WWF’s water security initiative Drivers and threats:
WWF’s water security initiative <ul><li>Strategic goal: </li></ul><ul><li>protect and/or restore environmental flows neces...
3. WWF’s work on water security in Southeastern Europe
<ul><li>Why do we work there? </li></ul>
What are the main threats in SEE? Biodiversity Loss (State) Threats (Pressure) Root Causes (Drivers) <ul><li>  </li></ul><...
Why do we focus on hydropower? <ul><li>Hydropower  = 43 % of region’s energy consumption (2004)  </li></ul><ul><li>Scarcit...
Why do we focus on hydropower?
How do we respond? <ul><li>Some key principles and directions: </li></ul><ul><li>Taking on board the principles of the  Wo...
WWF’s presence in the Southeastern Europe: <ul><li>Active in HR, BiH, MN, AL, SRB </li></ul><ul><li>Dinaric Arc Initiative...
p
<ul><li>Create momentum & raise the visibility on highly controversial projects (e.g. Moraca HPPs, MN) </li></ul><ul><li>S...
Thank you! [email_address] www.panda.org/mediterranean
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

The water Security and Energy Nexus in Southeastern Europe from a WWF Perspective presented by Angela Klauschen, WWF Mediterranean at GWP CP Meeting 2010

964

Published on

The water Security and Energy Nexus in Southeastern Europe from a WWF Perspective presented by Angela Klauschen, WWF Mediterranean at GWP CP Meeting 2010

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
964
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
15
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • The Living Planet Index shows that species populations in inland waters decreased on average by 35% from 1970 to 2005. It is speculated that 50% of wetlands area (excluding large lakes) has been lost globally. In 2005, UN Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Report concluded that “Freshwater ecosystems tend to have the highest proportion of species threatened with extinction”, and “the use of two ecosystem services - capture fisheries and freshwater - is now well beyond levels that can be sustained even at current demands, much less future ones.” Unsustainable water use and poor water management also jeopardize the other ecosystems like the forest, grassland, estuary and coastal marine, and threat many of flagship species.
  • Dams is the major threats to many of our places and rivers. Our Amazon rivers, is still pretty pristine. However, it will look much different if all the planned dams will be built in the future.
  • Amazon and Mekong are only two of the examples. Similar situation for the Brahmaputra, Congo, Amur, Yangtze, and many of WWF’s priority rivers. This graph shows that globally, of 177 rivers longer than 1,000 Km, only 64 (&lt;40%) remain free-flowing on the main stem, and of these, there are plans to dam 17 more rivers by 2020. Global status: - Between 45,000 and 85,000 large dams - Around 1,400 planned or under construction - 40-80 million people displaced - 60% long rivers fragmented – huge impacts on the environment &amp; environmental services Source: “Free-flowing rivers. Economic luxury or ecological necessity?”, WWF, 2006
  • Today, rivers are not only been dammed, but also run dry. 54% of accessible freshwater is currently diverted for human use (UN WWAP 2003). Of the diverted water, globally around 70% is used for agriculture (which is why it is the focus of WWF’s water demand management work), 20% by industry and 10% for domestic use. The quote comes from the 2004 report of the Stockholm and International Water Management Institutes. It highlights the imminent threat to the survival of many freshwater ecosystems if water productivity is not dramatically improved in agriculture.
  • Water Stewardship Promoting Water Stewardship to Reduce Water Footprint Impacts on WWF’s priority river basins while meeting the needs for business and agriculture development Water Security Promoting Responsible Water Infrastructure and Securing Sustainable Flows , to safeguard hydrological regimes that freshwater flora and fauna rely on, while meeting water demands for basic needs, social purposes and economic development Freshwater Habitats Protecting &amp; Managing Representative Freshwater Habitats , to establish freshwater conservation networks in WWF’s priority river basins, to secure freshwater dependant flora and fauna Mainstreaming Freshwater Ecosystem Services into Development Agendas, especially those on poverty, basic needs, sanitation, food, and energy. Adapting to Climate Change, to increase freshwater ecosystem and societal resilience to climate change. Advocating Good Water and River Basin Governance , to create political, social, economic, and administrative systems and processes for improving freshwater ecosystem management, especially in WWF’s priority river basins.
  • Flows = master varible that determines the structure and functions of FW ecosystems The target of WWF’s Water Security Initiative is: Freshwater flows that impact on: o Freshwater species including global and ecoregional flagship species, and water footprint-impacted species o Key freshwater habitats and ecosystems o River system functions and services that sustain human development (e.g. fisheries, saline water extrusion, channel and delta morphology, groundwater recharge)
  • Flows = master varible that determines the structure and functions of FW ecosystems The target of WWF’s Water Security Initiative is: Freshwater flows that impact on: o Freshwater species including global and ecoregional flagship species, and water footprint-impacted species o Key freshwater habitats and ecosystems o River system functions and services that sustain human development (e.g. fisheries, saline water extrusion, channel and delta morphology, groundwater recharge)
  • Freshwater Biodiversity hotspot: Species richness of freshwater amphibians, crabs, endemic fishes, mammals, dragonflies and reptiles in the Mediterranean basin Species richness of threatened freshwater amphibians, crabs, endemic fishes, mammals, dragonflies and reptiles in the Mediterranean basin
  • - Smith and Darwall 2006, IUCN - dam construction limits sediment and nutrient flow downstream to deltas and affects species migrations and fisheries productivity
  • Albania: Albania’s electricity output comes entirely from hydropower (see IEA graph above) Only 70-80% of the energy demand is covered by both domestic production and imports Albania’s hydropower potential is considered as important, only ca. 50% of it is currently exploited Construction of two additional hydropower plants planned on the Drin River (the Ashta, a 50 MW run-of-river hydropower plant, and the Skavica on the Diber river in North-Eastern Albania, at head of the Drin River cascade) A hydropower dam is also planned, at Bushat, on the Buna-Bojana River, downstream from Lake Skadar (NB: project not supported by the local communities, civil society and scientists because of its significant expected impacts on the Lake Skadar ecosystem)   Bosnia and Herzegovina: BiH has a very good hydro potential, but also for biomass production, solar energy and potentially sources of thermal energy Only about 39% of its hydro potential is currently exploited (see EBRD graph above) Hydropower represents more than 40% of BiH’s current energy output (see IEA graph above) Total hydro power potential of BiH is mostly located within the Drina, Neretva and Trebisnjica river basins BiH has serious plans, strongly opposed by environmental pressure groups, to allow foreign investors to build several more dams in the upper stream of the Neretva River as well as on other rivers BiH has plans to become a regional energy hub, with a surplus for export.   Croatia: Hydropower is traditionally the most exploited renewable energy resource in the country 50% of Croatia’s energy output comes from hydropower (see IEA graph above) The share of hydropower generation capacity is 51% of total installed capacity Construction of new of a new hydro power plant Lešce started in 2006 (NB: project meeting fierce opposition of a number of the environmental non-governmental organizations) Two other hydro power plants planned in Podsused and Drenje, of 215 and 185GWh, respectively, are scheduled to be finished by 2010 Even small hydro power plant projects in Croatia are confronted with strong public resistance due to increased environmental awareness.   Montenegro: Energy generation in Montenegro almost entirely depends on hydro (80%) and thermal power facilities (20%) (see IEA graph above) Hydropower potential is significant; other potential sources of renewable energy not yet well explored are solar and geothermal, while picture regarding biomass or wind potential is not clear Montenegro plans (see recent Energy Strategy) in addition to improvements in energy efficiency in the public administration and industry sector, to develop several new hydropower plants, among which four new dams on the Moraca River upstream of Lake Skadar to be built by 2015 (NB: highly controversial project criticized in a Strategic Environmental Assessment conducted under the auspices of UNDP). The call for tender was published by the Montenegrin Government in 2008
  • 1 Gaining Public Acceptance. Public acceptance of key decisions is essential for equitable and sustainable water and energy resources development. indigenous and tribal peoples, women and other vulnerable groups. 2 Comprehensive Options Assessment Alternatives to dams often do exist. To explore these alternatives, needs for water, food and energy are assessed and objectives clearly defined. 3 Addressing Existing Dams Opportunities exist to optimise benefits from many existing dams, address outstanding social issues and strengthen environmental mitigation and restoration measures. 4 Sustaining Rivers and Livelihoods Rivers, watersheds and aquatic ecosystems are the biological engines of the planet. They are the basis for life and the livelihoods of local communities. Dams transform landscapes and create risks of irreversible impacts. Understanding, protecting and restoring ecosystems at river basin level is essential to foster equitable human development and the welfare of all species. 5 Recognising Entitlements and Sharing Benefits Joint negotiations with adversely affected people result in mutually agreed and legally enforceable mitigation and development provisions. These provisions recognise entitlements that improve livelihoods and quality of life, and affected people are beneficiaries of the project. 6 Ensuring Compliance Ensuring public trust and confidence requires that governments, developers, regulators and operators meet all commitments made for the planning, implementation and operation of dams. Compliance with applicable regulations, with criteria and guidelines, and with project-specific negotiated agreements is secured at all critical stages in project planning and implementation. 7 Sharing Rivers for Peace, Development and Security Storage and diversion of water on transboundary rivers has been a source of considerable tension between countries and within countries. As specific interventions for diverting water, dams require constructive co-operation
  • Transcript of "The water Security and Energy Nexus in Southeastern Europe from a WWF Perspective presented by Angela Klauschen, WWF Mediterranean at GWP CP Meeting 2010 "

    1. 1. The water security and energy nexus in Southeastern Europe from a WWF perspective Angela Klauschen, WWF Mediterranean GWP CP Meeting - Stockholm, 3 September 2010
    2. 2. 1. Some global facts on freshwater ecosystems
    3. 3. <ul><li>“ Freshwater ecosystems tend to have the highest proportion of species threatened with extinction.” [pg 19] ; </li></ul><ul><li>“ The use of two ecosystem services - capture fisheries and freshwater - is now well beyond levels that can be sustained even at current demands, much less future ones.” [pg 20] . </li></ul>UN Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, March 2005 Freshwater biodiversity
    4. 4. Water for energy <ul><li>Hydropower: the major threat </li></ul><ul><li>Biofuels: 1 litre biofuel = 2500 litres of water </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal power plants: more water is needed for cooling </li></ul><ul><li>Solar energy: constrained by water for cooling </li></ul>
    5. 5. Fragmentation by dams
    6. 6. Over-abstraction and agriculture <ul><li>54% diverted for human use of which: </li></ul><ul><li>70% agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>20% industry </li></ul><ul><li>10% urban use </li></ul>Eradicating malnutrition by 2025, with current productivity, requires additional diversions “ close to all the water withdrawals at present ” (IMWI & SIWI). WWF LPR 2002
    7. 7. 2. WWF’s approach to water security
    8. 8. Water Stewardship Promoting Water Stewardship to Reduce Water Footprint Impacts Water Security Promoting Responsible Water Infrastructure and Securing Sustainable Flows Freshwater Habitats Protecting & Managing Representative Freshwater Habitats Goal 2: Safeguarding representative freshwater habitats Goal 1: Keeping rivers flowing Advocating Good Water/River Basin Governance Adapting to Climate Change Mainstreaming Freshwater Ecosystem Services into Development Agenda (MDGs, food, energy) Vision: Securing water for people and nature
    9. 9. WWF’s water security initiative Drivers and threats:
    10. 10. WWF’s water security initiative <ul><li>Strategic goal: </li></ul><ul><li>protect and/or restore environmental flows necessary to freshwater /estuarine ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>protect the freshwater species & human livelihoods that depend on these ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>maintain ecosystem connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>E-flows and connectivity protected or restored in key rivers or tributaries </li></ul><ul><li>Policies developed and implemented in a significant number of countries to protect e-flows </li></ul><ul><li>Key global or regional water management institutions adopt and implement standards and policies on e-flows </li></ul>
    11. 11. 3. WWF’s work on water security in Southeastern Europe
    12. 12. <ul><li>Why do we work there? </li></ul>
    13. 13. What are the main threats in SEE? Biodiversity Loss (State) Threats (Pressure) Root Causes (Drivers) <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Changing hydrological and flow regimes </li></ul><ul><li>Drying out of wetlands </li></ul><ul><li>Fragmentation of river systems </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of freshwater species </li></ul><ul><li>Changing natural processes </li></ul><ul><li>Water resources over-exploitation </li></ul><ul><li>Water infrastructure development, water regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Wetland reclamation for agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial, domestic, agricultural pollution </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Increased agricultural production for domestic markets </li></ul><ul><li>Industry and tourism development </li></ul><ul><li>Increased energy demand (nationally and internationally) </li></ul><ul><li>Lack or not enforced institutional setting for IRBM/IWRM </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient systems of PAs </li></ul>
    14. 14. Why do we focus on hydropower? <ul><li>Hydropower = 43 % of region’s energy consumption (2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Scarcity of conventional sources of energy (oil, coal & gas) </li></ul><ul><li>Energy deficit : Consumption needs matched by imports </li></ul><ul><li>Good hydropower potential (steep canyons, fast-flowing rivers, high precipitation levels under normal conditions) </li></ul><ul><li>Low energy efficiency due to transmission losses , obsolete generation systems and distribution networks & solar and wind energy potential not yet explored </li></ul><ul><li>Growing interest in exporting energy to neighbours & EU </li></ul><ul><li>AND!!!: 32% of freswhater fishes in the Med are threatened by dams construction (IUCN, 2006) </li></ul>
    15. 15. Why do we focus on hydropower?
    16. 16. How do we respond? <ul><li>Some key principles and directions: </li></ul><ul><li>Taking on board the principles of the World Commission on Dams & IHA Sustainability Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>- Promoting measures to enhance the sustainability of hydropower development: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Careful strategic planning that spares precious natural areas (  “no go rivers”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate design and operation of water infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adoption of environmental standards at any level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(e.g. ensuring environmental flows which limit impacts on nature) </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. WWF’s presence in the Southeastern Europe: <ul><li>Active in HR, BiH, MN, AL, SRB </li></ul><ul><li>Dinaric Arc Initiative launched in 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Freshwater programmes in 3 priority basins: Cetina basin (Livansko Polje), Neretva river (Upper part and Hutovo Blato), Moraca river/Lake Skadar </li></ul>Where do we work?
    18. 18. p
    19. 19. <ul><li>Create momentum & raise the visibility on highly controversial projects (e.g. Moraca HPPs, MN) </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen ties with key players (e.g. EU, WB, IFC) </li></ul><ul><li>Mapping key investors in our priority areas </li></ul><ul><li>Develop dialogue and understanding with hydropower sector (EP, Statkraft, Verbund, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Be recognised as an influential player </li></ul><ul><li>Increase knowledge and promote good standards and practices (incl. new guidelines for sustainable hydropower > HSAF Protocol) </li></ul>What have we achieved so far?
    20. 20. Thank you! [email_address] www.panda.org/mediterranean
    1. A particular slide catching your eye?

      Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

    ×